results for au:Patil_M in:gr-qc

- Mar 01 2018 gr-qc astro-ph.CO arXiv:1802.10194v2The detection of gravitational waves with Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo has enabled novel tests of general relativity, including direct study of the polarization of gravitational waves. While general relativity allows for only two tensor gravitational-wave polarizations, general metric theories can additionally predict two vector and two scalar polarizations. The polarization of gravitational waves is encoded in the spectral shape of the stochastic gravitational-wave background, formed by the superposition of cosmological and individually-unresolved astrophysical sources. Using data recorded by Advanced LIGO during its first observing run, we search for a stochastic background of generically-polarized gravitational waves. We find no evidence for a background of any polarization, and place the first direct bounds on the contributions of vector and scalar polarizations to the stochastic background. Under log-uniform priors for the energy in each polarization, we limit the energy-densities of tensor, vector, and scalar modes at 95% credibility to $\Omega^T_0 < 5.6 \times 10^{-8}$, $\Omega^V_0 < 6.4\times 10^{-8}$, and $\Omega^S_0 < 1.1\times 10^{-7}$ at a reference frequency $f_0 = 25$ Hz.
- Feb 15 2018 gr-qc arXiv:1802.05241v1We report on a new all-sky search for periodic gravitational waves in the frequency band 475-2000 Hz and with a frequency time derivative in the range of [-1.0e-8, +1e-9] Hz/s. Potential signals could be produced by a nearby spinning and slightly non-axisymmetric isolated neutron star in our galaxy. This search uses the data from Advanced LIGO's first observational run O1. No gravitational wave signals were observed, and upper limits were placed on their strengths. For completeness, results from the separately published low frequency search 20-475 Hz are included as well. Our lowest upper limit on worst-case (linearly polarized) strain amplitude h_0 is 4e-25 near 170 Hz, while at the high end of our frequency range we achieve a worst-case upper limit of 1.3e-24. For a circularly polarized source (most favorable orientation), the smallest upper limit obtained is ~1.5e-25.
- Nov 16 2017 astro-ph.HE gr-qc arXiv:1711.05578v1On June 8, 2017 at 02:01:16.49 UTC, a gravitational-wave signal from the merger of two stellar-mass black holes was observed by the two Advanced LIGO detectors with a network signal-to-noise ratio of 13. This system is the lightest black hole binary so far observed, with component masses $12^{+7}_{-2}\,M_\odot$ and $7^{+2}_{-2}\,M_\odot$ (90% credible intervals). These lie in the range of measured black hole masses in low-mass X-ray binaries, thus allowing us to compare black holes detected through gravitational waves with electromagnetic observations. The source's luminosity distance is $340^{+140}_{-140}$ Mpc, corresponding to redshift $0.07^{+0.03}_{-0.03}$. We verify that the signal waveform is consistent with the predictions of general relativity.
- Oct 26 2017 astro-ph.HE gr-qc arXiv:1710.09320v1The first observation of a binary neutron star coalescence by the Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo gravitational-wave detectors offers an unprecedented opportunity to study matter under the most extreme conditions. After such a merger, a compact remnant is left over whose nature depends primarily on the masses of the inspiralling objects and on the equation of state of nuclear matter. This could be either a black hole or a neutron star (NS), with the latter being either long-lived or too massive for stability implying delayed collapse to a black hole. Here, we present a search for gravitational waves from the remnant of the binary neutron star merger GW170817 using data from Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo. We search for short ($\lesssim1$ s) and intermediate-duration ($\lesssim 500$ s) signals, which includes gravitational-wave emission from a hypermassive NS or supramassive NS, respectively. We find no signal from the post-merger remnant. Our derived strain upper limits are more than an order of magnitude larger than those predicted by most models. For short signals, our best upper limit on the root-sum-square of the gravitational-wave strain emitted from 1--4 kHz is $h_{\rm rss}^{50\%}=2.1\times 10^{-22}$ Hz$^{-1/2}$ at 50% detection efficiency. For intermediate-duration signals, our best upper limit at 50% detection efficiency is $h_{\rm rss}^{50\%}=8.4\times 10^{-22}$ Hz$^{-1/2}$ for a millisecond magnetar model, and $h_{\rm rss}^{50\%}=5.9\times 10^{-22}$ Hz$^{-1/2}$ for a bar-mode model. These results indicate that post-merger emission from a similar event may be detectable when advanced detectors reach design sensitivity or with next-generation detectors.
- Oct 17 2017 gr-qc arXiv:1710.05837v1The LIGO Scientific and Virgo Collaborations have announced the first detection of gravitational waves from the coalescence of two neutron stars. The merger rate of binary neutron stars estimated from this event suggests that distant, unresolvable binary neutron stars create a significant astrophysical stochastic gravitational-wave background. The binary neutron star background will add to the background from binary black holes, increasing the amplitude of the total astrophysical background relative to previous expectations. In the Advanced LIGO-Virgo frequency band most sensitive to stochastic backgrounds (near 25 Hz), we predict a total astrophysical background with amplitude $\Omega_{\rm GW} (f=25 \text{Hz}) = 1.8_{-1.3}^{+2.7} \times 10^{-9}$ with $90\%$ confidence, compared with $\Omega_{\rm GW} (f=25 \text{Hz}) = 1.1_{-0.7}^{+1.2} \times 10^{-9}$ from binary black holes alone. Assuming the most probable rate for compact binary mergers, we find that the total background may be detectable with a signal-to-noise-ratio of 3 after 40 months of total observation time, based on the expected timeline for Advanced LIGO and Virgo to reach their design sensitivity.
- Oct 09 2017 gr-qc astro-ph.HE arXiv:1710.02327v2Spinning neutron stars asymmetric with respect to their rotation axis are potential sources of continuous gravitational waves for ground-based interferometric detectors. In the case of known pulsars a fully coherent search, based on matched filtering, which uses the position and rotational parameters obtained from electromagnetic observations, can be carried out. Matched filtering maximizes the signal-to-noise (SNR) ratio, but a large sensitivity loss is expected in case of even a very small mismatch between the assumed and the true signal parameters. For this reason, \it narrow-band analyses methods have been developed, allowing a fully coherent search for gravitational waves from known pulsars over a fraction of a hertz and several spin-down values. In this paper we describe a narrow-band search of eleven pulsars using data from Advanced LIGO's first observing run. Although we have found several initial outliers, further studies show no significant evidence for the presence of a gravitational wave signal. Finally, we have placed upper limits on the signal strain amplitude lower than the spin-down limit for 5 of the 11 targets over the bands searched: in the case of J1813-1749 the spin-down limit has been beaten for the first time. For an additional 3 targets, the median upper limit across the search bands is below the spin-down limit. This is the most sensitive narrow-band search for continuous gravitational waves carried out so far.
- Sep 28 2017 gr-qc astro-ph.HE arXiv:1709.09660v3On August 14, 2017 at 10:30:43 UTC, the Advanced Virgo detector and the two Advanced LIGO detectors coherently observed a transient gravitational-wave signal produced by the coalescence of two stellar mass black holes, with a false-alarm-rate of $\lesssim$ 1 in 27000 years. The signal was observed with a three-detector network matched-filter signal-to-noise ratio of 18. The inferred masses of the initial black holes are $30.5_{-3.0}^{+5.7}$ Msun and $25.3_{-4.2}^{+2.8}$ Msun (at the 90% credible level). The luminosity distance of the source is $540_{-210}^{+130}~\mathrm{Mpc}$, corresponding to a redshift of $z=0.11_{-0.04}^{+0.03}$. A network of three detectors improves the sky localization of the source, reducing the area of the 90% credible region from 1160 deg$^2$ using only the two LIGO detectors to 60 deg$^2$ using all three detectors. For the first time, we can test the nature of gravitational wave polarizations from the antenna response of the LIGO-Virgo network, thus enabling a new class of phenomenological tests of gravity.
- This article deals with the first detection of gravitational waves by the advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (LIGO) detectors on 14 September 2015, where the signal was generated by two stellar mass black holes with masses 36 $ M_{\odot}$ and 29 $ M_{\odot}$ that merged to form a 62 $ M_{\odot}$ black hole, releasing 3 $M_{\odot}$ energy in gravitational waves, almost 1.3 billion years ago. We begin by providing a brief overview of gravitational waves, their sources and the gravitational wave detectors. We then describe in detail the first detection of gravitational waves from a binary black hole merger. We then comment on the electromagnetic follow up of the detection event with various telescopes. Finally, we conclude with the discussion on the tests of gravity and fundamental physics with the first gravitational wave detection event.
- Jul 25 2017 gr-qc arXiv:1707.07242v1The superspinar proposed by Gimon and Horava is a rapidly rotating compact entity whose exterior is described by the over-spinning Kerr geometry. The compact entity itself is expected to be governed by superstringy effects, and in astrophysical scenarios it can give rise to interesting observable phenomena. Earlier it was suggested that the superspinar may not be stable but we point out here that this does not necessarily follow from earlier studies. We show, by analytically treating the Teukolsky equations by Detwiler's method, that in fact there are infinitely many boundary conditions that make the superspinar stable, and that the modes will decay in time. It follows that we need to know more on the physical nature of the superspinar in order to decide on its stability in physical reality.
- We study here the precession of the spin of a test gyroscope attached to a stationary observer in the Kerr spacetime, specifically, to distinguish naked singularity (NS) from black hole (BH). It was shown recently that for gyros attached to static observers, their precession frequency became arbitrarily large in the limit of approach to the ergosurface. For gyros attached to stationary observers that move with non-zero angular velocity $\Omega$, this divergence at the ergosurface can be avoided. Specifically, for such gyros, the precession frequencies diverge on the event horizon of a BH, but are finite and regular for NS everywhere except at the singularity itself. Therefore a genuine detection of the event horizon becomes possible in this case. We also show that for a near-extremal NS ($1<a_* < 1.1$), characteristic features appear in the radial profiles of the precession frequency, using which we can further distinguish a near-extremal NS from a BH, or even from NS with larger angular momentum. We then investigate the Lense-Thirring (LT) precession or nodal plane precession frequency of the accretion disk around a BH and NS to show that clear distinctions exist for these configurations in terms of radial variation features. The LT precession in equatorial circular orbits increases with approach to a BH, whereas for NS it increases, attains a peak and then decreases. Interestingly, for $a_*=1.089$, it decreases until it vanishes at a certain radius, and acquires negative values for $a_* > 1.089$ for a certain range of $r$. For $1<a_*<1.089$, a peak appears, but the LT frequency remains positive definite. There are important differences in accretion disk LT frequencies for BH and NS and since LT frequencies are intimately related to observed QPOs, these features might allow us to determine whether a given rotating compact astrophysical object is BH or NS.
- Binary black holes have been in limelight off late due to the detection of gravitational waves from coalescing compact binaries in the events GW150914 and GW151226. In this paper we study gravitational lensing by the binary black holes modeled as equal mass Majumdar-Papapetrou dihole metric and show that this system displays features that are quite unprecedented and absent in any other lensing configuration investigated so far. We restrict our attention to the light rays which move on the plane midway between the two identical black holes, which allows us to employ techniques developed for the equatorial lensing in spherically symmetric spacetimes. If distance between the two black holes is below a certain threshold value, the system admits two photon spheres. As in the case of single black hole, infinitely many relativistic images are formed due to the light rays which turn back from the region outside the outer (unstable) photon sphere, all of which lie beyond a critical angular radius with respect to the lens. However in the presence of the inner (stable) photon sphere, the effective potential now increases again and the light rays that enter the outer photon sphere can turn back, leading to the formation of a new set of infinitely many relativistic images, all of which lie below the critical radius from the lens mentioned above. As the distance between the two black hole increases, two photon spheres approach each other, merge and eventually disappear. In the absence of photon sphere, apart from the formation of a finite number of discrete relativistic images, the system remarkably admits a radial caustic, which has never been observed in the context of relativistic lensing before. Thus the system of binary black hole admits novel features both in the presence and absence of photon spheres. We discuss possible observational signatures and implications of binary black hole lensing.
- The origin of the ultra-high-energy particles we receive on the Earth from the outer space such as EeV cosmic rays and PeV neutrinos remains an enigma. All mechanisms known to us currently make use of electromagnetic interaction to accelerate charged particles. In this paper we propose a mechanism exclusively based on gravity rather than electromagnetic interaction. We show that it is possible to generate ultra-high-energy particles starting from particles with moderate energies using the collisional Penrose process in an overspinning Kerr spacetime transcending the Kerr bound only by an infinitesimal amount, i.e., with the Kerr parameter $a=M(1+\epsilon)$, where we take the limit $\epsilon \rightarrow 0^+$. We consider two massive particles starting from rest at infinity that collide at $r=M$ with divergent center-of-mass energy and produce two massless particles. We show that massless particles produced in the collision can escape to infinity with the ultra-high energies exploiting the collisional Penrose process with the divergent efficiency $\eta \sim {1}/{\sqrt{\epsilon}} \rightarrow \infty$. Assuming the isotropic emission of massless particles in the center-of-mass frame of the colliding particles, we show that half of the particles created in the collisions escape to infinity with the divergent energies. To a distant observer, ultra-high-energy particles appear to originate from a bright spot which is at the angular location $\xi \sim {2M}/{r_{obs}}$ with respect to the singularity on the side which is rotating towards the observer. We show that the anisotropy in emission in the center-of-mass frame, which is dictated by the differential cross-section of underlying particle physics process, leaves a district signature on the spectrum of ultra-high-energy massless particles. Thus, it provides a unique probe into fundamental particle physics.
- We make a critical comparison between ultra-high energy particle collisions around an extremal Kerr black hole and that around an over-spinning Kerr singularity, mainly focusing on the issue of the timescale of collisions. We show that the time required for two massive particles with the proton mass or two massless particles of GeV energies to collide around the Kerr black hole with Planck energy is several orders of magnitude longer than the age of the Universe for astro-physically relevant masses of black holes, whereas time required in the over-spinning case is of the order of ten million years which is much shorter than the age of the Universe. Thus from the point of view of observation of Planck scale collisions, the over-spinning Kerr geometry, subject to their occurrence, has distinct advantage over their black hole counterparts.
- Sep 11 2014 gr-qc astro-ph.HE arXiv:1409.3018v1We investigate effect of a test magnetic field on the process of destroying near-extremal Kerr black hole with a charged test particle. It has been shown that it would be possible to throw a charged test particle into the near extremal rotating black hole and make it go past the extremality i.e. turn Kerr black hole into the Kerr-Newmann naked singularity. Typically in an astrophysical scenario black holes are believed to be surrounded by a magnetic field. Magnetic field although small, affects motion of charged particles drastically due to the large Lorentz force, as the electromagnetic force is much stronger that the gravity. Thus a test magnetic field can affect the process of destroying black holes and restore the cosmic censorship in the astrophysical context. We show that a test magnetic field would act as a cosmic censor beyond a certain threshold value. We try to gauge the magnitude of the magnetic field by comparing its energy density with that of the change in the curvature induced by the test particle. We find that the magnetic field required in only as strong as or slightly stronger as compared to the value for which its effect of the background geometry is comparable to the tiny backreaction as that of the test particle. In such a case however one has to take take into account effect of the magnetic field on the background geometry, which is difficult to implement in the absence of any exact near-extremal rotating magnetized black hole solutions. We argue that magnetic field would still act as a cosmic censor.
- The angular momentum of the Kerr singularity should not be larger than a threshold value so that it is enclosed by an event horizon: The Kerr singularity with the angular momentum exceeding the threshold value is naked. This fact suggests that if the cosmic censorship exists in our Universe, an over-spinning body without releasing its angular momentum cannot collapse to spacetime singularities. A simple kinematical estimate of two particles approaching each other supports this expectation and suggests the existence of a minimum size of an over-spinning body. But this does not imply that the geometry near the naked singularity cannot appear. By analyzing initial data, i.e., a snapshot of a spinning body, we see that an over-spinning body may produce a geometry close to the Kerr naked singularity around itself at least as a transient configuration.
- We explore the multi-black hole spacetimes from the perspective of the ultra-high energy particle collisions. Such a discussion is limited to the spacetimes containing a single black hole so far. We deal with the Majumdar-Papapetrou solution representing a system consisting of two identical black holes in the equilibrium. In order to identify the conditions suitable for the process of high energy collisions, we consider particles confined to move on the equatorial plane towards the axis of symmetry with the zero angular momentum. We consider collision between the particles moving in opposite directions at the location midway between the black holes on the axis. We show that the center of mass energy of collision between the particles increases with the decrease in the separation between the black holes and shows divergence in the limit where the separation goes to zero. We estimate the size of the region close to the central point on the equatorial plane where it would be possible to have high energy collisions and show that this region has a reasonably large spatial extent. We further explore the process of high energy collisions with the general geodesics with arbitrary angular momentum on the equatorial plane away from the central point. Although in this paper we deal with theMajumdar-Papapetrou spacetime which serves as a toy example representing multiple black holes, we speculate on the possibility that the ultra-high energy collisions would also occur in the more general setting like colliding black holes, when distance between the black holes is extremely small, which can in principle be verified in the numerical relativity simulations.
- We study the time delay between successive relativistic images in gravitational lensing as a possible discriminator between various collapse end states and hence as a probe of cosmic censorship. Specifically we consider both black hole and naked singularity spacetimes admitting photon spheres where an infinite number of relativistic Einstein Rings can be formed at almost the same radius and naked singularity spacetimes without a photon sphere where multiple relativistic Einstein Rings can form almost up to the center of the lens. The metrics we have considered to sample these scenarios are the Schwarzschild black hole, Janis-Newman-Winicour (naked singularity with photon sphere), Joshi-Malafarina-Narayan, and Tolman-VI (naked singularities without photon sphere) which are a fair sample of the theoretical possibilities. We show that the differential time delay between the relativistic images for naked singularities without a photon sphere progressively decreases for the models we study as opposed to that for black holes and naked singularities with a photon sphere, where it is known to be roughly constant. This characteristic difference in the time delay between successive images for these two cases can be potentially exploited for a source with known intrinsic variability to discriminate between these scenarios even when the images are not spatially resolved.
- Jan 22 2013 gr-qc arXiv:1301.4618v2We explore the collision between two concentric spherical thin shells. The inner shell is charged, whereas the outer one is either neutral or charged. In the situation we consider, the charge of the inner shell is larger than its gravitational mass, and the inside of it is empty and regular. Hence the domain just outside it is described by the overcharged Reissner-Nordstrom geometry whereas the inside of it is Minkowski. First, the inner shell starts to shrink form infinity with finite kinetic energy, and then the outer shell starts to shrink from infinity with vanishing kinetic energy. The inner shell bounces on the potential wall and collides with the ingoing outer shell. The energy of collision between these shells at "their center of mass frame" does not exceed the total energy of the system. By contrast, by virtue of the very large gamma factor of the relative velocity of the shells, the energy of collision between two of the constituent particles of these shells at their center of mass frame can be much larger than the Planck scale. This result suggests that the black hole or naked singularity is not necessary for ultra-high energy collision of particles.
- In this paper we study gravitational lensing in the strong field limit from the perspective of cosmic censorship, to investigate whether or not naked singularities, if at all they exist in nature, can be distinguished from black holes. We study the gravitational lensing in the strong field regime in the JMN spacetime, a spherically symmetric geometry that contains a naked singularity and which matches smoothly with Schwarzschild metric beyond a finite radius. This metric is a toy model which was shown recently to be the end state of gravitational collapse. In the presence of the photon sphere gravitational lensing signature of this spacetime is identical to that of Schwarzschild black hole with infinitely many relativistic images and Einstein rings, all of them located beyond a certain critical angle from optic axis and the inner relativistic images all clumped together. However, in the absence of the photon sphere, which is the case for a wide range of parameter values in this spacetime, we show that we get finitely many relativistic images and Einstein rings spaced reasonably apart from one another, some of which can be formed inside the critical angle for the corresponding Schwarzschild black hole. This study suggests that the observation of relativistic images and rings might, in principle, allow us to unravel the existence of the naked singularity in the absence of the photon sphere. The results obtained here are in contrast with the earlier investigation on JNW naked singularities radial caustic was always present in the absence of photon sphere, while it is absent in JMN geometry. We also point out the practical difficulties that might be encountered in the observation of the relativistic images and suggest that new dedicated experiments and techniques must be developed in future for this purpose.
- We investigate here the particle acceleration and collisions with extremely large center of mass energies in a perfectly regular spacetime containing neither singularity nor an event horizon. The ultra-high energy collisions of particles near the event horizon of extremal Kerr blackhole, and also in many other examples of extremal blackholes have been investigated and reported recently. We studied an analogous particle acceleration process in the Kerr and Reissner-Nordstrom spacetimes without horizon, containing naked singularities. Further to this, we show here that the particle acceleration and collision process is in fact independent of blackholes and naked singularities, and can happen in a fully regular spacetime containing neither of these. We derive the conditions on the general static spherically symmetric metric for such a phenomena to happen. We show that in order to have ultra-high energy collisions it is necessary for the norm of the timelike Killing vector to admit a maximum with a vanishingly small but a negative value. This is also a condition implying the presence of a surface with extremely large but nevertheless finite value of the redshift or blueshift. Conditions to have ultrahigh energy collisions and regular center imply the violation of strong energy condition near the center while the weak energy condition is respected in the region around the center. Thus the central region is surrounded by a dark energy fluid. Both the energy conditions are respected at the location where the high energy collisions take place. As a concrete example we then investigate the acceleration process in the spacetime geometry derived by Bardeen which is sourced by a non-liner self-gravitating magnetic monopole.
- We examine here the acceleration of particles and high energy collisions in the the Janis-Newman- Winicour (JNW) spacetime, which is an extension of the Schwarzschild geometry when a massless scalar field is included. We show that while the center of mass energy of collisions of particles near the event horizon of a blackhole is not significantly larger than the rest mass of the interacting particles, in an analogous situation, it could be arbitrarily large in the JNWspacetime near the naked singularity. The high energy collisions are seen to be generic in the presence of a photon sphere in the JNW spacetime, whereas an extreme fine-tuning of the angular momentum of the colliding particles is required when the photon sphere is absent. The center of mass energy of collision near the singularity grows slowly for small and extremely large deviations from the Schwarzschild blackhole, but for intermediate strengths of the scalar field it rises moderately fast. As a possible and potentially interesting application, we point out that the presence of such high energy collissions may help the blackhole configurations to be distinguished from a naked singularity.
- Dec 13 2011 gr-qc astro-ph.HE arXiv:1112.2522v2We study here circular timelike geodesics in the Janis-Newman-Winicour and Gamma metric spacetimes which contain a strong curvature naked singularity and reduce to the Schwarzschild metric for a specific value of one of the parameters. We show that for both the metrics the range of allowed parameters can be divided into three regimes where structure of the circular geodesics is qualitatively different. It follows that the properties of the accretion disks around such naked singularities can be significantly different from those of disks around black holes. This adds to previous studies showing that if naked singularities exist in nature, their observational signature would be significantly different from that of the black hole.
- We explore the Reissner-Nordström naked singularities with a charge $Q$ larger than its mass $M$ from the perspective of the particle acceleration. We first consider a collision between two test particles following the radial geodesics in the Reissner-Nordström naked singular geometry. An initially radially ingoing particle turns back due to the repulsive effect of gravity in the vicinity of naked singularity. Such a particle then collides with an another radially ingoing particle. We show that the center of mass energy of collision taking place at $r \approx M$ is unbound, in the limit where the charge transcends the mass by arbitrarily small amount $0<1-M/Q\ll1$.The acceleration process we described avoids fine tuning of the parameters of the particle geodesics for the unbound center of mass energy of collisions and the proper time required for the process is also finite. We show that the coordinate time required for the trans-Plankian collision to occur around one solar mass naked singularity is around million years while it is many orders of magnitude larger than Hubble time in the black hole case. We then study the collision of the neutral spherically symmetric shells made up of dust particles. In this case, it is possible to treat the situation by exactly taking into account the gravity due to the shells using Israel`s thin shell formalism, and thus this treatment allows us to go beyond the test particle approximation. The center of mass energy of collision of the shells is then calculated in a situation analogous to the test particle case and is shown to be bounded above. However, we find thatthe energy of a collision between two of constituent particles of the shells at the center of mass frame can exceed the Planck energy.
- We investigate here the issue of observability of high energy collisions around Kerr naked singu- larity and show that the results are in contrast with the Kerr black hole case. We had shown earlier that it would be possible to have ultrahigh energy collisions between the particles close to the loca- tion r = M around the Kerr naked singularity if the Kerr spin parameter transcends the unity by an infinitesimally small amount a $\rightarrow 1^+$. The collision is between initially ingoing particle that turns back as an outgoing particle due to angular momentum barrier, with another ingoing particle. We assume that two massless particles are produced in such a collision and their angular distribution is isotropic in the center of mass frame. We calculate the escape fraction for the massless particles to reach infinity. We show that escape fraction is finite and approximately equal to half for ultrahigh energy collisions. Therefore the particles produced in high energy collisions would escape to infinity providing signature of the nature of basic interactions at those energies. This result is in contract with the extremal Kerr black hole case where almost all particles produced in high energy collisions are absorbed by the black hole, thus rendering the collisions unobservable.
- We investigate here the particle acceleration by Kerr naked singularities. We consider a collision between particles dropped in from infinity at rest, which follow geodesic motion in the equatorial plane, with their angular momenta in an appropriate finite range of values. When an event horizon is absent, an initially infalling particle turns back as an outgoing particle, when it has the angular momentum in an appropriate range of values, which then collides with infalling particles. When the collision takes place close to what would have been the event horizon in the extremal case, the center of mass energy of collision is arbitrarily large, depending on how close is the overspinning Kerr geometry to the extremal case. Thus the fast rotating Kerr configurations if they exist in nature could provide an excellent cosmic laboratory to probe ultra-high-energy physics.
- We investigate here the particle acceleration and high energy collision in the Kerr geometry containing a naked singularity. We show that the center of mass energy of collision between two particles, dropped in from a finite but arbitrarily large distance along the axis of symmetry is arbitrarily large, provided the deviation of the angular momentum parameter from the mass is very small for the Kerr naked singularity. The collisions considered here are between particles, one of them ingoing and the other one being initially ingoing but which later emerges as an outgoing particle, after it suffers a reflection from a spatial region which has a repulsive gravity in the vicinity of the naked singularity. High energy collisions take place around a region which marks a transition between the attractive and repulsive regimes of gravity. We make a critical comparison between our results and the BSW acceleration mechanism [M. Banados, J. Silk, and S. M. West, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 111102 (2009).] for extremal Kerr blackholes, and argue that the scenario we give here has certain distinct advantages. If compact objects exist in nature with exterior Kerr superspinning geometry then such high energy collisions would have a significant impact on the physical processes occurring in its surrounding and could possibly lead to their own observational signatures. As an aside we also suggest a curious Gedanken collider physics experiment which could in principle be constructed in this geometry.
- Feb 11 2011 gr-qc astro-ph.HE arXiv:1102.2030v2We generalize here our earlier results on particle acceleration by naked singularities. We showed recently[1] that the naked singularities that form due to gravitational collapse of massive stars provide a suitable environment where particles could get accelerated and collide at arbitrarily high center of mass energies. However, we focussed there only on the spherically symmetric gravitational collapse models, which were also assumed to be self-similar. In this paper, we broaden and generalize the result to all gravitational collapse models leading to the formation of a naked singularity as final state of collapse, evolving from a regular initial data, without making any prior restrictive assumptions about the spacetime symmetries such as above. We show that when the particles interact and collide near the Cauchy horizon, the energy of collision in the center of mass frame will be arbitrarily high, thus offering a window to the Planck scale physics. We also consider the issue of various possible physical mechanisms of generation of such very high energy particles from the vicinity of naked singularity. We then construct a model of gravitational collapse to a timelike naked singularity to demonstrate the working of these ideas, where the pressure is allowed to be negative but the energy conditions are respected. We show that a finite amount of mass-energy density has to be necessarily radiated away from the vicinity of the naked singularity as the collapse evolves. Therefore the nature of naked singularities, both at classical and quantum level could play an important role in the process of particle acceleration, explaining the occurrence of highly energetic outgoing particles in the vicinity of Cauchy horizon that participate in extreme high energy collisions.
- We investigate here the particle acceleration by naked singularities to arbitrarily high center of mass energies. Recently it has been suggested that black holes could be used as particle accelerators to probe the Planck scale physics. We show that the naked singularities serve the same purpose and probably would do better than their black hole counterparts. We focus on the scenario of a self-similar gravitational collapse starting from a regular initial data, leading to the formation of a globally naked singularity. It is seen that when particles moving along timelike geodesics interact and collide near the Cauchy horizon, the energy of collision in the center of mass frame will be arbitrarily high, thus offering a window to Planck scale physics.