results for au:Papadopoulos_D in:cs
Aug 10 2017 cs.CV
Manually annotating object bounding boxes is central to building computer vision datasets, and it is very time consuming (annotating ILSVRC  took 35s for one high-quality box ). It involves clicking on imaginary corners of a tight box around the object. This is difficult as these corners are often outside the actual object and several adjustments are required to obtain a tight box. We propose extreme clicking instead: we ask the annotator to click on four physical points on the object: the top, bottom, left- and right-most points. This task is more natural and these points are easy to find. We crowd-source extreme point annotations for PASCAL VOC 2007 and 2012 and show that (1) annotation time is only 7s per box, 5x faster than the traditional way of drawing boxes ; (2) the quality of the boxes is as good as the original ground-truth drawn the traditional way; (3) detectors trained on our annotations are as accurate as those trained on the original ground-truth. Moreover, our extreme clicking strategy not only yields box coordinates, but also four accurate boundary points. We show (4) how to incorporate them into GrabCut to obtain more accurate segmentations than those delivered when initializing it from bounding boxes; (5) semantic segmentations models trained on these segmentations outperform those trained on segmentations derived from bounding boxes.
May 24 2017 cs.CV
We address the problem of estimating image difficulty defined as the human response time for solving a visual search task. We collect human annotations of image difficulty for the PASCAL VOC 2012 data set through a crowd-sourcing platform. We then analyze what human interpretable image properties can have an impact on visual search difficulty, and how accurate are those properties for predicting difficulty. Next, we build a regression model based on deep features learned with state of the art convolutional neural networks and show better results for predicting the ground-truth visual search difficulty scores produced by human annotators. Our model is able to correctly rank about 75% image pairs according to their difficulty score. We also show that our difficulty predictor generalizes well to new classes not seen during training. Finally, we demonstrate that our predicted difficulty scores are useful for weakly supervised object localization (8% improvement) and semi-supervised object classification (1% improvement).
Apr 21 2017 cs.CV
Training object class detectors typically requires a large set of images with objects annotated by bounding boxes. However, manually drawing bounding boxes is very time consuming. In this paper we greatly reduce annotation time by proposing center-click annotations: we ask annotators to click on the center of an imaginary bounding box which tightly encloses the object instance. We then incorporate these clicks into existing Multiple Instance Learning techniques for weakly supervised object localization, to jointly localize object bounding boxes over all training images. Extensive experiments on PASCAL VOC 2007 and MS COCO show that: (1) our scheme delivers high-quality detectors, performing substantially better than those produced by weakly supervised techniques, with a modest extra annotation effort; (2) these detectors in fact perform in a range close to those trained from manually drawn bounding boxes; (3) as the center-click task is very fast, our scheme reduces total annotation time by 9x to 18x.
Apr 27 2016 cs.ET
Quantum-dot fabrication and characterization is a well-established technology, which is used in photonics, quantum optics and nanoelectronics. Four quantum-dots placed at the corners of a square form a unit cell, which can hold a bit of information and serve as a basis for Quantum-dot Cellular Automata (QCA) nanoelectronic circuits. Although several basic QCA circuits have been designed, fabricated and tested, proving that quantum-dots can form functional, fast and low-power nanoelectornic circuits, QCA nanoelectronics still remain at its infancy. One of the reasons for this is the lack of design automation tools, which will facilitate the systematic design of large QCA circuits that contemporary applications demand. Here we present novel, programmable QCA circuits, which are based on crossbar architecture. These circuits can be programmed to implement any Boolean function in analogy to CMOS FPGAs and open the road that will lead to full design automation of QCA nanoelectronic circuits. Using this architecture we designed and simulated QCA circuits that proved to be area efficient, stable and reliable.
Feb 29 2016 cs.CV
Training object class detectors typically requires a large set of images in which objects are annotated by bounding-boxes. However, manually drawing bounding-boxes is very time consuming. We propose a new scheme for training object detectors which only requires annotators to verify bounding-boxes produced automatically by the learning algorithm. Our scheme iterates between re-training the detector, re-localizing objects in the training images, and human verification. We use the verification signal both to improve re-training and to reduce the search space for re-localisation, which makes these steps different to what is normally done in a weakly supervised setting. Extensive experiments on PASCAL VOC 2007 show that (1) using human verification to update detectors and reduce the search space leads to the rapid production of high-quality bounding-box annotations; (2) our scheme delivers detectors performing almost as good as those trained in a fully supervised setting, without ever drawing any bounding-box; (3) as the verification task is very quick, our scheme substantially reduces total annotation time by a factor 6x-9x.