results for au:Pan_J in:quant-ph

- Mar 14 2018 quant-ph physics.optics arXiv:1803.04696v1Interference of multiple photons via a linear-optical network has profound applications for quantum foundation, quantum metrology and quantum computation. Particularly, a boson sampling experiment with a moderate number of photons becomes intractable even for the most powerful classical computers, and will lead to "quantum supremacy". Scaling up from small-scale experiments requires highly indistinguishable single photons, which may be prohibited for many physical systems. Here we experimentally demonstrate a time-resolved version of boson sampling by using photons not overlapping in their frequency spectra from three atomic-ensemble quantum memories. Time-resolved measurement enables us to observe nonclassical multiphoton correlation landscapes. An average fidelity over several interferometer configurations is measured to be 0.936(13), which is mainly limited by high-order events. Symmetries in the landscapes are identified to reflect symmetries of the optical network. Our work thus provides a route towards quantum supremacy with distinguishable photons.
- Jan 26 2018 quant-ph arXiv:1801.08282v1Boson sampling is a well-defined task that is strongly believed to be intractable for classical computers, but can be efficiently solved by a specific quantum simulator. However, an outstanding problem for large-scale experimental boson sampling is the scalability. Here we report an experiment on boson sampling with photon loss, and demonstrate that boson sampling with a few photons lost can increase the sampling rate. Our experiment uses a quantum-dot-micropillar single-photon source demultiplexed into up to seven input ports of a 16*16 mode ultra-low-loss photonic circuit, and we detect three-, four- and five-fold coincidence counts. We implement and validate lossy boson sampling with one and two photons lost, and obtain sampling rates of 187 kHz, 13.6 kHz, and 0.78 kHz for five-, six- and seven-photon boson sampling with two photons lost, which is 9.4, 13.9, and 18.0 times faster than the standard boson sampling, respectively. Our experiment shows an approach to significantly enhance the sampling rate of multiphoton boson sampling.
- Topological data analysis offers a robust way to extract useful information from noisy, unstructured data by identifying its underlying structure. Recently, an efficient quantum algorithm was proposed [Lloyd, Garnerone, Zanardi, Nat. Commun. 7, 10138 (2016)] for calculating Betti numbers of data points -- topological features that count the number of topological holes of various dimensions in a scatterplot. Here, we implement a proof-of-principle demonstration of this quantum algorithm by employing a six-photon quantum processor to successfully analyze the topological features of Betti numbers of a network including three data points, providing new insights into data analysis in the era of quantum computing.
- Jan 16 2018 quant-ph arXiv:1801.04418v1We perform decoy-state quantum key distribution between a low-Earth-orbit satellite and multiple ground stations located in Xinglong, Nanshan, and Graz, which establish satellite-to-ground secure keys with ~kHz rate per passage of the satellite Micius over a ground station. The satellite thus establishes a secure key between itself and, say, Xinglong, and another key between itself and, say, Graz. Then, upon request from the ground command, Micius acts as a trusted relay. It performs bitwise exclusive OR operations between the two keys and relays the result to one of the ground stations. That way, a secret key is created between China and Europe at locations separated by 7600 km on Earth. These keys are then used for intercontinental quantum-secured communication. This was on the one hand the transmission of images in a one-time pad configuration from China to Austria as well as from Austria to China. Also, a videoconference was performed between the Austrian Academy of Sciences and the Chinese Academy of Sciences, which also included a 280 km optical ground connection between Xinglong and Beijing. Our work points towards an efficient solution for an ultralong-distance global quantum network, laying the groundwork for a future quantum internet.
- Jan 15 2018 quant-ph arXiv:1801.04043v1A central theme in quantum information science is to coherently control an increasing number of quantum particles as well as their internal and external degrees of freedom (DoFs), meanwhile maintaining a high level of coherence. The ability to create and verify multiparticle entanglement with individual control and measurement of each qubit serves as an important benchmark for quantum technologies. To this end, genuine multipartite entanglement have been reported up to 14 trapped ions, 10 photons, and 10 superconducting qubits. Here, we experimentally demonstrate an 18-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) entanglement by simultaneous exploiting three different DoFs of six photons, including their paths, polarization, and orbital angular momentum (OAM). We develop high-stability interferometers for reversible quantum logic operations between the photon's different DoFs with precision and efficiencies close to unity, enabling simultaneous readout of 262,144 outcome combinations of the 18-qubit state. A state fidelity of 0.708(16) is measured, confirming the genuine entanglement of all the 18 qubits.
- Jan 08 2018 quant-ph arXiv:1801.01465v1Processing of digital images is continuously gaining in volume and relevance, with concomitant demands on data storage, transmission and processing power. Encoding the image information in quantum-mechanical systems instead of classical ones and replacing classical with quantum information processing may alleviate some of these challenges. By encoding and processing the image information in quantum-mechanical systems, we here demonstrate the framework of quantum image processing, where a pure quantum state encodes the image information: we encode the pixel values in the probability amplitudes and the pixel positions in the computational basis states. Our quantum image representation reduces the required number of qubits compared to existing implementations, and we present image processing algorithms that provide exponential speed-up over their classical counterparts. For the commonly used task of detecting the edge of an image, we propose and implement a quantum algorithm that completes the task with only one single-qubit operation, independent of the size of the image. This demonstrates the potential of quantum image processing for highly efficient image and video processing in the big data era.
- Dec 11 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1712.03204v1Quantum entanglement was termed "spooky action at a distance" in the well-known paper by Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen. Entanglement is expected to be distributed over longer and longer distances in both practical applications and fundamental research into the principles of nature. Here, we present a proposal for distributing entangled photon pairs between the Earth and Moon using a Lagrangian point at a distance of 1.28 light seconds. One of the most fascinating features in this long-distance distribution of entanglement is that we can perform Bell test with human supply the random measurement settings and record the results while still maintaining space-like intervals. To realize a proof-of-principle experiment, we develop an entangled photon source with 1 GHz generation rate, about 2 orders of magnitude higher than previous results. Violation of the Bell's inequality was observed under a total simulated loss of 103 dB with measurement settings chosen by two experimenters. This demonstrates the feasibility of such long-distance Bell test over extremely high-loss channels, paving the way for the ultimate test of the foundations of quantum mechanics.
- Many unconventional quantum matters, such as fractional quantum Hall effect and $d$-wave high-Tc superconductor, are discovered in strongly interacting systems. Understanding quantum many-body systems with strong interaction and the unconventional phases therein is one of the most challenging problems in physics nowadays. Cold atom systems possess a natural way to create strong interaction by bringing the system to the vicinity of a scattering resonance. Although this has been a focused topic in cold atom physics for more than a decade, these studies have so far mostly been limited for $s$-wave resonance. Here we report the experimental observation of a broad $d$-wave shape resonance in degenerate ${}^{41}$K gas. We further measure the molecular binding energy that splits into three branches as a hallmark of $d$-wave molecules, and find that the lifetime of this many-body system is reasonably long at strongly interacting regime. From analyzing the breathing mode excited by ramping through this resonance, it suggests that a quite stable low-temperature atom and molecule mixture is produced. Putting all the evidence together, our system offers great promise to reach a $d$-wave molecular superfluid.
- InGaAs/InP single-photon detectors (SPDs) are the key devices for applications requiring near-infrared single-photon detection. Gating mode is an effective approach to synchronous single-photon detection. Increasing gating frequency and reducing module size are important challenges for the design of such detector system. Here we present for the first time an InGaAs/InP SPD with 1.25 GHz sine wave gating using a monolithically integrated readout circuit (MIRC). The MIRC has a size of 15 mm * 15 mm and implements the miniaturization of avalanche extraction for high-frequency sine wave gating. In the MIRC, low-pass filters and a low-noise radio frequency amplifier are integrated based on the technique of low temperature co-fired ceramic, which can effectively reduce the parasitic capacitance and extract weak avalanche signals. We then characterize the InGaAs/InP SPD to verify the functionality and reliability of MIRC, and the SPD exhibits excellent performance with 27.5 % photon detection efficiency, 1.2 kcps dark count rate, and 9.1 % afterpulse probability at 223 K and 100 ns hold-off time. With this MIRC, one can further design miniaturized high-frequency SPD modules that are highly required for practical applications.
- Nov 07 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1711.01784v1Creating large-scale entanglement lies at the heart of many quantum information processing protocols and the investigation of fundamental physics. Due to unavoidable interactions with the environment and current technological limitations, the generated many-body quantum state may not contain genuine multipartite entanglement but rather only a mixture of fewer-body entanglements. Still, identifying the precise structure of such many-body, but lower-order entanglement is of paramount importance. On the one hand, it provides hints on the whereabouts of imperfection in the setup, whereas on the other, it allows one to benchmark our technological progress towards the ultimate goal of demonstrating quantum supremacy. Here, we propose two complementary families of witnesses for the identification of such structures, each applicable to an arbitrary number of subsystems and whose evaluation requires only the implementation of solely two local measurements. As a proof of principle, we experimentally generate-via a reconfigurable photonic interferometer-five different eight-photon entangled states and demonstrate how their entanglement structure can be precisely and systematically inferred from the experimental measurement of these witnesses.
- To realize high-dimensional spin-orbit (SO) couplings for ultracold atoms is of great importance for quantum simulation. Here we report the observation of a long-lived two-dimensional (2D) SO coupled Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) of novel band topology and high controllability. Unlike our recent achievement of 2D SO coupling which is restricted in blue-detuned optical lattice and has limitations in controllability and lifetime, in the present report we overwhelm all the previous restrictions and realize the SO coupling with precisely controllable $C_4$ symmetry based on a new scheme. Due to the high symmetry, the present realization suits for both blue- and red-tuned lattices, renders broad topological regions in arbitrary lattice and Raman coupling strengths, and has a lifetime being up to several seconds, one order exceeding that observed in previous experiment. We measure a stable crossover between 1D and 2D SO couplings, map the band structure through spin injection radio-frequency spectroscopy, and observe topological phase boundaries which are well consistent with theoretical predictions. The high controllability and long lifetime of the 2D SO coupled degenerate atom gas pave the way for the further studies of exotic quantum phenomena with novel topology, particularly for the quantum many-body physics and quantum far-from-equilibrium dynamics.
- Sep 29 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1709.10046v2Quantum key distribution (QKD) provides information-theoretic security based on the laws of quantum mechanics. The desire to reduce costs and increase robustness in real-world applications has motivated the study of coexistence between QKD and intense classical data traffic in a single fiber. Previous works on coexistence in metropolitan areas have used wavelength-division multiplexing, however, coexistence in backbone fiber networks remains a great experimental challenge, as Tbps data of up to 20 dBm optical power is transferred, and much more noise is generated for QKD. Here we present for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, the integration of QKD with a commercial backbone network of 3.6 Tbps classical data at 21 dBm launch power over 66 km fiber. With 20 GHz pass-band filtering and large effective core area fibers, real-time secure key rates can reach 4.5 kbps and 5.1 kbps for co-propagation and counter-propagation at the maximum launch power, respectively. This demonstrates feasibility and represents an important step towards building a quantum network that coexists with the current backbone fiber infrastructure of classical communications.
- Sep 29 2017 cond-mat.quant-gas quant-ph arXiv:1709.09944v2We study the interaction-modulated tunneling dynamics of a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) in a deep double-well potential, where the tunneling between the two wells is modulated by another BEC trapped in a harmonic potential symmetrically positioned at the center of the double-well potential. The inter-species interactions couple the dynamics of the two BECs, which give rise to interesting features in the tunneling oscillations. Adopting a two-mode approximation for the BEC in the double-well potential and coupling it with the Gross-Pitaevskii equation of the harmonically trapped BEC, we numerically investigate the coupled dynamics of the BEC mixture, and map out the phase diagram of the tunneling dynamics. We show that the dynamical back action of the BEC in the harmonic trap leads to strong non-linearity in the oscillations of the BEC in the double-well potential, which enriches the system dynamics, and enhances macroscopic self trapping. The transition between the Josephson oscillation and the self-trapping dynamics can be identified by monitoring the oscillation frequency of the double-well BEC. Our results suggest the possibility of tuning the tunneling dynamics of BECs in double-well potentials.
- Sep 21 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1709.06779v1Quantum mechanics provides means of generating genuine randomness that is impossible with deterministic classical processes. Remarkably, the unpredictability of randomness can be certified in a self-testing manner that is independent of implementation devices. Here, we present an experimental demonstration of self-testing quantum random number generation based on an detection-loophole free Bell test with entangled photons. In the randomness analysis, without the assumption of independent identical distribution, we consider the worst case scenario that the adversary launches the most powerful attacks against quantum adversary. After considering statistical fluctuations and applying an 80 Gb $\times$ 45.6 Mb Toeplitz matrix hashing, we achieve a final random bit rate of 114 bits/s, with a failure probability less than $10^{-5}$. Such self-testing random number generators mark a critical step towards realistic applications in cryptography and fundamental physics tests.
- Sep 21 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1709.06755v1Covert communication offers a method to transmit messages in such a way that it is not possible to detect that the communication is happening at all. In this work, we report an experimental demonstration of covert communication that is provably secure against unbounded quantum adversaries. The covert communication is carried out over 10 km of optical fiber, addressing the challenges associated with transmission over metropolitan distances. We deploy the protocol in a dense wavelength-division multiplexing infrastructure, where our system has to coexist with a co-propagating C-band classical channel. The noise from the classical channel allows us to perform covert communication in a neighbouring channel. We perform an optimization of all protocol parameters and report the transmission of three different messages with varying levels of security. Our results showcase the feasibility of secure covert communication in a practical setting, with several possible future improvements from both theory and experiment.
- Sep 19 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1709.05882v1A quantum money scheme enables a trusted bank to provide untrusted users with verifiable quantum banknotes that cannot be forged. In this work, we report an experimental demonstration of the preparation and verification of unforgeable quantum banknotes. We employ a security analysis that takes experimental imperfections fully into account. We measure a total of $3.6\times 10^6$ states in one verification round, limiting the forging probability to $10^{-7}$ based on the security analysis. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of preparing and verifying quantum banknotes using currently available experimental techniques.
- Multiphoton interference in quantum Fourier transform circuits and applications to quantum metrologyAug 02 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1708.00296v1Quantum Fourier transforms (QFT) have gained increased attention with the rise of quantum walks, boson sampling, and quantum metrology. Here we present and demonstrate a general technique that simplifies the construction of QFT interferometers using both path and polarization modes. On that basis, we first observed the generalized Hong-Ou-Mandel effect with up to four photons. Furthermore, we directly exploited number-path entanglement generated in these QFT interferometers and demonstrated optical phase supersensitivities deterministically.
- Silicon single-photon detectors (SPDs) are the key devices for detecting single photons in the visible wavelength range. Here we present high detection efficiency silicon SPDs dedicated to the generation of multiphoton entanglement based on the technique of high-frequency sine wave gating. The silicon single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) components are acquired by disassembling 6 commercial single-photon counting modules (SPCMs). Using the new quenching electronics, the average detection efficiency of SPDs is increased from 68.6% to 73.1% at a wavelength of 785 nm. These sine wave gating SPDs are then applied in a four-photon entanglement experiment, and the four-fold coincidence count rate is increased by 30% without degrading its visibility compared with the original SPCMs.
- Long-distance entanglement distribution is essential both for foundational tests of quantum physics and scalable quantum networks. Owing to channel loss, however, the previously achieved distance was limited to ~100 km. Here, we demonstrate satellite-based distribution of entangled photon pairs to two locations separated by 1203 km on the Earth, through satellite-to-ground two-downlink with a sum of length varies from 1600 km to 2400 km. We observe a survival of two-photon entanglement and a violation of Bell inequality by 2.37+/-0.09 under strict Einstein locality conditions. The obtained effective link efficiency at 1200 km in this work is over 12 orders of magnitude higher than the direct bidirectional transmission of the two photons through the best commercial telecommunication fibers with a loss of 0.16 dB/km.
- An arbitrary unknown quantum state cannot be precisely measured or perfectly replicated. However, quantum teleportation allows faithful transfer of unknown quantum states from one object to another over long distance, without physical travelling of the object itself. Long-distance teleportation has been recognized as a fundamental element in protocols such as large-scale quantum networks and distributed quantum computation. However, the previous teleportation experiments between distant locations were limited to a distance on the order of 100 kilometers, due to photon loss in optical fibres or terrestrial free-space channels. An outstanding open challenge for a global-scale "quantum internet" is to significantly extend the range for teleportation. A promising solution to this problem is exploiting satellite platform and space-based link, which can conveniently connect two remote points on the Earth with greatly reduced channel loss because most of the photons' propagation path is in empty space. Here, we report the first quantum teleportation of independent single-photon qubits from a ground observatory to a low Earth orbit satellite - through an up-link channel - with a distance up to 1400 km. To optimize the link efficiency and overcome the atmospheric turbulence in the up-link, a series of techniques are developed, including a compact ultra-bright source of multi-photon entanglement, narrow beam divergence, high-bandwidth and high-accuracy acquiring, pointing, and tracking (APT). We demonstrate successful quantum teleportation for six input states in mutually unbiased bases with an average fidelity of 0.80+/-0.01, well above the classical limit. This work establishes the first ground-to-satellite up-link for faithful and ultra-long-distance quantum teleportation, an essential step toward global-scale quantum internet.
- Jul 04 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1707.00400v1To date, blind quantum computing demonstrations require clients to have weak quantum devices. Here we implement a proof-of-principle experiment for completely classical clients. Via classically interacting with two quantum servers that share entanglement, the client accomplishes the task of having the number 15 factorized by servers who are denied information about the computation itself. This concealment is accompanied by a verification protocol that tests servers' honesty and correctness. Our demonstration shows the feasibility of completely classical clients and thus is a key milestone towards secure cloud quantum computing.
- Quantum key distribution (QKD) uses individual light quanta in quantum superposition states to guarantee unconditional communication security between distant parties. In practice, the achievable distance for QKD has been limited to a few hundred kilometers, due to the channel loss of fibers or terrestrial free space that exponentially reduced the photon rate. Satellite-based QKD promises to establish a global-scale quantum network by exploiting the negligible photon loss and decoherence in the empty out space. Here, we develop and launch a low-Earth-orbit satellite to implement decoy-state QKD with over kHz key rate from the satellite to ground over a distance up to 1200 km, which is up to 20 orders of magnitudes more efficient than that expected using an optical fiber (with 0.2 dB/km loss) of the same length. The establishment of a reliable and efficient space-to-ground link for faithful quantum state transmission constitutes a key milestone for global-scale quantum networks.
- Jun 27 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1706.08242v1Quantum state transfer from flying photons to stationary matter qubits is an important element in the realization of quantum networks. Self-assembled semiconductor quantum dots provide a promising solid-state platform hosting both single photon and spin, with an inherent light-matter interface. Here, we develop a method to coherently and actively control the single-photon frequency bins in superposition using electro-optic modulators, and measure the spin-photon entanglement with a fidelity of $0.796\pm0.020$. Further, by Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger-type state projection on the frequency, path and polarization degrees of freedom of a single photon, we demonstrate quantum state transfer from a single photon to a single electron spin confined in an InGaAs quantum dot, separated by 5 meters. The quantum state mapping from the photon's polarization to the electron's spin is demonstrated along three different axis on the Bloch sphere, with an average fidelity of $78.5\%$.
- We present a fully integrated InGaAs/InP negative feedback avalanche diode (NFAD) based free-running single-photon detector (SPD) designed for accurate lidar applications. A free-piston Stirling cooler is used to cool down the NFAD with a large temperature range, and an active hold-off circuit implemented in a field programmable gate array is applied to further suppress the afterpulsing contribution. The key parameters of the free-running SPD including photon detection efficiency (PDE), dark count rate (DCR), afterpulse probability, and maximum count rate (MCR) are dedicatedly optimized for lidar application in practice. We then perform a field experiment using a Mie lidar system with 20 kHz pulse repetition frequency to compare the performance between the free-running InGaAs/InP SPD and a commercial superconducting nanowire single-photon detector (SNSPD). Our detector exhibits good performance with 1.6 Mcps MCR (0.6 \mus hold-off time), 10% PDE, 950 cps DCR, and 18% afterpulse probability over 50 \mus period. Such performance is worse than the SNSPD with 60% PDE and 300 cps DCR. However, after performing a specific algorithm that we have developed for afterpulse and count rate corrections, the lidar system performance in terms of range-corrected signal (Pr2) distribution using our SPD agrees very well with the result using the SNSPD, with only a relative error of ~2%. Due to the advantages of low-cost and small size of InGaAs/InP NFADs, such detector provides a practical solution for accurate lidar applications.
- Apr 14 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1704.03960v1Realizing long distance entanglement swapping with independent sources in the real-world condition is important for both future quantum network and fundamental study of quantum theory. Currently, demonstration over a few of tens kilometer underground optical fiber has been achieved. However, future applications demand entanglement swapping over longer distance with more complicated environment. We exploit two independent 1-GHz-clock sequential time-bin entangled photon-pair sources, develop several automatic stability controls, and successfully implement a field test of entanglement swapping over more than 100-km optical fiber link including coiled, underground and suspended optical fibers. Our result verifies the feasibility of such technologies for long distance quantum network and for many interesting quantum information experiments.
- Mar 31 2017 quant-ph cond-mat.mes-hall arXiv:1703.10302v2Here we report on the production and tomography of genuinely entangled Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states with up to 10 qubits connecting to a bus resonator in a superconducting circuit, where the resonator-mediated qubit-qubit interactions are used to controllably entangle multiple qubits and to operate on different pairs of qubits in parallel. The resulting 10-qubit density matrix is unambiguously probed, with a fidelity of $0.668 \pm 0.025$. Our results demonstrate the largest entanglement created so far in solid-state architectures, and pave the way to large-scale quantum computation.
- Mar 21 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1703.06613v1Superconducting quantum circuits are promising candidate for building scalable quantum computers. Here, we use a four-qubit superconducting quantum processor to solve a two-dimensional system of linear equations based on a quantum algorithm proposed by Harrow, Hassidim, and Lloyd [Phys. Rev. Lett. \textbf103, 150502 (2009)], which promises an exponential speedup over classical algorithms under certain circumstances. We benchmark the solver with quantum inputs and outputs, and characterize it by non-trace-preserving quantum process tomography, which yields a process fidelity of $0.837\pm0.006$. Our results highlight the potential of superconducting quantum circuits for applications in solving large-scale linear systems, a ubiquitous task in science and engineering.
- Mar 06 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1703.01021v2Quantum digital signatures (QDS) provide a means for signing electronic communications with informationtheoretic security. However, all previous demonstrations of quantum digital signatures assume trusted measurement devices. This renders them vulnerable against detector side-channel attacks, just like quantum key distribution. Here, we exploit a measurement-device-independent (MDI) quantum network, over a 200-square-kilometer metropolitan area, to perform a field test of a three-party measurement-device-independent quantum digital signature (MDI-QDS) scheme that is secure against any detector side-channel attack. In so doing, we are able to successfully sign a binary message with a security level of about 1E-7. Remarkably, our work demonstrates the feasibility of MDI-QDS for practical applications.
- Feb 21 2017 cond-mat.quant-gas quant-ph arXiv:1702.05761v3We theoretically study the width of the s-wave confinement-induced resonance (CIR) in quasi-one-dimensional atomic gases under tunable transversely anisotropic confinement. We find that the width of the CIR can be tuned by varying the transverse anisotropy. The change in the width of the CIR can manifest itself in the position of the discontinuity in the interaction energy density, which can be probed experimentally.
- We study a single quantized vortex in the fermionic component of a mixture of Fermi superfluid and Bose-Einstein condensate. As the density ratio between the boson and the fermion components is tuned, we identify a transition in the vortex-core structure, across which fermions in the vortex core become completely depleted even in the weak-coupling Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer regime. This is accompanied by changes in key properties of the vortex state, as well as by the localization of the Bose-Einstein condensate in the vortex core. The transition in the vortex-core structure can be experimentally probed in Bose-Fermi superfluid mixtures by detecting the size and visibility of the vortices.
- We discuss the quantum simulation of symmetry-protected topological (SPT) states for interacting fermions in quasi-one-dimensional gases of alkaline-earth-like atoms such as $^{173}$Yb. Taking advantage of the separation of orbital and nuclear-spin degrees of freedom in these atoms, we consider Raman-assisted spin-orbit couplings in the clock states, which, together with the spin-exchange interactions in the clock-state manifolds, give rise to SPT states for interacting fermions. We numerically investigate the phase diagram of the system, and study the phase transitions between the SPT phase and the symmetry-breaking phases. The interaction-driven topological phase transition can be probed by measuring local density distribution of the topological edge modes.
- Dec 22 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1612.06956v2Boson sampling is considered as a strong candidate to demonstrate the quantum computational supremacy over classical computers. However, previous proof-of-principle experiments suffered from small photon number and low sampling rates owing to the inefficiencies of the single-photon sources and multi-port optical interferometers. Here, we develop two central components for high-performance boson sampling: robust multi-photon interferometers with 0.99 transmission rate, and actively demultiplexed single-photon sources from a quantum-dot-micropillar with simultaneously high efficiency, purity and indistinguishability. We implement and validate 3-, 4-, and 5-photon boson sampling, and achieve sampling rates of 4.96 kHz, 151 Hz, and 4 Hz, respectively, which are over 24,000 times faster than the previous experiments, and over 220 times faster than obtaining one sample through calculating the matrices permanent using the first electronic computer (ENIAC) and transistorized computer (TRADIC) in the human history. Our architecture is feasible to be scaled up to larger number of photons and with higher rate to race against classical computers, and might provide experimental evidence against the Extended Church-Turing Thesis.
- The randomness from a quantum random number generator (QRNG) relies on the accurate characterization of its devices. However, device imperfections and inaccurate characterizations can result in wrong entropy estimation and bias in practice, which highly affects the genuine randomness generation and may even induce the disappearance of quantum randomness in an extreme case. Here we experimentally demonstrate a measurement-device-independent (MDI) QRNG based on time-bin encoding to achieve certified quantum randomness even when the measurement devices are uncharacterized and untrusted. The MDI-QRNG is randomly switched between the regular randomness generation mode and a test mode, in which four quantum states are randomly prepared to perform measurement tomography in real-time. With a clock rate of 25 MHz, the MDI-QRNG generates a final random bit rate of 5.7 Kbps. Such implementation with an all-fiber setup provides an approach to construct a fully-integrated MDI-QRNG with trusted but error-prone devices in practice.
- Dec 01 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1611.09982v1Satellite based quantum communication has been proven as a feasible way to achieve global scale quantum communication network. Very recently, a low-Earth-orbit (LEO) satellite has been launched for this purpose. However, with a single satellite, it takes an inefficient 3-day period to provide the worldwide connectivity. On the other hand, similar to how the Iridium system functions in classic communication, satellite constellation (SC) composed of many quantum satellites, could provide global real-time quantum communication. In such a SC, most of the satellites will work in sunlight. Unfortunately, none of previous ground testing experiments could be implemented at daytime. During daytime, the bright sunlight background prohibits quantum communication in transmission over long distances. In this letter, by choosing a working wavelength of 1550 nm and developing free-space single-mode fibre coupling technology and ultralow noise up-conversion single photon detectors, we overcome the noise due to sunlight and demonstrate a 53-km free space quantum key distribution (QKD) in the daytime through a 48-dB loss channel. Our system not only shows the feasibility of satellite based quantum communication in daylight, but also has the ability to naturally adapt to ground fibre optics, representing an essential step towards a SC-based global quantum network.
- Dec 01 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1611.09990v1Bell's theorem shows a profound contradiction between local realism and quantum mechanics on the level of statistical predictions. It does not involve directly Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) correlations. The paradox of Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) disproves directly the concept of EPR elements of reality, based on the EPR correlations, in an all-versus-nothing way. A three-qubit experimental demonstration of the GHZ paradox was achieved nearly twenty years ago, and followed by demonstrations for more qubits. Still, the GHZ contradictions underlying the tests can be reduced to three-qubit one. We show an irreducible four-qubit GHZ paradox, and report its experimental demonstration. The reducibility loophole is closed. The bound of a three-setting per party Bell-GHZ inequality is violated by $7\sigma$. The fidelity of the GHZ state was around $81\%$, and an entanglement witness reveals a violation of the separability threshold by $19\sigma$.
- Nov 23 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1611.07126v2Random numbers are indispensable for a variety of applications ranging from testing physics foundation to information encryption. In particular, nonlocality tests provide a strong evidence to our current understanding of nature -- quantum mechanics. All the random number generators (RNG) used for the existing tests are constructed locally, making the test results vulnerable to the freedom-of-choice loophole. We report an experimental realization of RNGs based on the arrival time of cosmic photons. The measurement outcomes (raw data) pass the standard NIST statistical test suite. We present a realistic design to employ these RNGs in a Bell test experiment, which addresses the freedom-of-choice loophole.
- Long distance co-propagation of quantum key distribution and terabit classical optical data channelsOct 17 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1610.04475v1Quantum key distribution (QKD) generates symmetric keys between two remote parties, and guarantees the keys not accessible to any third party. Wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) between QKD and classical optical communications by sharing the existing fibre optics infrastructure is highly desired in order to reduce the cost of QKD applications. However, quantum signals are extremely weak and thus easily affected by the spontaneous Raman scattering effect from intensive classical light. Here, by means of wavelength selecting and spectral and temporal filtering, we realize the multiplexing and long distance co-propagation of QKD and Terabit classical coherent optical communication system up to 80km. The data capacity is two orders of magnitude larger than the previous results. Our demonstration verifies the feasibility of QKD and classical communication to share the resources of backbone fibre links, and thus taking the utility of QKD a great step forward.
- Up-conversion single photon detector (UCSPD) has been widely used in many research fields including quantum key distribution (QKD), lidar, optical time domain reflectrometry (OTDR) and deep space communication. For the first time in laboratory, we have developed an integrated four-channel all-fiber UCSPD which can work in both free-running and gate modes. This compact module can satisfy different experimental demands with adjustable detection efficiency and dark count. We have characterized the key parameters of the UCSPD system.
- Sep 20 2016 physics.optics quant-ph arXiv:1609.05698v1For the first time, a direct detection BOTDR is demonstrated for distributed dynamic strain sensing incorporating double-edge technique, time-division multiplexing technique and upconversion technique. The double edges are realized by using the transmission curve and reflection curve of an all-fiber Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI). Benefiting from the low loss of the fiber at, the time-division multiplexing technique is performed to realize the double-edge technique by using only a single-channel FPI and only one piece of a detector. In order to detect the weak spontaneous Brillouin backscattering signal efficiently, a fiber-coupled upconversion detector is adopted to upconvert the backscattering signal at 1548.1 nm to 863 nm, which is detected by a Si-APD finally. In the experiment, dynamic strain disturbance up to 1.9m\epsilon over 1.5 km of polarization maintaining fiber is detected at a sampling rate of 30 Hz. An accuracy of 30\mu\epsilon and spatial resolution of 0.6 m is realized.
- Sep 02 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1609.00228v3We report on the experimental realization of a ten-photon Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state using thin BiB$_{3}$O$_{6}$ crystals. The observed fidelity is $0.606\pm0.029$, demonstrating a genuine entanglement with a standard deviation of 3.6 $\sigma$. This result is further verified using $p$-value calculation, obtaining an upper bound of $3.7\times10^{-3}$ under an assumed hypothesis test. Our experiment paves a new way to efficiently engineer BiB$_{3}$O$_{6}$ crystal-based multi-photon entanglement systems, which provides a promising platform for investigating advanced optical quantum information processing tasks such as boson sampling, quantum error correction and quantum-enhanced measurement.
- Aug 24 2016 quant-ph physics.ins-det arXiv:1608.06355v1InGaAs/InP single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) are widely used in practical applications requiring near-infrared photon counting such as quantum key distribution (QKD). Photon detection efficiency and dark count rate are the intrinsic parameters of InGaAs/InP SPADs, due to the fact that their performances cannot be improved using different quenching electronics given the same operation conditions. After modeling these parameters and developing a simulation platform for InGaAs/InP SPADs, we investigate the semiconductor structure design and optimization. The parameters of photon detection efficiency and dark count rate highly depend on the variables of absorption layer thickness, multiplication layer thickness, excess bias voltage and temperature. By evaluating the decoy-state QKD performance, the variables for SPAD design and operation can be globally optimized. Such optimization from the perspective of specific applications can provide an effective approach to design high-performance InGaAs/InP SPADs.
- Aug 18 2016 quant-ph cond-mat.mes-hall arXiv:1608.04890v1Anyons are exotic quasiparticles obeying fractional statistics,whose behavior can be emulated in artificially designed spin systems.Here we present an experimental emulation of creating anyonic excitations in a superconducting circuit that consists of four qubits, achieved by dynamically generating the ground and excited states of the toric code model, i.e., four-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states. The anyonic braiding is implemented via single-qubit rotations: a phase shift of \pi related to braiding, the hallmark of Abelian 1/2 anyons, has been observed through a Ramsey-type interference measurement.
- Aug 11 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1608.03076v1We demonstrate deterministic generation of two distinct collective excitations in one atomic ensemble, and we realize the Hong-Ou-Mandel interference between them. Using Rydberg blockade we create single collective excitations in two different Zeeman levels, and we use stimulated Raman transitions to perform a beam-splitter operation between the excited atomic modes. By converting the atomic excitations into photons, the two-excitation interference is measured by photon coincidence detection with a visibility of 0.89(6). The Hong-Ou-Mandel interference witnesses an entangled NOON state of the collective atomic excitations, and we demonstrate its two times enhanced sensitivity to a magnetic field compared with a single excitation. Our work implements a minimal instance of Boson sampling and paves the way for further multi-mode and multi-excitation studies with collective excitations of atomic ensembles.
- Aug 04 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1608.01086v1Quantum digital signature (QDS) is an approach to guarantee the nonrepudiation, unforgeability and transferability of a signature with the information-theoretical security. All previous experimental realizations of QDS relied on an unrealistic assumption of secure channels and the longest distance is only several kilometers. Here, we have experimentally demonstrated a recently proposed QDS protocol without any secure channel. Exploiting the decoy state modulation, we have successfully signed one bit message through up to 102 km optical fiber. Furthermore, we continuously run the system to sign the longer message "USTC" with 32 bit at the distance of 51 km. Our results pave the way towards the practical application of QDS.
- We present a real-time and fully integrated quantum random number generator (QRNG) by measuring laser phase fluctuations. The QRNG scheme based on laser phase fluctuations is featured for its capability of generating ultra high-speed random numbers. However, the speed bottleneck of a practical QRNG lies on the limited speed of randomness extraction. To close the gap between the fast randomness generation and the slow post-processing, we propose a pipeline extraction algorithm based on Toeplitz matrix hashing and implement it in a high-speed field-programmable gate array. Further, all the QRNG components are integrated into a module, including a compact and actively stabilized interferometer, high-speed data acquisition, and real-time data post-processing and transmission. The final generation rate of the QRNG module with real-time extraction can reach 3.2 Gbps.
- Jun 27 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1606.07503v1Teleportation of an entangled state, known as entanglement swapping, plays an essential role in quantum communication and network.Here we report a field-test entanglement swapping experiment with two independent telecommunication band entangled photon-pair sources over the optical fibre network of Hefei city. The two sources are located at two nodes 12 km apart and the Bell-state measurement is performed in a third location which is connected to the two source nodes with 14.7 km and 10.6 km optical fibres. An average visibility of 79.9+/-4.8% is observed in our experiment, which is high enough to infer a violation of Bell inequality. With the entanglement swapping setup, we demonstrate a source independent quantum key distribution, which is also immune to any attack against detection in the measurement site.
- Jun 23 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1606.06821v1Quantum key distribution (QKD) can provide unconditional secure communication between two distant parties. Although the significance of QKD is undisputed, its feasibility has been questioned because of certain limitations in the practical application of real-life QKD systems. It is a common belief the lack of perfect single-photon source and the existence of detection loss will handicap the feasibility of QKD by creating security loopholes and distance limitations. The measurement device independent QKD (MDIQKD) with decoy-state method removes the security threats from both the imperfect single-photon source and the detection loss. Lengthening the distance and improving the key rate of QKD with such a superior method is thus the central issue in the practical application of QKD. Here, we report the results of MDIQKD over 404 km of ultralow-loss optical fibre and 311 km of standard optical fibre by employing an optimized four-intensity decoy-state method. This record-breaking implementation of MDIQKD method not only provides a new distance record for both MDIQKD and all types of QKD systems, more significantly, it achieves a distance that the traditional BB84 QKD would not be able to achieve with the same detection devices even with ideal single-phone sources. For the first time, our work demonstrates that with the MDIQKD method, imperfect devices can achieve better results than what ideal sources could have achieved. This work represents a significant step towards proving and developing a feasible long-distance QKD.
- Observation of two-species vortex lattices in a mixture of mass-imbalance Bose and Fermi superfluidsJun 07 2016 cond-mat.quant-gas quant-ph arXiv:1606.01717v1The superfluid mixture of interacting Bose and Fermi species is a remarkable many-body quantum system. Dilute degenerate atomic gases, especially for two species of distinct masses, are excellent candidates for exploring fundamental features of superfluid mixture. However, producing a mass-imbalance Bose-Fermi superfluid mixture, providing an unambiguous visual proof of two-species superfluidity and probing inter-species interaction effects remain challenging. Here, we report the realization of a two-species superfluid of lithium-6 and potassium-41. By rotating the dilute gases, we observe the simultaneous existence of vortex lattices in both species, and thus present a definitive visual evidence for the simultaneous superfluidity of the two species. Pronounced effects of the inter-species interaction are demonstrated through a series of precision measurements on the formation and decay of two-species vortices. Our system provides a new platform for studying novel macroscopic quantum phenomena in vortex matter of interacting species.
- May 30 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1605.08547v3Quantum entanglement among multiple spatially separated particles is of fundamental interest, and can serve as central resources for studies in quantum nonlocality, quantum-to-classical transition, quantum error correction, and quantum simulation. The ability of generating an increasing number of entangled particles is an important benchmark for quantum information processing. The largest entangled states were previously created with fourteen trapped ions, eight photons, and five superconducting qubits. Here, based on spontaneous parametric down-converted two-photon entanglement source with simultaneously a high brightness of ~12 MHz/W, a collection efficiency of ~70% and an indistinguishability of ~91% between independent photons, we demonstrate, for the first time, genuine and distillable entanglement of ten single photons under different pump power. Our work creates a state-of-the-art platform for multi-photon experiments, and provide enabling technologies for challenging optical quantum information tasks such as high-efficiency scattershot boson sampling with many photons.
- May 16 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1605.04030v1Classical correlation can be locked via quantum means--quantum data locking. With a short secret key, one can lock an exponentially large amount of information, in order to make it inaccessible to unauthorized users without the key. Quantum data locking presents a resource-efficient alternative to one-time pad encryption which requires a key no shorter than the message. We report experimental demonstrations of quantum data locking scheme originally proposed by DiVincenzo et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 067902 (2004)] and a loss-tolerant scheme developed by Fawzi, Hayde, and Sen [J. ACM. 60, 44 (2013)]. We observe that the unlocked amount of information is larger than the key size in both experiments, exhibiting strong violation of the incremental proportionality property of classical information theory. As an application example, we show the successful transmission of a photo over a lossy channel with quantum data (un)locking and error correction.
- Apr 28 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1604.08093v1Secret sharing of a quantum state, or quantum secret sharing, in which a dealer wants to share certain amount of quantum information with a few players, has wide applications in quantum information. The critical criterion in a threshold secret sharing scheme is confidentiality, with less than the designated number of players, no information can be recovered. Furthermore, in a quantum scenario, one additional critical criterion exists, the capability of sharing entangled and unknown quantum information. Here by employing a six-photon entangled state, we demonstrate a quantum threshold scheme, where the shared quantum secrecy can be efficiently reconstructed with a state fidelity as high as 93%. By observing that any one or two parties cannot recover the secrecy, we show that our scheme meets the confidentiality criterion. Meanwhile, we also demonstrate that entangled quantum information can be shared and recovered via our setting, which demonstrates that our implemented scheme is fully quantum. Moreover, our experimental setup can be treated as a decoding circuit of the 5-qubit quantum error-correcting code with two erasure errors.
- Apr 27 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1604.07578v1Classical optical communications may be still the main communications technology for the foreseeable future, so integration of the quantum communication network with existing classical optical communication network is necessary because existing telecommunications infrastructure will be shared. This means multiplexing of quantum key distribution (QKD) and strong classical data signals, delivering quantum signals and classic signals in one fiber. Optical splitters are employed to access each user in a gigabit-capable passive optical network (GPON). In a 4-user network the splitter adds at least 6 dB of optical loss to the quantum channel, a 64-user network the splitter adds 18 dB of optical loss to the quantum channel. The optical splitters restrict the transmission distance and performance of QKD. We propose a new integration program of QKD and GPON based on wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM). At the optical splitting point, we use filters to separate the quantum signals and bypass the optical splitter, avoiding losses produced by the optical splitters. This increases the counting rate of the quantum signals states and the signal to noise ratio (SNR) improves, so a higher key generation rate and a longer transmission distance can be obtained with QKD.
- Apr 13 2016 quant-ph physics.optics arXiv:1604.03293v1Motion-induced dephasing is a dominant decoherence mechanism for atom-gas quantum memories. In this paper, we develop a new coherent manipulation technique which enables arbitrary engineering of the spin-wave momentum with neglectable noise. By zeroing the spin-wave momentum, motion-induced dephasing can be frozen completely. We experimentally demonstrate this scheme with laser-cooled atoms in a DLCZ configuration. By applying the freezing pulses, memory lifetime gets extended significantly to the limit of atom cloud expansion and does not depend on the detection angle anymore. The observed high cross-correlation above 20 proves that high-fidelity memory operation is well preserved after coherent manipulation.
- Mar 15 2016 quant-ph cond-mat.mes-hall arXiv:1603.04127v2Boson sampling is a problem intractable for classical computers, but can be naturally solved on a specialized photonic quantum simulator which requires less resources than building a universal quantum computer. The biggest challenge to implement boson sampling with a large number of photons has been the lack of reliable single-photon sources. Here we demonstrate a scalable architecture of boson sampling using a solid-state single-photon source with simultaneously high efficiency, purity, and indistinguishability. The single photons are time-bin encoded and interfered in an electrically programmable loop-based network. We implement and validate boson sampling with input three and four single photons, and track the dynamical multi-photon evolution inside the circuit. With further refinement of the system efficiency, our approach may be feasible to be scaled up to >20-boson sampling to outperform classical computers, and thus provide experimental evidence against the Extended Church-Turing Thesis.
- Mar 08 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1603.02089v1Quantum communication has historically been at the forefront of advancements, from fundamental tests of quantum physics to utilizing the quantum-mechanical properties of physical systems for practical applications. In the field of communication complexity, quantum communication allows the advantage of an exponential reduction in the information transmitted over classical communication to accomplish distributed computational tasks. However, to date, demonstrating this advantage in a practical setting continues to be a central challenge. Here, we report an experimental demonstration of a quantum fingerprinting protocol that for the first time surpasses the ultimate classical limit to transmitted information. Ultra-low noise superconducting single-photon detectors and a stable fibre-based Sagnac interferometer are used to implement a quantum fingerprinting system that is capable of transmitting less information than the classical proven lower bound over 20 km standard telecom fibre for input sizes of up to two Gbits. The results pave the way for experimentally exploring the advanced features of quantum communication and open a new window of opportunity for research in communication complexity and testing the foundations of physics.
- Feb 25 2016 quant-ph cond-mat.mes-hall arXiv:1602.07386v2By pulsed s-shell resonant excitation of a single quantum dot-micropillar system, we generate long streams of a thousand of near transform-limited single photons with high mutual indistinguishability. Hong-Ou-Mandel interference of two photons are measured as a function of their emission time separation varying from 13 ns to 14.7 \mus, where the visibility slightly drops from 95.9(2)% to a plateau of 92.1(5)% through a slow dephasing process occurring at time scale of 0.7 \mus. Temporal and spectral analysis reveal the pulsed resonance fluorescence single photons are close to transform limit, which are readily useful for multi-photon entanglement and interferometry experiments.
- Feb 24 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1602.07081v1Quantum teleportation faithfully transfers a quantum state between distant nodes in a network, enabling revolutionary information processing applications. Here we report teleporting quantum states over a 30 km optical fiber network with the input single photon state and the EPR state prepared independently. By buffering photons in 10 km coiled optical fiber, we perform Bell state measurement after entanglement distribution. With active feed-forward operation, the average quantum state fidelity and quantum process fidelity are measured to be 0.85 and 0.77, exceeding classical limits of 0.67 and 0.5, respectively. The statistical hypothesis test shows that the probability of a classical process to predict an average state fidelity no less than the one observed in our experiment is less than 2.4E-14, confirming the quantum nature of our quantum teleportation experiment. Our experiment marks a critical step towards the realization of quantum internet in the future.
- Ring exchange is an elementary interaction for modeling unconventional topological matters which hold promise for efficient quantum information processing. We report the observation of four-body ring-exchange interactions and the topological properties of anyonic excitations within an ultracold atom system. A minimum toric code Hamiltonian in which the ring exchange is the dominant term, was implemented by engineering a Hubbard Hamiltonian that describes atomic spins in disconnected plaquette arrays formed by two orthogonal superlattices. The ring-exchange interactions were resolved from the dynamical evolutions in the spin orders, matching well with the predicted energy gaps between two anyonic excitations of the spin system. A braiding operation was applied to the spins in the plaquettes and an induced phase $1.00(3)\pi$ in the four-spin state was observed, confirming $\frac{1}{2}$-anynoic statistics. This work represents an essential step towards studying topological matters with many-body systems and the applications in quantum computation and simulation.
- By driving a 3D transmon with microwave fields, we generate an effective avoided energy-level crossing. Then we chirp microwave frequency, which is equivalent to driving the system through the avoided energy-level crossing by sweeping the avoided crossing. A double-passage chirp produces Landau-Zener-Stückelberg-Majorana interference that agree well with the numerical results. Our method is fully applicable to other quantum systems that contain no intrinsic avoided level crossing, providing an alternative approach for quantum control and quantum simulation.
- Jan 05 2016 quant-ph cond-mat.mes-hall arXiv:1601.00284v2Scalable photonic quantum technologies require on-demand single-photon sources with simultaneously high levels of purity, indistinguishability, and efficiency. These key features, however, have only been demonstrated separately in previous experiments. Here, by s-shell pulsed resonant excitation of a Purcell-enhanced quantum dot-micropillar system, we deterministically generate resonance fluorescence single photons which, at pi pulse excitation, have an extraction efficiency of 66%, single-photon purity of 99.1%, and photon indistinguishability of 98.5%. Such a single-photon source for the first time combines the features of high efficiency and near-perfect levels of purity and indistinguishabilty, and thus open the way to multi-photon experiments with semiconductor quantum dots.
- Dec 24 2015 quant-ph cond-mat.mes-hall arXiv:1512.07453v2The implementation and engineering of bright and coherent solid state quantum light sources is key for the realization of both on chip and remote quantum networks. Despite tremendous efforts for more than 15 years, the combination of these two key prerequisites in a single, potentially scalable device is a major challenge. Here, we report on the observation of bright and coherent single photon emission generated via pulsed, resonance fluorescence conditions from a single quantum dot (QD) deterministically centered in a micropillar cavity device via cryogenic optical lithography. The brightness of the QD fluorescence is greatly enhanced on resonance with the fundamental mode of the pillar, leading to an overall device efficiency of $\eta=(74\pm4)~\%$ for a single photon emission as pure as $g^{(2)}(0)=0.0092\pm0.0004$. The combination of large Purcell enhancement and resonant pumping conditions allows us to observe a two-photon wave packet overlap up to $\nu=(88\pm3)~\%$
- Dec 04 2015 quant-ph cond-mat.mes-hall arXiv:1512.01048v1We report on the observation of bright emission of single photons under pulsed resonance fluorescence conditions from a single quantum dot (QD) in a micropillar cavity. The brightness of the QD fluorescence is greatly enhanced via the coupling to the fundamental mode of a micropillar, allowing us to determine a single photon extraction efficiency of $(20.7\pm0.8)~\%$ per linear polarization basis. This yields an overall extraction efficiency of $(41.4\pm1.5)~\%$ in our device. We observe the first Rabi-oscillation in a weakly coupled quantum dot-micropillar system under coherent pulsed optical excitation, which enables us to deterministically populate the excited QD state. In this configuration, we probe the single photon statistics of the device yielding $g^{(2)}(0)=0.072\pm0.011$ at a QD-cavity detuning of $75~\mu$eV.
- Cold atoms with laser-induced spin-orbit (SO) interactions provide intriguing new platforms to explore novel quantum physics beyond natural conditions of solids. Recent experiments demonstrated the one-dimensional (1D) SO coupling for boson and fermion gases. However, realization of 2D SO interaction, a much more important task, remains very challenging. Here we propose and experimentally realize, for the first time, 2D SO coupling and topological band with $^{87}$Rb degenerate gas through a minimal optical Raman lattice scheme, without relying on phase locking or fine tuning of optical potentials. A controllable crossover between 2D and 1D SO couplings is studied, and the SO effects and nontrivial band topology are observed by measuring the atomic cloud distribution and spin texture in the momentum space. Our realization of 2D SO coupling with advantages of small heating and topological stability opens a broad avenue in cold atoms to study exotic quantum phases, including the highly-sought-after topological superfluid phases.
- Nov 03 2015 quant-ph physics.optics arXiv:1511.00407v1Quantum repeater holds the promise for scalable long-distance quantum communication. Towards a first quantum repeater based on memory-photon entanglement, significant progresses have made in improving performances of the building blocks. Further development is hindered by the difficulty of integrating key capabilities such as long storage time and high memory efficiency into a single system. Here we report an efficient light-matter interface with sub-second lifetime by confining laser-cooled atoms with 3D optical lattice and enhancing the atom-photon coupling with a ring cavity. An initial retrieval efficiency of 76(5)% together with an 1/e lifetime of 0.22(1) s have been achieved simultaneously, which already support sub-Hz entanglement distribution up to 1000 km through quantum repeater. Together with an efficient telecom interface and moderate multiplexing, our result may enable a first quantum repeater system that beats direct transmission in the near future.
- Sep 29 2015 quant-ph arXiv:1509.08389v2Quantum cryptography holds the promise to establish an information-theoretically secure global network. All field tests of metropolitan-scale quantum networks to date are based on trusted relays. The security critically relies on the accountability of the trusted relays, which will break down if the relay is dishonest or compromised. Here, we construct a measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDIQKD) network in a star topology over a 200 square kilometers metropolitan area, which is secure against untrustful relays and against all detection attacks. In the field test, our system continuously runs through one week with a secure key rate ten times larger than previous result. Our results demonstrate that the MDIQKD network, combining the best of both worlds --- security and practicality, constitutes an appealing solution to secure metropolitan communications.
- Jul 22 2015 cond-mat.quant-gas quant-ph arXiv:1507.05937v1Ultracold atoms in optical lattices offer a great promise to generate entangled states for scalable quantum information processing owing to the inherited long coherence time and controllability over a large number of particles. We report on the generation, manipulation and detection of atomic spin entanglement in an optical superlattice. Employing a spin-dependent superlattice, atomic spins in the left or right sites can be individually addressed and coherently manipulated by microwave pulses with near unitary fidelities. Spin entanglement of the two atoms in the double wells of the superlattice is generated via dynamical evolution governed by spin superexchange. By observing collisional atom loss with in-situ absorption imaging we measure spin correlations of atoms inside the double wells and obtain the lower boundary of entanglement fidelity as $0.79\pm0.06$, and the violation of a Bell's inequality with $S=2.21\pm 0.08$. The above results represent an essential step towards scalable quantum computation with ultracold atoms in optical lattices.
- Jun 18 2015 quant-ph arXiv:1506.05353v2We reports direct and scalable measurement of multiparticle entanglement concurrence and three-tangle with embedding photonic quantum simulators. In this embedding framework [Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 240502 (2013)], $N$-qubit entanglement monotone, which associates with non-Hermitian operators, can be efficiently measured with only 2 (for even $N$) and 6 (for odd $N$) local measurement settings. Our experiment uses a multiphoton quantum simulator to mimic the dynamical entanglement evolution and track its concurrence and three-tangle.
- The speed of a quantum random number generator is essential for practical applications, such as high-speed quantum key distribution systems. Here, we push the speed of a quantum random number generator to 68 Gbps by operating a laser around its threshold level. To achieve the rate, not only high-speed photodetector and high sampling rate are needed, but also a very stable interferometer is required. A practical interferometer with active feedback instead of common temperature control is developed to meet requirement of stability. Phase fluctuations of the laser are measured by the interferometer with a photodetector, and then digitalized to raw random numbers with a rate of 80 Gbps. The min-entropy of the raw data is evaluated by modeling the system and is used to quantify the quantum randomness of the raw data. The bias of the raw data caused by other signals, such as classical and detection noises, can be removed by Toeplitz-matrix hashing randomness extraction. The final random numbers can pass through the standard randomness tests. Our demonstration shows that high-speed quantum random number generators are ready for practical usage.
- Jun 01 2015 quant-ph arXiv:1505.08142v1In conventional quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols, security is guaranteed by estimating the amount of leaked information through monitoring signal disturbance, which, in practice, is generally caused by environmental noise and device imperfections rather than eavesdropping. Such estimation therefore tends to overrate the amount of leaked information in practice, leads to a fundamental threshold of the bit error rate. The threshold becomes a bottleneck of the development of practical QKD systems. In classical communication, according to Shannon's communication theory, information can transform through a noisy channel even if the background noise is very strong compare to the signal and hence the threshold of the bit error rate tends to 50%. One might wonder whether a QKD scheme can also tolerate error rate as high as 50%. The question is answered affirmatively with the recent work of round-robin differential phase-shift (RRDPS) protocol, which breaks through the fundamental threshold of the bit error rate and indicates another potential direction in the field of quantum cryptography. The key challenge to realize the RRDPS scheme lies on the measurement device, which requires a variable-delay interferometer. The delay needs to be chosen from a set of predetermined values randomly. Such measurement can be realized by switching between many interferometers with different delays at a high speed in accordance with the system repetition rate. The more delay values can be chosen from, the higher error rate can be tolerated. By designing an optical system with multiple switches and employing an active phase stabilization technology, we successfully construct a variable-delay interferometer with 128 actively selectable delays. With this measurement, we experimentally demonstrate the RRDPS QKD protocol and obtain a final key rate of 15.54 bps via a total loss of 18 dB and 8.9% error rate.
- Jun 01 2015 quant-ph arXiv:1505.08076v1In quantum key distribution (QKD), the bit error rate is used to estimate the information leakage and hence determines the amount of privacy amplification --- making the final key private by shortening the key. In general, there exists a threshold of the error rate for each scheme, above which no secure key can be generated. This threshold puts a restriction on the environment noises. For example, a widely used QKD protocol --- BB84 --- cannot tolerate error rates beyond 25%. A new protocol, round-robin differential phase shifted (RRDPS) QKD, essentially removes this restriction and can in principle tolerate more environment disturbance. Here, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a passive RRDPS QKD scheme. In particular, our 500 MHz passive RRDPS QKD system is able to generate a secure key over 50 km with a bit error rate as high as 29%. This scheme should find its applications in noisy environment conditions.