Deep autoregressive models have shown state-of-the-art performance in density estimation for natural images on large-scale datasets such as ImageNet. However, such models require many thousands of gradient-based weight updates and unique image examples for training. Ideally, the models would rapidly learn visual concepts from only a handful of examples, similar to the manner in which humans learns across many vision tasks. In this paper, we show how 1) neural attention and 2) meta learning techniques can be used in combination with autoregressive models to enable effective few-shot density estimation. Our proposed modifications to PixelCNN result in state-of-the art few-shot density estimation on the Omniglot dataset. Furthermore, we visualize the learned attention policy and find that it learns intuitive algorithms for simple tasks such as image mirroring on ImageNet and handwriting on Omniglot without supervision. Finally, we extend the model to natural images and demonstrate few-shot image generation on the Stanford Online Products dataset.
Convolutional autoregressive models have recently demonstrated state-of-the-art performance on a number of generation tasks. While fast, parallel training methods have been crucial for their success, generation is typically implemented in a naïve fashion where redundant computations are unnecessarily repeated. This results in slow generation, making such models infeasible for production environments. In this work, we describe a method to speed up generation in convolutional autoregressive models. The key idea is to cache hidden states to avoid redundant computation. We apply our fast generation method to the Wavenet and PixelCNN++ models and achieve up to $21\times$ and $183\times$ speedups respectively.
This paper presents an efficient implementation of the Wavenet generation process called Fast Wavenet. Compared to a naive implementation that has complexity O(2^L) (L denotes the number of layers in the network), our proposed approach removes redundant convolution operations by caching previous calculations, thereby reducing the complexity to O(L) time. Timing experiments show significant advantages of our fast implementation over a naive one. While this method is presented for Wavenet, the same scheme can be applied anytime one wants to perform autoregressive generation or online prediction using a model with dilated convolution layers. The code for our method is publicly available.
Feb 29 2016 cs.CV
Video object detection is challenging because objects that are easily detected in one frame may be difficult to detect in another frame within the same clip. Recently, there have been major advances for doing object detection in a single image. These methods typically contain three phases: (i) object proposal generation (ii) object classification and (iii) post-processing. We propose a modification of the post-processing phase that uses high-scoring object detections from nearby frames to boost scores of weaker detections within the same clip. We show that our method obtains superior results to state-of-the-art single image object detection techniques. Our method placed 3rd in the video object detection (VID) task of the ImageNet Large Scale Visual Recognition Challenge 2015 (ILSVRC2015).
Feb 25 2016 cs.CV
We consider the task of dimensional emotion recognition on video data using deep learning. While several previous methods have shown the benefits of training temporal neural network models such as recurrent neural networks (RNNs) on hand-crafted features, few works have considered combining convolutional neural networks (CNNs) with RNNs. In this work, we present a system that performs emotion recognition on video data using both CNNs and RNNs, and we also analyze how much each neural network component contributes to the system's overall performance. We present our findings on videos from the Audio/Visual+Emotion Challenge (AV+EC2015). In our experiments, we analyze the effects of several hyperparameters on overall performance while also achieving superior performance to the baseline and other competing methods.
Despite being the appearance-based classifier of choice in recent years, relatively few works have examined how much convolutional neural networks (CNNs) can improve performance on accepted expression recognition benchmarks and, more importantly, examine what it is they actually learn. In this work, not only do we show that CNNs can achieve strong performance, but we also introduce an approach to decipher which portions of the face influence the CNN's predictions. First, we train a zero-bias CNN on facial expression data and achieve, to our knowledge, state-of-the-art performance on two expression recognition benchmarks: the extended Cohn-Kanade (CK+) dataset and the Toronto Face Dataset (TFD). We then qualitatively analyze the network by visualizing the spatial patterns that maximally excite different neurons in the convolutional layers and show how they resemble Facial Action Units (FAUs). Finally, we use the FAU labels provided in the CK+ dataset to verify that the FAUs observed in our filter visualizations indeed align with the subject's facial movements.
Convolutional neural networks perform well on object recognition because of a number of recent advances: rectified linear units (ReLUs), data augmentation, dropout, and large labelled datasets. Unsupervised data has been proposed as another way to improve performance. Unfortunately, unsupervised pre-training is not used by state-of-the-art methods leading to the following question: Is unsupervised pre-training still useful given recent advances? If so, when? We answer this in three parts: we 1) develop an unsupervised method that incorporates ReLUs and recent unsupervised regularization techniques, 2) analyze the benefits of unsupervised pre-training compared to data augmentation and dropout on CIFAR-10 while varying the ratio of unsupervised to supervised samples, 3) verify our findings on STL-10. We discover unsupervised pre-training, as expected, helps when the ratio of unsupervised to supervised samples is high, and surprisingly, hurts when the ratio is low. We also use unsupervised pre-training with additional color augmentation to achieve near state-of-the-art performance on STL-10.
The ability to train large-scale neural networks has resulted in state-of-the-art performance in many areas of computer vision. These results have largely come from computational break throughs of two forms: model parallelism, e.g. GPU accelerated training, which has seen quick adoption in computer vision circles, and data parallelism, e.g. A-SGD, whose large scale has been used mostly in industry. We report early experiments with a system that makes use of both model parallelism and data parallelism, we call GPU A-SGD. We show using GPU A-SGD it is possible to speed up training of large convolutional neural networks useful for computer vision. We believe GPU A-SGD will make it possible to train larger networks on larger training sets in a reasonable amount of time.