Oct 24 2017 cs.CV
In this paper, we propose an inference procedure for deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) where partial evidence might be available during inference. We introduce a general feedback-based propagation approach (feedback-prop) that allows us to boost the prediction accuracy of an existing CNN model for an arbitrary set of unknown image labels when a non-overlapping arbitrary set of labels is known. We show that existing models trained in a multi-label or multi-task setting can readily take advantage of feedback-prop without any retraining or fine-tuning. This inference procedure also enables us to evaluate empirically various CNN architectures for the intermediate layers with the most information sharing with respect to target outputs. Our feedback-prop inference procedure is general, simple, reliable, and works on different challenging visual recognition tasks. We present two variants of feedback-prop based on layer-wise, and residual iterative updates. We peform evaluations in several tasks involving multiple simultaneous predictions and show that feedback-prop is effective in all of them. In summary, our experiments show a previously unreported and interesting dynamic property of deep CNNs, and presents a technical approach that takes advantage of this property for inference under partial evidence for general visual recognition tasks.
Language is increasingly being used to define rich visual recognition problems with supporting image collections sourced from the web. Structured prediction models are used in these tasks to take advantage of correlations between co-occurring labels and visual input but risk inadvertently encoding social biases found in web corpora. In this work, we study data and models associated with multilabel object classification and visual semantic role labeling. We find that (a) datasets for these tasks contain significant gender bias and (b) models trained on these datasets further amplify existing bias. For example, the activity cooking is over 33% more likely to involve females than males in a training set, and a trained model further amplifies the disparity to 68% at test time. We propose to inject corpus-level constraints for calibrating existing structured prediction models and design an algorithm based on Lagrangian relaxation for collective inference. Our method results in almost no performance loss for the underlying recognition task but decreases the magnitude of bias amplification by 47.5% and 40.5% for multilabel classification and visual semantic role labeling, respectively.
Generating captions for images is a task that has recently received considerable attention. In this work we focus on caption generation for abstract scenes, or object layouts where the only information provided is a set of objects and their locations. We propose OBJ2TEXT, a sequence-to-sequence model that encodes a set of objects and their locations as an input sequence using an LSTM network, and decodes this representation using an LSTM language model. We show that our model, despite encoding object layouts as a sequence, can represent spatial relationships between objects, and generate descriptions that are globally coherent and semantically relevant. We test our approach in a task of object-layout captioning by using only object annotations as inputs. We additionally show that our model, combined with a state-of-the-art object detector, improves an image captioning model from 0.863 to 0.950 (CIDEr score) in the test benchmark of the standard MS-COCO Captioning task.
Image compositing is a method used to generate realistic yet fake imagery by inserting contents from one image to another. Previous work in compositing has focused on improving appearance compatibility of a user selected foreground segment and a background image (i.e. color and illumination consistency). In this work, we instead develop a fully automated compositing model that additionally learns to select and transform compatible foreground segments from a large collection given only an input image background. To simplify the task, we restrict our problem by focusing on human instance composition, because human segments exhibit strong correlations with their background and because of the availability of large annotated data. We develop a novel branching Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) that jointly predicts candidate person locations given a background image. We then use pre-trained deep feature representations to retrieve person instances from a large segment database. Experimental results show that our model can generate composite images that look visually convincing. We also develop a user interface to demonstrate the potential application of our method.
Semantic sparsity is a common challenge in structured visual classification problems; when the output space is complex, the vast majority of the possible predictions are rarely, if ever, seen in the training set. This paper studies semantic sparsity in situation recognition, the task of producing structured summaries of what is happening in images, including activities, objects and the roles objects play within the activity. For this problem, we find empirically that most object-role combinations are rare, and current state-of-the-art models significantly underperform in this sparse data regime. We avoid many such errors by (1) introducing a novel tensor composition function that learns to share examples across role-noun combinations and (2) semantically augmenting our training data with automatically gathered examples of rarely observed outputs using web data. When integrated within a complete CRF-based structured prediction model, the tensor-based approach outperforms existing state of the art by a relative improvement of 2.11% and 4.40% on top-5 verb and noun-role accuracy, respectively. Adding 5 million images with our semantic augmentation techniques gives further relative improvements of 6.23% and 9.57% on top-5 verb and noun-role accuracy.
Mar 18 2016 cs.CV
We propose two efficient approximations to standard convolutional neural networks: Binary-Weight-Networks and XNOR-Networks. In Binary-Weight-Networks, the filters are approximated with binary values resulting in 32x memory saving. In XNOR-Networks, both the filters and the input to convolutional layers are binary. XNOR-Networks approximate convolutions using primarily binary operations. This results in 58x faster convolutional operations and 32x memory savings. XNOR-Nets offer the possibility of running state-of-the-art networks on CPUs (rather than GPUs) in real-time. Our binary networks are simple, accurate, efficient, and work on challenging visual tasks. We evaluate our approach on the ImageNet classification task. The classification accuracy with a Binary-Weight-Network version of AlexNet is only 2.9% less than the full-precision AlexNet (in top-1 measure). We compare our method with recent network binarization methods, BinaryConnect and BinaryNets, and outperform these methods by large margins on ImageNet, more than 16% in top-1 accuracy.