We propose a scheme for authentication of physical keys that are materialized by optical multiple-scattering media. The authentication relies on the optical response of the key when probed by randomly selected coherent states of light, and the use of standard wavefront-shaping techniques that direct the scattered photons coherently to a specific target mode at the output. The quadratures of the electromagnetic field of the scattered light at the target mode are analysed using a homodyne detection scheme, and the acceptance or rejection of the key is decided upon the outcomes of the measurements. The proposed scheme can be implemented with current technology and offers collision resistance and robustness against key cloning.
Boson sampling is a mathematical problem that is strongly believed to be intractable for classical computers, whereas passive linear interferometers can produce samples efficiently. So far, the problem remains a computational curiosity, and the possible usefulness of boson-sampling devices is mainly limited to the proof of quantum supremacy. The purpose of this work is to investigate whether boson sampling can be used as a resource of decision and function problems that are computationally hard, and may thus have cryptographic applications. After the definition of a rather general theoretical framework for the design of such problems, we discuss their solution by means of a brute-force numerical approach, as well as by means of non-boson samplers. Moreover, we estimate the sample sizes required for their solution by passive linear interferometers, and it is shown that they are independent of the size of the Hilbert space.
We analyse the performance of two quantum-state-transfer Hamiltonians in the presence of diagonal and off-diagonal disorder, and in terms of different measures. The first Hamiltonian pertains to a fully-engineered chain and the second to a chain with modified boundary couplings. The task is to find which Hamiltonian is the most robust to given levels of disorder and irrespective of the input state. In this respect, it is shown that the performance of the two protocols are approximately equivalent.
The ability to navigate light signals in two-dimensional networks of waveguide arrays is a prerequisite for the development of all-optical integrated circuits for information processing and networking. In this article, we present a theoretical analysis of bending losses in linear photonic lattices with engineered couplings, and discuss possible ways for their minimization. In contrast to previous work in the field, the lattices under consideration operate in the linear regime, in the sense that discrete solitons cannot exist. The present results suggest that the functionality of linear waveguide networks can be extended to operations that go beyond the recently demonstrated point-to-point transfer of signals, such as blocking, routing, logic functions, etc.
We present a rather elaborate theoretical model describing the dynamics of Neon under radiation of photon energies $\sim 93$ eV and pulse duration in the range of 15 fs, within the framework of Lowest non-vanishing Order of Perturbation Theory (LOPT), cast in terms of rate equations. Our model includes sequential as well as direct multiple ionization channels from the 2s and 2p atomic shells, including aspects of fine structure, whereas the stochastic nature of SASE-FEL light pulses is also taken into account. Our predictions for the ionization yields of the different ionic species are in excellent agreement with the related experimental observations at FLASH.
Motivated by recent experiments pertaining to the interaction of weak SASE-FEL pulses with atoms and molecules, we investigate the conditions under which such interactions can be described in the framework of a simple phase-diffusion model with decorrelated atom-field dynamics. The nature of the fluctuations that are inevitably present in SASE-FEL pulses is shown to play a pivotal role in the success of the decorrelation. Our analysis is performed in connection with specific recent experimental results from FLASH in the soft X-ray regime.
We review the main aspects of multiple photoionization processes in atoms exposed to intense, short wavelength radiation. The main focus is the theoretical framework for the description of such processes as well as the conditions under which direct multiphoton multiple ionization processes can dominate over the sequential ones. We discuss in detail the mechanisms available in different wavelength ranges from the infrared to the hard X-rays. The effect of field fluctuations, present at this stage in all SASE free-electron-laser (FEL) facilities, as well as the effect of the interaction volume integration, are also discussed.
The dipole blockade of multiple Rydberg excitations in mesoscopic atomic ensembles allows the implementation of various quantum information tasks using collective states of cold, trapped atoms. Precise coherent manipulations of the collective ground and single Rydberg excitation states of an atomic ensemble requires the knowledge of the number of atoms with small uncertainty. We present an efficient method to acquire such information by interrogating the atomic ensemble with resonant pulses while monitoring the resulting Rydberg excitations. We show that after several such steps accompanied by feedback the number of atoms in an ensemble can be assessed with high accuracy. This will facilitate the realization of high fidelity quantum gates, long term storage of quantum information and deterministic sources of single photons with Rydberg-blockaded atomic ensembles.
We present a statistical analysis on the performance of a protocol for the faithful transfer of a quantum state in finite qubit or spin chains, in the presence of diagonal and off-diagonal disorder. It is shown that the average-state fidelity, typically employed in the literature for the quantification of the transfer, may overestimate considerably the performance of the protocol in a single realization, leading to faulty conclusions about the success of the transfer.
Faithful communication is a necessary precondition for large scale all-optical networking and quantum information processing. Related theoretical investigations in different areas of physics have led to various proposals in which finite discrete lattices are used as channels for short-distance communication tasks. Here, in the framework of femtosecond-laser-written waveguide arrays, we present the first experimental realization of such a channel with judiciously engineered couplings.
We study the effects of field fluctuations on the total yields of Auger electrons, obtained in the excitation of neutral atoms to a core-excited state by means of short-wavelength free-electron-laser pulses. Beginning with a self-contained analysis of the statistical properties of fluctuating free-electron-laser pulses, we analyse separately and in detail the cases of single and double Auger resonances, focusing on fundamental phenomena such as power broadening and ac Stark (Autler-Townes) splitting. In certain cases, field fluctuations are shown to influence dramatically the frequency response of the resonances, whereas in other cases the signal obtained may convey information about the bandwidth of the radiation as well as the dipole moment between Auger states.
We study theoretically the transfer of quantum information along bends in two-dimensional discrete lattices. Our analysis shows that the fidelity of the transfer decreases considerably, as a result of interactions in the neighbourhood of the bend. It is also demonstrated that such losses can be controlled efficiently by the inclusion of a defect. The present results are of relevance to various physical implementations of quantum networks, where geometric imperfections with finite spatial extent may arise as a result of bending, residual stress, etc.
Exploring the symmetries underlying a previously proposed encryption scheme which relies on single-qubit rotations, we derive an improved upper bound on the maximum information that an eavesdropper might extract from all the available copies of the public key. Subsequently, the robustness of the scheme is investigated in the context of attacks that address each public-key qubit independently. The attacks under consideration make use of projective measurements on single qubits and their efficiency is compared to attacks that address many qubits collectively and require complicated quantum operations.
We discuss the passage-time statistics of superradiant light pulses generated during the scattering of laser light from an elongated atomic Bose-Einstein condensate. Focusing on the early-stage of the phenomenon, we analyze the corresponding probability distributions and their scaling behaviour with respect to the threshold photon number and the coupling strength. With respect to these parameters, we find quantities which only vary significantly during the transition between the Kapitza Dirac and the Bragg regimes. A possible connection of the present observations to Brownian motion is also discussed.
We address the concept of direct multiphoton multiple ionization in atoms exposed to intense, short wavelength radiation and explore the conditions under which such processes dominate over the sequential. Their contribution is shown to be quite robust, even under intensity fluctuations and interaction volume integration, and reasonable agreement with experimental data is also found.
We present a general formalism to the problem of perfect state-transfer (PST), where the state involves multiple excitations of the quantum network. A key feature of our formalism is that it allows for inclusion of nontrivial interactions between the excitations. Hence, it is perfectly suited to addressing the problem of PST in the context of various types of physical realizations. The general formalism is also flexible enough to account for situations where multiple excitations are "focused" onto the same site.
We investigate the dynamics of matter and optical waves at the early stage of superradiant Rayleigh scattering from Bose-Einstein Condensates. Our analysis is within a spatially dependent quantum model which is capable of providing analytic solutions for the operators of interest. The predictions of the present model are compared to the predictions of a closely related mean field model, and we provide a procedure that allows one to calculate quantum expectation values by averaging over semiclassical solutions. The coherence properties of the outgoing scattered light are also analyzed, and it is shown that the corresponding correlation functions may provide detailed information about the internal dynamics of the system.
We present an efficient procedure to filter out from an optical lattice, having inhomogeneous site occupation number, only preselected number of bosonic atoms per site and place them into another internal atomic state, creating thereby a lattice with desired site occupation number.
We investigate the coherence properties of pairs of counter-propagating atomic clouds, produced in superradiant Rayleigh scattering off atomic condensates. It is shown that these clouds exhibit long-range spatial coherence and strong nonclassical density cross-correlations, which make this scheme a promising candidate for the production of highly directional nonclassically correlated atomic pulses.
We study the merging of two independent Bose-Einstein condensates with arbitrary initial phase difference, in the framework of a one-dimensional time-dependent Gross-Pitaevskii model. The role of the initial phase difference in the process is discussed, and various types of phase-sensitive excitations are identified.
We examine the speed and fidelity of several protocols for state or single excitation transfer in finite spin chains subject to diagonal and off-diagonal disorder. We find that, for a given chain length and maximal achievable inter-spin exchange (XY) coupling strength, the optimal static spin-coupling protocol, implementing the fastest state transfer between the two ends of the chain, is more susceptible to off-diagonal (XY coupling) disorder, as compared to a much slower but robust adiabatic transfer protocol with time-dependent coupling strengths.
Perfect state transfer (PST) is discussed in the context of passive quantum networks with logical bus topology, where many logical nodes communicate using the same shared media, without any external control. The conditions under which, a number of point-to-point PST links may serve as building blocks for the design of such multi-node networks are investigated. The implications of our results are discussed in the context of various Hamiltonians that act on the entire network, and are capable of providing PST between the logical nodes of a prescribed set in a deterministic manner.
In the classical setting, public-key encryption requires randomness in order to be secure against a forward search attack, whereby an adversary compares the encryption of a guess of the secret message with that of the actual secret message. We show that this is also true in the information-theoretic setting -- where the public keys are quantum systems -- by defining and giving an example of a forward search attack for any deterministic quantum-public-key bit-encryption scheme. However, unlike in the classical setting, we show that any such deterministic scheme can be used as a black box to build a randomized bit-encryption scheme that is no longer susceptible to this attack.
We introduce the concept of directional coupling, i.e., the selective transfer of a state between adjacent quantum wires, in the context of quantum computing and short-distance communication. Our analysis rests upon a mathematical analogy between a dual-channel directional coupler and a composite spin system.
We discuss cryptographic applications of single-qubit rotations from the perspective of trapdoor one-way functions and public-key encryption. In particular, we present an asymmetric cryptosystem whose security relies on fundamental principles of quantum physics. A quantum public key is used for the encryption of messages while decryption is possible by means of a classical private key only. The trapdoor one-way function underlying the proposed cryptosystem maps integer numbers to quantum states of a qubit and its inversion can be infeasible by virtue of the Holevo's theorem.
We investigate aspects of the dynamics of a continuous atom-laser scheme based on the merging of independently formed atomic condensates. Our theoretical analysis covers the Markovian as well as the non-Markovian operational regimes, and is based on a semiclassical (mean-field) two-mode model. The role of the relative phase between the two condensates and the effect of interatomic interactions on the evolution of the trapped populations and the distribution of outcoupled atoms are discussed.
We investigate the dynamics of a continuous atom laser based on the merging of independently formed atomic condensates. In a first attempt to understand the dynamics of the system, we consider two independent elongated Bose-Einstein condensates which approach each other and focus on intermediate inter-trap distances so that a two-mode model is well justified. In the framework of a mean-field theory, we discuss the quasi steady-state population of the traps as well as the energy distribution of the outcoupled atoms.
Feb 05 2007 quant-ph
A general formalism of the problem of perfect state transfer is presented. We show that there are infinitely many Hamiltonians which may provide solution to this problem. In a first attempt to give a classification of them we investigate their possible forms and the related dynamics during the transfer. Finally, we show how the present formalism can be used for the engineering of perfect quantum wires of various topologies and coupling configurations.
We theoretically discuss several aspects of sequential superradiant scattering from atomic Bose-Einstein condensates. Our treatment is based on the semiclassical description of the process in terms of the Maxwell-Schroedinger equations for the coupled matter-wave and optical fields. First, we investigate sequential scattering in the weak-pulse regime and work out the essential mechanisms responsible for bringing about the characteristic fan-shaped side-mode distribution patterns. Second, we discuss the transition between the Kapitza-Dirac and Bragg regimes of sequential scattering in the strong-pulse regime. Finally, we consider the situation where superradiance is initiated by coherently populating an atomic side mode through Bragg diffraction, as in studies of matter-wave amplification, and describe the effect on the sequential scattering process.
Apr 06 2006 quant-ph
The influence of imperfections on achievable secret-key generation rates of quantum key distribution protocols is investigated. As examples of relevant imperfections, we consider tagging of Alice's qubits and dark counts at Bob's detectors, while we focus on a powerful eavesdropping strategy which takes full advantage of tagged signals. It is demonstrated that error correction and privacy amplification based on a combination of a two-way classical communication protocol and asymmetric Calderbank-Shor-Steane codes may significantly postpone the disastrous influence of dark counts. As a result, the distances are increased considerably over which a secret key can be distributed in optical fibres reliably. Results are presented for the four-state, the six-state, and the decoy-state protocols.
Feb 02 2006 quant-ph
We investigate the error tolerance of quantum cryptographic protocols using $d$-level systems. In particular, we focus on prepare-and-measure schemes that use two mutually unbiased bases and a key-distillation procedure with two-way classical communication. For arbitrary quantum channels, we obtain a sufficient condition for secret-key distillation which, in the case of isotropic quantum channels, yields an analytic expression for the maximally tolerable error rate of the cryptographic protocols under consideration. The difference between the tolerable error rate and its theoretical upper bound tends slowly to zero for sufficiently large dimensions of the information carriers.
We present a detailed theoretical analysis of superradiant Rayleigh scattering from atomic Bose-Einstein condensates. A thorough investigation of the spatially resolved time-evolution of optical and matter-wave fields is performed in the framework of the semiclassical Maxwell-Schroedinger equations. Our theory is not only able to explain many of the known experimental observations, e.g., the behavior of the atomic side-mode distributions, but also provides further detailed insights into the coupled dynamics of optical and matter-wave fields. To work out the significance of propagation effects, we compare our results to other theoretical models in which these effects are neglected.
Nov 23 2005 quant-ph
Provable entanglement has been shown to be a necessary precondition for unconditionally secure key generation in the context of quantum cryptographic protocols. We estimate the maximal threshold disturbance up to which the two legitimate users can prove the presence of quantum correlations in their data, in the context of the four- and six-state quantum key-distribution protocols, under the assumption of coherent attacks. Moreover, we investigate the conditions under which an eavesdropper can saturate these bounds, by means of incoherent and two-qubit coherent attacks. A direct connection between entanglement distillation and classical advantage distillation is also presented.
We study superradiant scattering off Bose-Einstein condensates by solving the semiclassical Maxwell-Schroedinger equations describing the coupled dynamics of matter-wave and optical fields. Taking the spatial dependence of these fields along the condensate axis into account, we are able to reproduce and explain many of the characteristic features observed in the experiments of Inouye et al. [Science 285, 571 (1999)] and Schneble et al. [Science 300, 475 (2003)], such as the shape of the atomic side-mode distributions for forward and backward scattering, the spatial asymmetry between forward and backward side modes, and the depletion of the condensate center observed for forward scattering.
Jul 25 2005 quant-ph
We investigate the security bounds of quantum cryptographic protocols using $d$-level systems. In particular, we focus on schemes that use two mutually unbiased bases, thus extending the BB84 quantum key distribution scheme to higher dimensions. Under the assumption of general coherent attacks, we derive an analytic expression for the ultimate upper security bound of such quantum cryptography schemes. This bound is well below the predictions of optimal cloning machines. The possibility of extraction of a secret key beyond entanglement distillation is discussed. In the case of qutrits we argue that any eavesdropping strategy is equivalent to a symmetric one. For higher dimensions such an equivalence is generally no longer valid.
Mar 23 2004 quant-ph
It is demonstrated that for the entanglement-based version of the Bennett-Brassard (BB84) quantum key distribution protocol, Alice and Bob share provable entanglement if and only if the estimated qubit error rate is below 25% or above 75%. In view of the intimate relation between entanglement and security, this result sheds also new light on the unconditional security of the BB84 protocol in its original prepare-and-measure form. In particular, it indicates that for small qubit error rates 25% is the ultimate upper security bound for any prepare-and-measure BB84-type QKD protocol. On the contrary, for qubit error rates between 25% and 75% we demonstrate that the correlations shared between Alice and Bob can always be explained by separable states and thus, no secret key can be distilled in this regime.
Nov 10 2003 quant-ph
We study the coherent dynamics of one- and two-electron transport in a linear array of tunnel-coupled quantum dots. We find that this system exhibits a rich variety of coherent phenomena, ranging from electron wavepacket propagation and interference to two-particle bonding and entanglement. Our studies, apart from their relevance to the exploration of quantum dynamics and transport in periodic structures, are also aimed at possible applications in future quantum computation schemes.
Feb 21 2000 quant-ph
We study spontaneous emission in an atomic ladder system, with both transitions coupled near-resonantly to the edge of a photonic band gap continuum. The problem is solved through a recently developed technique and leads to the formation of a ``two-photon+atom'' bound state with fractional population trapping in both upper states. In the long-time limit, the atom can be found excited in a superposition of the upper states and a ``direct'' two-photon process coexists with the stepwise one. The sensitivity of the effect to the particular form of the density of states is also explored.
Sep 30 1999 quant-ph
We present a method for dealing with quantum systems coupled to a structured reservoir with any density of modes and with more than one excitation. We apply the method to a two-level atom coupled to the edge of a photonic band gap and a defect mode. Results pertaining to this system, provide the solution to the problem of two photons in the reservoir and possible generalization is discussed.