results for au:Ng_K in:gr-qc

- May 09 2018 gr-qc arXiv:1805.03046v1Gravitational waves emitted by coalescing compact objects carry information about the spin of the individual bodies. However, with present detectors only the mass-weighted combination of the components of the spin along the orbital angular momentum can be measured accurately. This quantity, the effective spin $\chi_{\mathrm{eff}}$, is conserved up to at least the second post-Newtonian order. The measured distribution of $\chi_{\mathrm{eff}}$ values from a population of detected binaries, and in particular whether this distribution is symmetric about zero, encodes valuable information about the underlying compact-binary formation channels. In this paper we focus on two important complications of using the effective spin to study astrophysical population properties: (i) an astrophysical distribution for $\chi_{\mathrm{eff}}$ values which is symmetric does not necessarily lead to a symmetric distribution for the detected effective spin values, leading to a \emphselection bias; and (ii) the posterior distribution of $\chi_{\mathrm{eff}}$ for individual events is \emphasymmetric and it cannot usually be treated as a Gaussian. We find that the posterior distributions for $\chi_{\mathrm{eff}}$ systematically show fatter tails toward larger positive values, unless the total mass is large or the mass ratio $m_2/m_1$ is smaller than $\sim 1/2$. Finally we show that uncertainties in the measurement of $\chi_{\mathrm{eff}}$ are systematically larger when the true value is negative than when it is positive. All these factors can bias astrophysical inference about the population when we have more than $\sim 100$ events and should be taken into account when using gravitational-wave measurements to characterize astrophysical populations.
- We present a new technique for computing entanglement harvesting with Unruh-DeWitt particle detectors. The method is particularly useful in cases where analytic solutions are rare and the Wightman function is known only via its mode expansion for which numerical integration can become very expensive. By exploiting the conjugate symmetry of the Wightman function, we may split the integral into parts dependent on the commutator and anti-commutator of the field. In cases where the commutator vanishes, such as spacelike separation, or timelike separation if the strong Huygens principle holds, we then show that the entangling term of the bipartite density matrix can be expressed in terms of the much simpler mutual information term. For the vacuum state, this can be translated into a simple Fourier transform, and thus a single sum over modes, simplifying the procurement of closed expressions. We demonstrate this for Minkowski space, finding an analytical solution where none was previously known.
- Mar 01 2018 gr-qc astro-ph.CO arXiv:1802.10194v2The detection of gravitational waves with Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo has enabled novel tests of general relativity, including direct study of the polarization of gravitational waves. While general relativity allows for only two tensor gravitational-wave polarizations, general metric theories can additionally predict two vector and two scalar polarizations. The polarization of gravitational waves is encoded in the spectral shape of the stochastic gravitational-wave background, formed by the superposition of cosmological and individually-unresolved astrophysical sources. Using data recorded by Advanced LIGO during its first observing run, we search for a stochastic background of generically-polarized gravitational waves. We find no evidence for a background of any polarization, and place the first direct bounds on the contributions of vector and scalar polarizations to the stochastic background. Under log-uniform priors for the energy in each polarization, we limit the energy-densities of tensor, vector, and scalar modes at 95% credibility to $\Omega^T_0 < 5.6 \times 10^{-8}$, $\Omega^V_0 < 6.4\times 10^{-8}$, and $\Omega^S_0 < 1.1\times 10^{-7}$ at a reference frequency $f_0 = 25$ Hz.
- Feb 15 2018 gr-qc arXiv:1802.05241v1We report on a new all-sky search for periodic gravitational waves in the frequency band 475-2000 Hz and with a frequency time derivative in the range of [-1.0e-8, +1e-9] Hz/s. Potential signals could be produced by a nearby spinning and slightly non-axisymmetric isolated neutron star in our galaxy. This search uses the data from Advanced LIGO's first observational run O1. No gravitational wave signals were observed, and upper limits were placed on their strengths. For completeness, results from the separately published low frequency search 20-475 Hz are included as well. Our lowest upper limit on worst-case (linearly polarized) strain amplitude h_0 is 4e-25 near 170 Hz, while at the high end of our frequency range we achieve a worst-case upper limit of 1.3e-24. For a circularly polarized source (most favorable orientation), the smallest upper limit obtained is ~1.5e-25.
- Dec 05 2017 gr-qc astro-ph.CO arXiv:1712.01168v2Cosmic strings are topological defects which can be formed in GUT-scale phase transitions in the early universe. They are also predicted to form in the context of string theory. The main mechanism for a network of Nambu-Goto cosmic strings to lose energy is through the production of loops and the subsequent emission of gravitational waves, thus offering an experimental signature for the existence of cosmic strings. Here we report on the analysis conducted to specifically search for gravitational-wave bursts from cosmic string loops in the data of Advanced LIGO 2015-2016 observing run (O1). No evidence of such signals was found in the data, and as a result we set upper limits on the cosmic string parameters for three recent loop distribution models. In this paper, we initially derive constraints on the string tension $G\mu$ and the intercommutation probability, using not only the burst analysis performed on the O1 data set, but also results from the previously published LIGO stochastic O1 analysis, pulsar timing arrays, cosmic microwave background and Big-Bang nucleosynthesis experiments. We show that these data sets are complementary in that they probe gravitational waves produced by cosmic string loops during very different epochs. Finally, we show that the data sets exclude large parts of the parameter space of the three loop distribution models we consider.
- Nov 16 2017 astro-ph.HE gr-qc arXiv:1711.05578v1On June 8, 2017 at 02:01:16.49 UTC, a gravitational-wave signal from the merger of two stellar-mass black holes was observed by the two Advanced LIGO detectors with a network signal-to-noise ratio of 13. This system is the lightest black hole binary so far observed, with component masses $12^{+7}_{-2}\,M_\odot$ and $7^{+2}_{-2}\,M_\odot$ (90% credible intervals). These lie in the range of measured black hole masses in low-mass X-ray binaries, thus allowing us to compare black holes detected through gravitational waves with electromagnetic observations. The source's luminosity distance is $340^{+140}_{-140}$ Mpc, corresponding to redshift $0.07^{+0.03}_{-0.03}$. We verify that the signal waveform is consistent with the predictions of general relativity.
- Oct 26 2017 astro-ph.HE gr-qc arXiv:1710.09320v1The first observation of a binary neutron star coalescence by the Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo gravitational-wave detectors offers an unprecedented opportunity to study matter under the most extreme conditions. After such a merger, a compact remnant is left over whose nature depends primarily on the masses of the inspiralling objects and on the equation of state of nuclear matter. This could be either a black hole or a neutron star (NS), with the latter being either long-lived or too massive for stability implying delayed collapse to a black hole. Here, we present a search for gravitational waves from the remnant of the binary neutron star merger GW170817 using data from Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo. We search for short ($\lesssim1$ s) and intermediate-duration ($\lesssim 500$ s) signals, which includes gravitational-wave emission from a hypermassive NS or supramassive NS, respectively. We find no signal from the post-merger remnant. Our derived strain upper limits are more than an order of magnitude larger than those predicted by most models. For short signals, our best upper limit on the root-sum-square of the gravitational-wave strain emitted from 1--4 kHz is $h_{\rm rss}^{50\%}=2.1\times 10^{-22}$ Hz$^{-1/2}$ at 50% detection efficiency. For intermediate-duration signals, our best upper limit at 50% detection efficiency is $h_{\rm rss}^{50\%}=8.4\times 10^{-22}$ Hz$^{-1/2}$ for a millisecond magnetar model, and $h_{\rm rss}^{50\%}=5.9\times 10^{-22}$ Hz$^{-1/2}$ for a bar-mode model. These results indicate that post-merger emission from a similar event may be detectable when advanced detectors reach design sensitivity or with next-generation detectors.
- Oct 17 2017 gr-qc arXiv:1710.05837v1The LIGO Scientific and Virgo Collaborations have announced the first detection of gravitational waves from the coalescence of two neutron stars. The merger rate of binary neutron stars estimated from this event suggests that distant, unresolvable binary neutron stars create a significant astrophysical stochastic gravitational-wave background. The binary neutron star background will add to the background from binary black holes, increasing the amplitude of the total astrophysical background relative to previous expectations. In the Advanced LIGO-Virgo frequency band most sensitive to stochastic backgrounds (near 25 Hz), we predict a total astrophysical background with amplitude $\Omega_{\rm GW} (f=25 \text{Hz}) = 1.8_{-1.3}^{+2.7} \times 10^{-9}$ with $90\%$ confidence, compared with $\Omega_{\rm GW} (f=25 \text{Hz}) = 1.1_{-0.7}^{+1.2} \times 10^{-9}$ from binary black holes alone. Assuming the most probable rate for compact binary mergers, we find that the total background may be detectable with a signal-to-noise-ratio of 3 after 40 months of total observation time, based on the expected timeline for Advanced LIGO and Virgo to reach their design sensitivity.
- Oct 09 2017 gr-qc astro-ph.HE arXiv:1710.02327v2Spinning neutron stars asymmetric with respect to their rotation axis are potential sources of continuous gravitational waves for ground-based interferometric detectors. In the case of known pulsars a fully coherent search, based on matched filtering, which uses the position and rotational parameters obtained from electromagnetic observations, can be carried out. Matched filtering maximizes the signal-to-noise (SNR) ratio, but a large sensitivity loss is expected in case of even a very small mismatch between the assumed and the true signal parameters. For this reason, \it narrow-band analyses methods have been developed, allowing a fully coherent search for gravitational waves from known pulsars over a fraction of a hertz and several spin-down values. In this paper we describe a narrow-band search of eleven pulsars using data from Advanced LIGO's first observing run. Although we have found several initial outliers, further studies show no significant evidence for the presence of a gravitational wave signal. Finally, we have placed upper limits on the signal strain amplitude lower than the spin-down limit for 5 of the 11 targets over the bands searched: in the case of J1813-1749 the spin-down limit has been beaten for the first time. For an additional 3 targets, the median upper limit across the search bands is below the spin-down limit. This is the most sensitive narrow-band search for continuous gravitational waves carried out so far.
- Sep 28 2017 gr-qc arXiv:1709.09203v1We present results from the first directed search for nontensorial gravitational waves. While general relativity allows for tensorial (plus and cross) modes only, a generic metric theory may, in principle, predict waves with up to six different polarizations. This analysis is sensitive to continuous signals of scalar, vector or tensor polarizations, and does not rely on any specific theory of gravity. After searching data from the first observation run of the advanced LIGO detectors for signals at twice the rotational frequency of 200 known pulsars, we find no evidence of gravitational waves of any polarization. We report the first upper limits for scalar and vector strains, finding values comparable in magnitude to previously-published limits for tensor strain. Our results may be translated into constraints on specific alternative theories of gravity.
- Sep 28 2017 gr-qc astro-ph.HE arXiv:1709.09660v3On August 14, 2017 at 10:30:43 UTC, the Advanced Virgo detector and the two Advanced LIGO detectors coherently observed a transient gravitational-wave signal produced by the coalescence of two stellar mass black holes, with a false-alarm-rate of $\lesssim$ 1 in 27000 years. The signal was observed with a three-detector network matched-filter signal-to-noise ratio of 18. The inferred masses of the initial black holes are $30.5_{-3.0}^{+5.7}$ Msun and $25.3_{-4.2}^{+2.8}$ Msun (at the 90% credible level). The luminosity distance of the source is $540_{-210}^{+130}~\mathrm{Mpc}$, corresponding to a redshift of $z=0.11_{-0.04}^{+0.03}$. A network of three detectors improves the sky localization of the source, reducing the area of the 90% credible region from 1160 deg$^2$ using only the two LIGO detectors to 60 deg$^2$ using all three detectors. For the first time, we can test the nature of gravitational wave polarizations from the antenna response of the LIGO-Virgo network, thus enabling a new class of phenomenological tests of gravity.
- Jul 11 2017 gr-qc arXiv:1707.02669v2We report results of a deep all-sky search for periodic gravitational waves from isolated neutron stars in data from the first Advanced LIGO observing run. This search investigates the low frequency range of Advanced LIGO data, between 20 and 100 Hz, much of which was not explored in initial LIGO. The search was made possible by the computing power provided by the volunteers of the Einstein@Home project. We find no significant signal candidate and set the most stringent upper limits to date on the amplitude of gravitational wave signals from the target population, corresponding to a sensitivity depth of 48.7 [1/$\sqrt{{\textrm{Hz}}}$]. At the frequency of best strain sensitivity, near 100 Hz, we set 90% confidence upper limits of $1.8 \times 10^{-25}$. At the low end of our frequency range, 20 Hz, we achieve upper limits of $3.9 \times 10^{-24}$. At 55 Hz we can exclude sources with ellipticities greater than $10^{-5}$ within 100 pc of Earth with fiducial value of the principal moment of inertia of $10^{38} \textrm{kg m}^2$.
- We show that a particle detector can distinguish the $\mathbb{RP}^3$ geon from the Schwarzschild black hole, even though they differ only by a topological identification beyond the event horizon. This shows that the detector can read out information about the non-local structure even when separated from the non-locality by an event horizon. Our analysis of the dependence of the transition on the detector gap is novel, and in principle presents an interesting observational signal.
- Jun 13 2017 astro-ph.HE gr-qc arXiv:1706.03119v3We present the results of a semicoherent search for continuous gravitational waves from the low-mass X-ray binary Scorpius X-1, using data from the first Advanced LIGO observing run. The search method uses details of the modelled, parametrized continuous signal to combine coherently data separated by less than a specified coherence time, which can be adjusted to trade off sensitivity against computational cost. A search was conducted over the frequency range from 25 Hz to 2000 Hz, spanning the current observationally-constrained range of the binary orbital parameters. No significant detection candidates were found, and frequency-dependent upper limits were set using a combination of sensitivity estimates and simulated signal injections. The most stringent upper limit was set at 175 Hz, with comparable limits set across the most sensitive frequency range from 100 Hz to 200 Hz. At this frequency, the 95 pct upper limit on signal amplitude h0 is 2.3e-25 marginalized over the unknown inclination angle of the neutron star's spin, and 8.03e-26 assuming the best orientation (which results in circularly polarized gravitational waves). These limits are a factor of 3-4 stronger than those set by other analyses of the same data, and a factor of about 7 stronger than the best upper limits set using initial LIGO data. In the vicinity of 100 Hz, the limits are a factor of between 1.2 and 3.5 above the predictions of the torque balance model, depending on inclination angle, if the most likely inclination angle of 44 degrees is assumed, they are within a factor of 1.7.
- Jun 07 2017 gr-qc astro-ph.HE arXiv:1706.01812v1We describe the observation of GW170104, a gravitational-wave signal produced by the coalescence of a pair of stellar-mass black holes. The signal was measured on January 4, 2017 at 10:11:58.6 UTC by the twin advanced detectors of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory during their second observing run, with a network signal-to-noise ratio of 13 and a false alarm rate less than 1 in 70,000 years. The inferred component black hole masses are $31.2^{+8.4}_{-6.0}\,M_\odot$ and $19.4^{+5.3}_{-5.9}\,M_\odot$ (at the 90% credible level). The black hole spins are best constrained through measurement of the effective inspiral spin parameter, a mass-weighted combination of the spin components perpendicular to the orbital plane, $\chi_\mathrm{eff} = -0.12^{+0.21}_{-0.30}.$ This result implies that spin configurations with both component spins positively aligned with the orbital angular momentum are disfavored. The source luminosity distance is $880^{+450}_{-390}~\mathrm{Mpc}$ corresponding to a redshift of $z = 0.18^{+0.08}_{-0.07}$. We constrain the magnitude of modifications to the gravitational-wave dispersion relation and perform null tests of general relativity. Assuming that gravitons are dispersed in vacuum like massive particles, we bound the graviton mass to $m_g \le 7.7 \times 10^{-23}~\mathrm{eV}/c^2$. In all cases, we find that GW170104 is consistent with general relativity.
- Apr 18 2017 gr-qc arXiv:1704.04628v4During their first observational run, the two Advanced LIGO detectors attained an unprecedented sensitivity, resulting in the first direct detections of gravitational-wave signals and GW151226, produced by stellar-mass binary black hole systems. This paper reports on an all-sky search for gravitational waves (GWs) from merging intermediate mass black hole binaries (IMBHBs). The combined results from two independent search techniques were used in this study: the first employs a matched-filter algorithm that uses a bank of filters covering the GW signal parameter space, while the second is a generic search for GW transients (bursts). No GWs from IMBHBs were detected, therefore, we constrain the rate of several classes of IMBHB mergers. The most stringent limit is obtained for black holes of individual mass $100\,M_\odot$, with spins aligned with the binary orbital angular momentum. For such systems, the merger rate is constrained to be less than $0.93~\mathrm{Gpc^{-3}\,yr}^{-1}$ in comoving units at the $90\%$ confidence level, an improvement of nearly 2 orders of magnitude over previous upper limits.
- Apr 13 2017 gr-qc arXiv:1704.03719v3Results are presented from a semi-coherent search for continuous gravitational waves from the brightest low-mass X-ray binary, Scorpius X-1, using data collected during the first Advanced LIGO observing run (O1). The search combines a frequency domain matched filter (Bessel-weighted $\mathcal{F}$-statistic) with a hidden Markov model to track wandering of the neutron star spin frequency. No evidence of gravitational waves is found in the frequency range 60-650 Hz. Frequentist 95% confidence strain upper limits, $h_0^{95\%} = 4.0\times10^{-25}$, $8.3\times10^{-25}$, and $3.0\times10^{-25}$ for electromagnetically restricted source orientation, unknown polarization, and circular polarization, respectively, are reported at 106 Hz. They are $\leq 10$ times higher than the theoretical torque-balance limit at 106 Hz.
- Mar 21 2017 astro-ph.CO gr-qc arXiv:1703.06319v1We show how LIGO is expected to detect coalescing binary black holes at $z>1$, that are lensed by the intervening galaxy population. Gravitational magnification, $\mu$, strengthens gravitational wave signals by $\sqrt{\mu}$, without altering their frequencies, which if unrecognised leads to an underestimate of the event redshift and hence an overestimate of the binary mass. High magnifications can be reached for coalescing binaries because the region of intense gravitational wave emission during coalescence is so small ($\sim$100km), permitting very close projections between lensing caustics and gravitational-wave events. Our simulations incorporate accurate waveforms convolved with the LIGO power spectral density. Importantly, we include the detection dependence on sky position and orbital orientation, which for the LIGO configuration translates into a wide spread in observed redshifts and chirp masses. Currently we estimate a detectable rate of lensed events \rateEarly, that rises to \rateDesign, at LIGO's design sensitivity limit, depending on the high redshift rate of black hole coalescence.
- We examine the effect of the stress tensor of a quantum matter field, such as the electromagnetic field, on the spectrum of primordial gravity waves expected in inflationary cosmology. We find that the net effect is a small reduction in the power spectrum, especially at higher frequencies, but which has a different form from that described by the usual spectral index. Thus this effect has a characteristic signature, and is in principle observable. The net effect is a sum of two contributions, one of which is due to quantum fluctuations of the matter field stress tensor. The other is a quantum correction to the graviton field due to coupling to the expectation value of this stress tensor. Both contributions are sensitive to initial conditions in the very early universe, so this effect has the potential to act as a probe of these initial conditions.
- We show that a particle detector can distinguish the interior of a hollow shell from flat space for switching times much shorter than the light-crossing time of the shell, even though the local metrics are indistinguishable. This shows that a particle detector can read out information about the non-local structure of spacetime even when switched on for scales much shorter than the characteristic scale of the non-locality.
- A numerical study of a pseudoscalar inflation having an axion-photon-like coupling is performed by solving numerically the coupled differential equations of motion for inflaton and photon mode functions from the onset of inflation to the end of reheating. The backreaction due to particle production is also included self-consistently. We find that this particular inflation model realizes the idea of a warm inflation in which a steady thermal bath is established by the particle production. In most cases this thermal bath exceeds the amount of radiation released in the reheating process. In the strong coupling regime, the transition from the inflationary to the radiation-dominated phase does not involve either a preheating or reheating process. In addition, energy density peaks produced near the end of inflation may lead to the formation of primordial black holes.
- We present novel methods to numerically address the problem of characterizing the response of particle detectors in curved spacetimes. These methods allow for the integration of the Wightman function, at least in principle, in rather general backgrounds. In particular we will use this tool to further understand the nature of conformal massless scalar Hawking radiation from a Schwarzschild black hole in anti-de Sitter space. We do that by studying an Unruh-DeWitt detector at rest above the horizon and in circular geodesic orbit. The method allows us to see that the response rate shows peaks at certain characteristic frequencies, which correspond to the quasinormal modes (QNMs) of the space-time. It is in principle possible to apply these techniques to more complicated and interesting physical scenarios, e.g. geodesic infall or multiple detector entanglement evolution, or the study of the behaviour of quantum correlations in spacetimes with black hole horizons.
- Jan 15 2014 gr-qc arXiv:1401.3155v1We apply the teleparallelism condition to the Poincaré gauge theory of gravity. The resultant teleparallelized cosmology is completely equivalent to the Friedmann cosmology derived from Einstein's general theory of relativity. The torsion is shown to play the role of the cosmological constant driving the cosmic acceleration. We then extend such theory to include the effect of spin and explore the possibility of accounting for the current accelerating universe by a spinning dark energy.
- We discuss the damping of tensor modes due to anisotropic stress in inflation. The effect is negligible in standard inflation and may be significantly large in inflation models that involve drastic production of free-streaming particles.
- We review several related investigations of the effects of the quantum stress tensor of a conformal field in inflationary cosmology. Particular attention will be paid to the effects of quantum stress tensor fluctuations as a source of density and tensor perturbations in inflationary models. These effects can possibly depend upon the total expansion factor during inflation, and hence be much larger than one might otherwise expect. They have the potential to contribute a non-scale invariant and non-Gaussian component to the primordial spectrum of perturbations, and might be observable.
- We consider the effects of the quantum stress tensor fluctuations of a conformal field in generating gravity waves in inflationary models. We find a non-scale invariant, non-Gaussian contribution which depends upon the total expansion factor between an initial time and the end of inflation. This spectrum of gravity wave perturbations is an illustration of a negative power spectrum, which is possible in quantum field theory. We discuss possible choices for the initial conditions. If the initial time is taken to be sufficiently early, the fluctuating gravity waves are potentially observable both in the CMB radiation and in gravity wave detectors, and could offer a probe of transplanckian physics. The fact that they have not yet been observed might be used to constrain the duration and energy scale of inflation.
- May 26 2010 gr-qc astro-ph.CO arXiv:1005.4530v1We discuss the additional perturbation introduced during inflation by quantum stress tensor fluctuations of a conformally invariant field such as the photon. We consider both a kinematical model, which deals only with the expansion fluctuations of geodesics, and a dynamical model which treats the coupling of the stress tensor fluctuations to a scalar inflaton. In neither model do we find any growth at late times, in accordance with a theorem due to Weinberg. What we find instead is a correction which becomes larger the earlier one starts inflation. This correction is non-Gaussian and highly scale dependent, so the absence of such effects from the observed power spectra may imply a constraint on the total duration of inflation. We discuss different views about the validity of perturbation theory at very early times during which currently observable modes are transplanckian.
- There have been the approximate analytic solution \citeSilveria and several approximate analytic forms \cite0508156,Carroll,0303112 of the growth factor $D_{g}$ for the general dark energy models with the constant values of its equation of state $\omde$ after Heath found the exact integral form of the solution of $D_{g}$ for the Universe including the cosmological constant or the curvature term. Recently, we obtained the exact analytic solutions of the growth factor for both $\omde = -1$ or $-\fr{1}{3}$ \citeSK1 and the general dark energy models with the constant equation of state $\omde$ \citeSK3 independently. We compare the exact analytic solution of $D_{g}$ with the other well known approximate solutions. We also prove that the analytic solutions for $\omde = -1$ or $-\fr{1}{3}$ in Ref. \citeSK1 are the specific solutions of the exact solutions of the growth factor for general $\omde$ models in Ref. \citeSK3 even though they look quite different. We scrutinize the issue of using the well known parameterizations of the growth index and its parameter given in Ref. \citeWS to obtain the growth factor for general dark energy models. We also investigate the possible extensions of the exact solution of $D_{g}$ to the time-varying $\omde$ for the comparison with observations.
- Three decades ago Heath found the integral form of the exact analytic growing mode solution of the linear density perturbation $\delta$ on sub-horizon scales including the cosmological constant or the curvature term. Recently, we obtained the exact analytic form of this solution in our previous work \citeSK. Interestingly, we are able to extend this solution for general dark energy models with the constant equation of state $\omega_{de}$ in a flat universe. This analytic solution provides the accurate and efficient tools for probing the properties of dark energy models such as the behavior of the growth factor and the growth index. We investigate the growth index and its parameter at any epoch with this exact solution for different dark energy models and find that the growth index is quite model dependent in the redshift space, $0.25 \leq z \leq 1.5$, so observations of the structure growth around this epoch would be very interesting. Also one may be able to rule out some dark energy models by using the analysis from this exact solution. Thus, the analytic solution for the growth factor provides the very useful tools for future observations to constrain the exact values of observational quantities at any epoch related to the growth factor in the dark energy models.
- We calculate quantum fluctuations of a free scalar field in the Schwarzschild-de Sitter space-time, adopting the planar coordinates that is pertinent to the presence of a black hole in an inflationary universe. In a perturbation approach, doing expansion in powers of a small black hole event horizon compared to the de Sitter cosmological horizon, we obtain time evolution of the quantum fluctuations and then derive the scalar power spectrum.
- We obtain the exact analytic form of the growth index at present epoch ($a=1$) in a flat universe with the cosmological constant (\it i.e. the dark energy with its equation of state $\omega_{de} = -1$). For the cosmological constant, we obtain the exact value of the current growth index parameter $\gamma = 0.5547$, which is very close to the well known value 6/11. We also obtain the exact analytic solution of the growth factor for $\omega_{de}$ = -1/3 or -1. We investigate the growth index and its parameter at any epoch with this exact solution. In addition to this, we are able to find the exact $\Omega_{m}^{0}$ dependence of those observable quantities. The growth index is quite sensitive to $\Omega_{m}^{0}$ at $z = 0.15$, where we are able to use 2dF observation. If we adopt 2dF value of growth index, then we obtain the constrain $0.11 \leq \Omega_{m}^{0} \leq 0.37$ for the cosmological constant model. Especially, the growth index is quite sensitive to $\Omega_{m}^{0}$ around $z \leq 1$. We might be able to obtain interesting observations around this epoch. Thus, the analytic solution for this growth factor provides the very useful tools for future observations to constrain the exact values of observational quantities at any epoch related to growth factor for $\omega_{de} = -1$ or -1/3.
- We discuss the effect of quantum stress tensor fluctuations in deSitter spacetime upon the expansion of a congruence of timelike geodesics. We treat a model in which the expansion fluctuations begin on a given hypersurface in deSitter spacetime, and find that this effect tends to grow, in contrast to the situation in flat spacetime. This growth potentially leads to observable consequences in inflationary cosmology in the form of density perturbations which depend upon the duration of the inflationary period. In the context of our model, the effect may be used to place upper bounds on this duration.
- We propose a new source for the cosmological density perturbation which is passive fluctuations of the inflaton driven dynamically by a colored quantum noise as a result of its coupling to other massive quantum fields. The created fluctuations grow with time during inflation before horizon-crossing. However, the larger-scale modes cross out the horizon earlier, thus resulting in a suppression of their density perturbation as compared with those on small scales. By using current observed CMB data to constrain the parameters introudced, we find that a significant contribution from the noise-driven perturbation to the density perturbation is still allowed. It in turn gives rise to a suppression of the large-scale CMB anisotropy that may be relevant to the observed low quadrupole in the WMAP CMB anisotropy data. We also briefly discuss the implications to the energy scale of inflation and the spectral index and non-Gaussianity of the density perturbation.
- We generalize the scale invariant gravity by allowing a negative kinetic energy term for the classical scalar field. This gives birth to a new scalar-tensor theory of gravity, in which the scalar field is in fact an auxiliary field. For a pure gravity theory without matter, the scale symmetric phase represents an equivalent class of gravity theories, which the Einstein gravity plus a cosmological constant belongs to under a special gauge choice. The one-loop quantum correction of the theory is calculated by using the Vilkovisky-DeWitt's method. We find that the scale symmetry is broken dynamically, and that the Einstein gravity is the ground state of the broken phase. We also briefly discuss the consequent cosmological implications. It is shown that the time-delay experiment restricts the present universe to be very close to the ground state.
- We discuss the contribution of gravitational wave to the cosmic microwave background radiation (CMBR) anisotropy and polarization. It is found that the large-scale polarization of CMBR is less than 1\% for a standard recombination universe. The effect of matter reionization will enhance the CMBR polarization to a 10\% level. We have computed the CMBR polarization for two extreme cases (not absolutely ruled out) and found that further enhancement of the ratio is possible. We conclude that measuring the polarization of CMBR on large-angular scales can probe the ionization history of the early universe, set constraints on baryon density and the spectral index of the gravitational waves.
- The evolution of scale-invariant gravity waves from the early universe is analyzed using an equation of state which smoothly interpolates between the radiation dominated era and the present matter dominated era. We find that for large wavenumbers the standard scale-invarant wavefunction for the gravity wave severely \it underestimates\/ the actual size of the gravity wave. Moreover, there is a definite shift in the \it phase\/ of the gravity wave as it crosses the radiation-matter phase transition. The tensor-induced anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background and the present spectral energy density of the gravity wave is then calculated using these results.
- We consider the production of gravitons in an inflationary cosmology by approximating each epoch of change in the equation of state as sudden, from which a simple analytic graviton mode function has been derived. We use this mode function to compute the graviton spectral energy density and the tensor-induced cosmic microwave background anisotropy. The results are then compared to the numerical calculations which incorporate a smooth radiation-matter phase transition. We find that the sudden approximation is a fairly good method. Besides, in determining the frequency range and amplitude of the mode function, we introduce a pre-inflationary radiation-dominated epoch and use a physically sensible regularization method.
- May 05 1993 gr-qc arXiv:gr-qc/9305002v1The gravitational properties of the neutrino is studied in the weak field approximation. By imposing the hermiticity condition, CPT and CP invariance on the \em tensor matrix element, we shown that the allowed gravitational form factors for Dirac and Majorana neutrinos are very different. In a CPT and CP invariant theory, the \em tensor for a Dirac neutrino of the same specie is characterized by four gravitational form factors. As a result of CPT invariance, the \em tensor for a Majorana neutrino of the same specie has five form factors. In a CP invariant theory, if the initial and final Majorana neutrinos have the same (opposite) CP parity, then only tensor (pseudo-tensor) type transition are allowed.