Chapter 2 in High-Luminosity Large Hadron Collider (HL-LHC) : Preliminary Design Report. The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is one of the largest scientific instruments ever built. Since opening up a new energy frontier for exploration in 2010, it has gathered a global user community of about 7,000 scientists working in fundamental particle physics and the physics of hadronic matter at extreme temperature and density. To sustain and extend its discovery potential, the LHC will need a major upgrade in the 2020s. This will increase its luminosity (rate of collisions) by a factor of five beyond the original design value and the integrated luminosity (total collisions created) by a factor ten. The LHC is already a highly complex and exquisitely optimised machine so this upgrade must be carefully conceived and will require about ten years to implement. The new configuration, known as High Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC), will rely on a number of key innovations that push accelerator technology beyond its present limits. Among these are cutting-edge 11-12 tesla superconducting magnets, compact superconducting cavities for beam rotation with ultra-precise phase control, new technology and physical processes for beam collimation and 300 metre-long high-power superconducting links with negligible energy dissipation. The present document describes the technologies and components that will be used to realise the project and is intended to serve as the basis for the detailed engineering design of HL-LHC.
Orbital period in a ring accelerator and time of flight in a linear accelerator depend on the amplitude of betatron oscillations. The variation is negligible in ordinary particle accelerators with relatively small beam emittance. In an accelerator for large emittance beams like muons and unstable nuclei, however, this effect cannot be ignored. We measured orbital period in a linear non-scaling fixed field alternating gradient (FFAG) accelerator, which is a candidate for muon acceleration, and compared with the theoretical prediction. The good agreement between them gives important ground for the design of particle accelerators for a new generation of particle and nuclear physics experiments.
We present the possibilities for doing luminosity levelling at the LHC. We explore the merits and drawbacks of each option and briefly discuss the operational implications. The simplest option is levelling with an offset between the two beams. Crab cavities may also be used for levelling, as may a squeezing of the beam. There is also the possibility of using the crossing angle in order to do luminosity levelling. All of these options are explored, for the LHC and other possible new projects, together with their benefits and drawbacks.
Fringe fields in multipole magnets can have a variety of effects on the linear and nonlinear dynamics of particles moving along an accelerator beamline. An accurate model of an accelerator must include realistic models of the magnet fringe fields. Fringe fields for dipoles are well understood and can be modelled at an early stage of accelerator design in such codes as MAD8, MADX or ELEGANT. However, usually it is not until the final stages of a design project that it is possible to model fringe fields for quadrupoles or higher order multipoles. Even then, existing techniques rely on the use of a numerical field map, which will usually not be available until the magnet design is well developed. Substitutes for the full field map exist but these are typically based on expansions about the origin and rely heavily on the assumption that the beam travels more or less on axis throughout the beam line. In some types of machine (for example, a non-scaling FFAG such as EMMA) this is not a good assumption. In this paper, a method for calculating fringe fields based on analytical expressions is presented, which allows fringe field effects to be included at the start of an accelerator design project. The magnetostatic Maxwell equations are solved analytically and a solution that fits all orders of multipoles derived. Quadrupole fringe fields are considered in detail as these are the ones that give the strongest effects. Two examples of quadrupole fringe fields are presented. The first example is a magnet in the LHC inner triplet, which consists of a set of four quadrupoles providing the final focus to the beam, just before the interaction point. Quadrupoles in EMMA provide the second example. In both examples, the analytical expressions derived in this paper for quadrupole fringe fields provide a good approximation to the field maps obtained from a numerical magnet modelling code.
This is a review on beam tomography research at Daresbury. The research has focussed on development of normalised phase space techniques. It starts with the idea of sampling tomographic projections at equal phase advances and shows that this would give the optimal reconstruction results. This idea has influenced the design, construction and operation of the tomography sections at the Photo Injector Test Facility at Zeuthen (PITZ) and at the Accelerator and Laser in Combined Experiments (ALICE) at Daresbury. The theoretical justification of this idea is later developed through simulations and analysis of the measurements results at ALICE. The mathematical formalism is constructed around the normalised phase space and the idea of equal phase advances become the basis of this. This formalism is applied to a variety of experimental and simulated situations and shown to be useful in improving resolution, increasing reliability and providing diagnostic information. In this review, we also present the simplifying concepts, formalisms and simulation tools that we have developed.
The next generation of lepton flavor violation experiments need high intensity and high quality muon beams. Production of such beams requires sending a short, high intensity proton pulse to the pion production target, capturing pions and collecting the resulting muons in the large acceptance transport system. The substantial increase of beam quality can be obtained by applying the RF phase rotation on the muon beam in the dedicated FFAG ring, which was proposed for the PRISM project.This allows to reduce the momentum spread of the beam and to purify from the unwanted components like pions or secondary protons. A PRISM Task Force is addressing the accelerator and detector issues that need to be solved in order to realize the PRISM experiment. The parameters of the required proton beam, the principles of the PRISM experiment and the baseline FFAG design are introduced. The spectrum of alternative designs for the PRISM FFAG ring are shown. Progress on ring main systems like injection and RF are presented. The current status of the study and its future directions are discussed.
Non scaling Fixed-Field Alternating Gradient (FFAG) accelerators have an unprecedented potential for muon acceleration, as well as for medical purposes based on carbon and proton hadron therapy. They also represent a possible active element for an Accelerator Driven Subcritical Reactor (ADSR). Starting from first principle the Hamiltonian formalism for the description of the dynamics of particles in non scaling FFAG machines has been developed. The stationary reference (closed) orbit has been found within the Hamiltonian framework. The dependence of the path length on the energy deviation has been described in terms of higher order dispersion functions. The latter have been used subsequently to specify the longitudinal part of the Hamiltonian. It has been shown that higher order phase slip coefficients should be taken into account to adequately describe the acceleration in non scaling FFAG accelerators. A complete theory of the fast (serpentine) acceleration in non scaling FFAGs has been developed. An example of the theory is presented for the parameters of the Electron Machine with Many Applications (EMMA), a prototype electron non scaling FFAG to be hosted at Daresbury Laboratory.
Studies of the electron beam dynamics for the 4GLS design are presented. 4GLS will provide three different electron bunch trains to a variety of user synchrotron sources. The 1 kHz XUV-FEL and 100 mA High Average Current branches share a common 540 MeV linac, whilst the 13 MHz IR-FEL must be well-synchronised to them. An overview of the injector designs, electron transport, and energy recovery is given, including ongoing studies of coherent synchrotron radiation, beam break-up and wakefields. This work is being pursued for the forthcoming Technical Design Report due in 2008.