Cloud computing with its three key facets (i.e., IaaS, PaaS, and SaaS) and its inherent advantages (e.g., elasticity and scalability) still faces several challenges. The distance between the cloud and the end devices might be an issue for latency-sensitive applications such as disaster management and content delivery applications. Service Level Agreements (SLAs) may also impose processing at locations where the cloud provider does not have data centers. Fog computing is a novel paradigm to address such issues. It enables provisioning resources and services outside the cloud, at the edge of the network, closer to end devices or eventually, at locations stipulated by SLAs. Fog computing is not a substitute for cloud computing but a powerful complement. It enables processing at the edge while still offering the possibility to interact with the cloud. This article presents a comprehensive survey on fog computing. It critically reviews the state of the art in the light of a concise set of evaluation criteria. We cover both the architectures and the algorithms that make fog systems. Challenges and research directions are also introduced. In addition, the lessons learned are reviewed and the prospects are discussed in terms of the key role fog is likely to play in emerging technologies such as Tactile Internet.
In large-scale natural disasters, humans are likely to fail when they attempt to reach high-risk sites or act in search and rescue operations. Robots, however, outdo their counterparts in surviving the hazards and handling the search and rescue missions due to their multiple and diverse sensing and actuation capabilities. The dynamic formation of optimal coalition of these heterogeneous robots for cost efficiency is very challenging and research in the area is gaining more and more attention. In this paper, we propose a novel heuristic. Since the population of robots in large-scale disaster settings is very large, we rely on Quantum Multi-Objective Particle Swarm Optimization (QMOPSO). The problem is modeled as a multi-objective optimization problem. Simulations with different test cases and metrics, and comparison with other algorithms such as NSGA-II and SPEA-II are carried out. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms the existing algorithms not only in terms of convergence but also in terms of diversity and processing time.
Jan 15 2016 cs.NI
Virtualization enables multiple applications to share the same wireless sensor and actuator network (WSAN). However, in heterogeneous environments, virtualized wireless sensor and actuator networks (VWSAN) raise new challenges, such as the need for on-the-fly, dynamic, elastic, and scalable provisioning of gateways. Network Functions Virtualization (NFV) is a paradigm emerging to help tackle these new challenges. It leverages standard virtualization technology to consolidate special-purpose network elements on commodity hardware. This article presents NFV architecture for VWSAN gateways, in which software instances of gateway modules are hosted in NFV infrastructure operated and managed by a VWSAN gateway provider. We consider several VWSAN providers, each with its own brand or combination of brands of sensors and actuators/robots. These sensors and actuators can be accessed by a variety of applications, each may have different interface and QoS (i.e., latency, throughput, etc.) requirements. The NFV infrastructure allows dynamic, elastic, and scalable deployment of gateway modules in this heterogeneous VWSAN environment. Furthermore, the proposed architecture is flexible enough to easily allow new sensors and actuators integration and new application domains accommodation. We present a prototype that is built using the OpenStack platform. Besides, the performance results are discussed
Mar 19 2015 cs.NI
Virtualization enables the sharing of a same wireless sensor network (WSN) by multiple applications. However, in heterogeneous environments, virtualized wireless sensor networks (VWSN) raises new challenges such as the need for on-the-fly, dynamic, elastic and scalable provisioning of gateways. Network Functions Virtualization (NFV) is an emerging paradigm that can certainly aid in tackling these new challenges. It leverages standard virtualization technology to consolidate special-purpose network elements on top of commodity hardware. This article presents a case study on NFV based gateways for VWSNs. In the study, a VWSN gateway provider, operates and manages an NFV based infrastructure. We use two different brands of wireless sensors. The NFV infrastructure makes possible the dynamic, elastic and scalable deployment of gateway modules in this heterogeneous VWSN environment. The prototype built with Openstack as platform is described.
Mar 06 2015 cs.NI
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are the key components of the emerging Internet-of-Things (IoT) paradigm. They are now ubiquitous and used in a plurality of application domains. WSNs are still domain specific and usually deployed to support a specific application. However, as WSN nodes are becoming more and more powerful, it is getting more and more pertinent to research how multiple applications could share a very same WSN infrastructure. Virtualization is a technology that can potentially enable this sharing. This paper is a survey on WSN virtualization. It provides a comprehensive review of the state-of-the-art and an in-depth discussion of the research issues. We introduce the basics of WSN virtualization and motivate its pertinence with carefully selected scenarios. Existing works are presented in detail and critically evaluated using a set of requirements derived from the scenarios. The pertinent research projects are also reviewed. Several research issues are also discussed with hints on how they could be tackled.
Jan 29 2015 cs.NI
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have become very popular and are being used in many application domains (e.g. smart cities, security, gaming and agriculture). Virtualized WSNs allow the same WSN to be shared by multiple applications. Semantic applications are situation-aware and can potentially play a critical role in virtualized WSNs. However, provisioning them in such settings remains a challenge. The key reason is that semantic applications provisioning mandates data annotation. Unfortunately it is no easy task to annotate data collected in virtualized WSNs. This paper proposes a data annotation architecture for semantic applications in virtualized heterogeneous WSNs. The architecture uses overlays as the cornerstone, and we have built a prototype in the cloud environment using Google App Engine. The early performance measurements are also presented.
Jan 29 2015 cs.NI
Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have become pervasive and are used in many applications and services. Usually the deployments of WSNs are task oriented and domain specific; thereby precluding re-use when other applications and services are contemplated. This inevitably leads to the proliferation of redundant WSN deployments. Virtualization is a technology that can aid in tackling this issue, as it enables the sharing of resources/infrastructure by multiple independent entities. In this paper we critically review the state of the art and propose a novel architecture for WSN virtualization. The proposed architecture has four layers (physical layer, virtual sensor layer, virtual sensor access layer and overlay layer) and relies on the constrained application protocol (CoAP). We illustrate its potential by using it in a scenario where a single WSN is shared by multiple applications; one of which is a fire monitoring application. We present the proof-of-concept prototype we have built along with the performance measurements, and discuss future research directions.