In social networks humans are generally benefited by maintaining friendships and community affiliation in which factors like homophily play key roles. These networks are far from being static, rather they are continually transforming or evolving as people from time to time decide to make new friendships and dissociate themselves from old ones. There is an element of risk in dissociations from friendships or group affiliations, especially when the decision to dissociate is done with limited information. In an experiment in the form of a cooperative game with human players we investigate the formation of groups and measure the perception of risk. In the game, the players set initially to a small world network and having limited information of its structure, coordinate their movements to form the groups. We also study the local coordination between players using a data-driven model of agents based on probability matching. Our results show that the pace of group formation is mainly dependent on local information processing of players. We find that humans even in limited information processing environments show optimal perception of risk.
Earlier attempts to investigate the changes of the role of friendship in different life stages have failed due to lack of data. We close this gap by using a large data set of mobile phone calls from a European country in 2007, to study how the people's call patterns to their close social contacts are associated with age and gender of the callers. We hypothesize that (i) communication with peers, defined as callers of similar age, will be most important during the period of family formation and that (ii) the importance of best friends defined as same-sex callers of exactly the same age, will be stronger for women than for men. Results show that the frequency of phone calls with the same-sex peers in this population turns out to be relatively stable through life for both men and women. In line with the first hypothesis, there was a significant increase in the length of the phone calls for callers between ages 30 to 40 years. Partly in line with the second hypothesis, the increase in phone calls turned out to be particularly pronounced among females, although there were only minor gender differences in call frequencies. Furthermore, women tended to have long phone conversations with their same-age female friend, and also with somewhat older peers. In sum, we provide evidence from big data for the adult life stages at which peers are most important, and suggest that best friends appear to have a niche of their own in human sociality.
Using a large dataset with individual-level demographic information of 60,000 families in contemporary Finland, we analyse the variation and cultural assortativity in a network of families. Families are considered as vertices and unions between males and females who have a common child and belong to different families are considered as edges in such a network of families. The sampled network is a collection of many disjoint components with the largest connected component being dominated by families rooted in one specific region. We characterize the network in terms of the basic structural properties and then explore the network transitivity and assortativity with regards to regions of origin and linguistic identity. Transitivity is seen to result from linguistic homophily in the network. Overall, our results demonstrate that geographic proximity and language strongly influence the structuring of network.
Family members' life course tendencies to remain geographically close to each other or to migrate due to education or job opportunities have been studied relatively little. Here we investigate migration patterns of parents and their children between 19 administrative regions of Finland from 1970 to 2012. Using the FinnFamily register dataset of 60 000 index individuals and their family members, we investigate the patterns of regional migration and regional co-residence of parents and their children. Specifically, we analyse how likely it is for children to reside in the same region as their parents at any specific age, whether parents and children who live in different regions are likely to reunite, and whether siblings function as regional attractors to each other. Results show an intense regional migration of people to the capital area. The migration propensity of individuals is high in early childhood and peaks in early adulthood. About two thirds of Finnish children live in the same region as their parents throughout their adult lives. Females show higher propensity to migrate than males, since daughters move away from their parents earlier and with a higher rate than sons do. The propensity for two full sibling brothers to be in the same region is higher than that for other types of sibling dyads. We conclude that family members serve as important geographical attractors to each other through the life course and that family attraction is stronger for sons and brothers than for daughters and sisters in contemporary Finland.
Timings of human activities are marked by circadian clocks which in turn are entrained to different environmental signals. In an urban environment the presence of artificial lighting and various social cues tend to disrupt the natural entrainment with the sunlight. However, it is not completely understood to what extent this is the case. Here we exploit the large-scale data analysis techniques to study the mobile phone calling activity of people in large cities to infer the dynamics of urban daily rhythms. From the calling patterns of about 1,000,000 users spread over different cities but lying inside the same time-zone, we show that the onset and termination of the calling activity synchronizes with the east-west progression of the sun. We also find that the onset and termination of the calling activity of users follows a yearly dynamics, varying across seasons, and that its timings are entrained to solar midnight. Furthermore, we show that the average mid-sleep time of people living in urban areas depends on the age and gender of each cohort as a result of biological and social factors.
In human relations individuals' gender and age play a key role in the structures and dynamics of their social arrangements. In order to analyze the gender preferences of individuals in interaction with others at different stages of their lives we study a large mobile phone dataset. To do this we consider four fundamental gender-related caller and callee combinations of human interactions, namely male to male, male to female, female to male, and female to female, which together with age, kinship, and different levels of friendship give rise to a wide scope of human sociality. Here we analyse the relative strength of these four types of interaction using a large dataset of mobile phone communication records. Our analysis suggests strong age dependence for an ego of one gender choosing to call an individual of either gender. We observe a strong opposite sex bonding across most of their reproductive age. However, older women show a strong tendency to connect to another female that is one generation younger in a way that is suggestive of the \emphgrandmothering effect. We also find that the relative strength among the four possible interactions depends on phone call duration. For calls of medium and long duration, opposite gender interactions are significantly more probable than same gender interactions during the reproductive years, suggesting potential emotional exchange between spouses. By measuring the fraction of calls to other generations we find that mothers tend to make calls more to their daughters than to their sons, whereas fathers make calls more to their sons than to their daughters. For younger people, most of their calls go to same generation alters, while older people call the younger people more frequently, which supports the suggestion that \emphaffection flows downward.
Social networks require active relationship maintenance if they are to be kept at a constant level of emotional closeness. For primates, including humans, failure to interact leads inexorably to a decline in relationship quality, and a consequent loss of the benefits that derive from individual relationships. As a result, many social species compensate for weakened relationships by investing more heavily in them. Here we study how humans behave in similar situations, using data from mobile call detail records from a European country. For the less frequent contacts between pairs of communicating individuals we observe a logarithmic dependence of the duration of the succeeding call on the time gap with the previous call. We find that such behaviour is likely when the individuals in these dyadic pairs have the same gender and are in the same age bracket as well as being geographically distant. Our results indicate that these pairs deliberately invest more time in communication so as to reinforce their social bonding and prevent their relationships decaying when these are threatened by lack of interaction.
We study the influence of seasonally and geographically related daily dynamics of daylight and ambient temperature on human resting or sleeping patterns using mobile phone data of a large number of individuals. We observe two daily inactivity periods in the people's aggregated mobile phone calling patterns and infer these to represent the resting times of the population. We find that the nocturnal resting period is strongly influenced by the length of daylight, and that its seasonal variation depends on the latitude, such that for people living in two different cities separated by eight latitudinal degrees, the difference in the resting period of people between the summer and winter in southern cities is almost twice that in the northern cities. We also observe that the duration of the afternoon resting period is influenced by the temperature, and that there is a threshold from which this influence sets in. Finally, we observe that the yearly dynamics of the afternoon and nocturnal resting periods appear to be counterbalancing each other. This also lends support to the notion that the total daily resting time of people is more or less conserved across the year.
Each stage of the human life course is characterized by a distinctive pattern of social relations. We study how the intensity and importance of the closest social contacts vary across the life course, using a large database of mobile communication from a European country. We first determine the most likely social relationship type from these mobile phone records by relating the age and gender of the caller and recipient to the frequency, length, and direction of calls. We then show how communication patterns between parents and children, romantic partner, and friends vary across the six main stages of the adult family life course. Young adulthood is dominated by a gradual shift of call activity from parents to close friends, and then to a romantic partner, culminating in the period of early family formation during which the focus is on the romantic partner. During middle adulthood call patterns suggest a high dependence on the parents of the ego, who, presumably often provide alloparental care, while at this stage female same-gender friendship also peaks. During post-reproductive adulthood, individuals and especially women balance close social contacts among three generations. The age of grandparenthood brings the children entering adulthood and family formation into the focus, and is associated with a realignment of close social contacts especially among women, while the old age is dominated by dependence on their children.
Age and gender are two important factors that play crucial roles in the way organisms allocate their social effort. In this study, we analyse a large mobile phone dataset to explore the way lifehistory influences human sociality and the way social networks are structured. Our results indicate that these aspects of human behaviour are strongly related to the age and gender such that younger individuals have more contacts and, among them, males more than females. However, the rate of decrease in the number of contacts with age differs between males and females, such that there is a reversal in the number of contacts around the late 30s. We suggest that this pattern can be attributed to the difference in reproductive investments that are made by the two sexes. We analyse the inequality in social investment patterns and suggest that the age and gender-related differences that we find reflect the constraints imposed by reproduction in a context where time (a form of social capital) is limited.