results for au:Minazzoli_O in:gr-qc

- Mar 01 2018 gr-qc astro-ph.CO arXiv:1802.10194v2The detection of gravitational waves with Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo has enabled novel tests of general relativity, including direct study of the polarization of gravitational waves. While general relativity allows for only two tensor gravitational-wave polarizations, general metric theories can additionally predict two vector and two scalar polarizations. The polarization of gravitational waves is encoded in the spectral shape of the stochastic gravitational-wave background, formed by the superposition of cosmological and individually-unresolved astrophysical sources. Using data recorded by Advanced LIGO during its first observing run, we search for a stochastic background of generically-polarized gravitational waves. We find no evidence for a background of any polarization, and place the first direct bounds on the contributions of vector and scalar polarizations to the stochastic background. Under log-uniform priors for the energy in each polarization, we limit the energy-densities of tensor, vector, and scalar modes at 95% credibility to $\Omega^T_0 < 5.6 \times 10^{-8}$, $\Omega^V_0 < 6.4\times 10^{-8}$, and $\Omega^S_0 < 1.1\times 10^{-7}$ at a reference frequency $f_0 = 25$ Hz.
- Feb 15 2018 gr-qc arXiv:1802.05241v1We report on a new all-sky search for periodic gravitational waves in the frequency band 475-2000 Hz and with a frequency time derivative in the range of [-1.0e-8, +1e-9] Hz/s. Potential signals could be produced by a nearby spinning and slightly non-axisymmetric isolated neutron star in our galaxy. This search uses the data from Advanced LIGO's first observational run O1. No gravitational wave signals were observed, and upper limits were placed on their strengths. For completeness, results from the separately published low frequency search 20-475 Hz are included as well. Our lowest upper limit on worst-case (linearly polarized) strain amplitude h_0 is 4e-25 near 170 Hz, while at the high end of our frequency range we achieve a worst-case upper limit of 1.3e-24. For a circularly polarized source (most favorable orientation), the smallest upper limit obtained is ~1.5e-25.
- Dec 05 2017 gr-qc astro-ph.CO arXiv:1712.01168v2Cosmic strings are topological defects which can be formed in GUT-scale phase transitions in the early universe. They are also predicted to form in the context of string theory. The main mechanism for a network of Nambu-Goto cosmic strings to lose energy is through the production of loops and the subsequent emission of gravitational waves, thus offering an experimental signature for the existence of cosmic strings. Here we report on the analysis conducted to specifically search for gravitational-wave bursts from cosmic string loops in the data of Advanced LIGO 2015-2016 observing run (O1). No evidence of such signals was found in the data, and as a result we set upper limits on the cosmic string parameters for three recent loop distribution models. In this paper, we initially derive constraints on the string tension $G\mu$ and the intercommutation probability, using not only the burst analysis performed on the O1 data set, but also results from the previously published LIGO stochastic O1 analysis, pulsar timing arrays, cosmic microwave background and Big-Bang nucleosynthesis experiments. We show that these data sets are complementary in that they probe gravitational waves produced by cosmic string loops during very different epochs. Finally, we show that the data sets exclude large parts of the parameter space of the three loop distribution models we consider.
- Nov 16 2017 astro-ph.HE gr-qc arXiv:1711.05578v1On June 8, 2017 at 02:01:16.49 UTC, a gravitational-wave signal from the merger of two stellar-mass black holes was observed by the two Advanced LIGO detectors with a network signal-to-noise ratio of 13. This system is the lightest black hole binary so far observed, with component masses $12^{+7}_{-2}\,M_\odot$ and $7^{+2}_{-2}\,M_\odot$ (90% credible intervals). These lie in the range of measured black hole masses in low-mass X-ray binaries, thus allowing us to compare black holes detected through gravitational waves with electromagnetic observations. The source's luminosity distance is $340^{+140}_{-140}$ Mpc, corresponding to redshift $0.07^{+0.03}_{-0.03}$. We verify that the signal waveform is consistent with the predictions of general relativity.
- Oct 26 2017 astro-ph.HE gr-qc arXiv:1710.09320v1The first observation of a binary neutron star coalescence by the Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo gravitational-wave detectors offers an unprecedented opportunity to study matter under the most extreme conditions. After such a merger, a compact remnant is left over whose nature depends primarily on the masses of the inspiralling objects and on the equation of state of nuclear matter. This could be either a black hole or a neutron star (NS), with the latter being either long-lived or too massive for stability implying delayed collapse to a black hole. Here, we present a search for gravitational waves from the remnant of the binary neutron star merger GW170817 using data from Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo. We search for short ($\lesssim1$ s) and intermediate-duration ($\lesssim 500$ s) signals, which includes gravitational-wave emission from a hypermassive NS or supramassive NS, respectively. We find no signal from the post-merger remnant. Our derived strain upper limits are more than an order of magnitude larger than those predicted by most models. For short signals, our best upper limit on the root-sum-square of the gravitational-wave strain emitted from 1--4 kHz is $h_{\rm rss}^{50\%}=2.1\times 10^{-22}$ Hz$^{-1/2}$ at 50% detection efficiency. For intermediate-duration signals, our best upper limit at 50% detection efficiency is $h_{\rm rss}^{50\%}=8.4\times 10^{-22}$ Hz$^{-1/2}$ for a millisecond magnetar model, and $h_{\rm rss}^{50\%}=5.9\times 10^{-22}$ Hz$^{-1/2}$ for a bar-mode model. These results indicate that post-merger emission from a similar event may be detectable when advanced detectors reach design sensitivity or with next-generation detectors.
- Oct 26 2017 gr-qc arXiv:1710.09167v1We present here the new INPOP lunar ephemeris, INPOP17a. This ephemeris is obtained through the numerical integration of the equations of motion and of rotation of the Moon, fitted over 48 years of Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) data. We also include the 2 years of infrared (IR) LLR data acquired at the Grasse station between 2015 and 2017. Tests of the universality of free fall are performed. We find no violation of the principle of equivalence at the 10-14 level. A new interpretation in the frame of dilaton theories is also proposed.
- Oct 17 2017 gr-qc arXiv:1710.05837v1The LIGO Scientific and Virgo Collaborations have announced the first detection of gravitational waves from the coalescence of two neutron stars. The merger rate of binary neutron stars estimated from this event suggests that distant, unresolvable binary neutron stars create a significant astrophysical stochastic gravitational-wave background. The binary neutron star background will add to the background from binary black holes, increasing the amplitude of the total astrophysical background relative to previous expectations. In the Advanced LIGO-Virgo frequency band most sensitive to stochastic backgrounds (near 25 Hz), we predict a total astrophysical background with amplitude $\Omega_{\rm GW} (f=25 \text{Hz}) = 1.8_{-1.3}^{+2.7} \times 10^{-9}$ with $90\%$ confidence, compared with $\Omega_{\rm GW} (f=25 \text{Hz}) = 1.1_{-0.7}^{+1.2} \times 10^{-9}$ from binary black holes alone. Assuming the most probable rate for compact binary mergers, we find that the total background may be detectable with a signal-to-noise-ratio of 3 after 40 months of total observation time, based on the expected timeline for Advanced LIGO and Virgo to reach their design sensitivity.
- Oct 09 2017 gr-qc astro-ph.HE arXiv:1710.02327v2Spinning neutron stars asymmetric with respect to their rotation axis are potential sources of continuous gravitational waves for ground-based interferometric detectors. In the case of known pulsars a fully coherent search, based on matched filtering, which uses the position and rotational parameters obtained from electromagnetic observations, can be carried out. Matched filtering maximizes the signal-to-noise (SNR) ratio, but a large sensitivity loss is expected in case of even a very small mismatch between the assumed and the true signal parameters. For this reason, \it narrow-band analyses methods have been developed, allowing a fully coherent search for gravitational waves from known pulsars over a fraction of a hertz and several spin-down values. In this paper we describe a narrow-band search of eleven pulsars using data from Advanced LIGO's first observing run. Although we have found several initial outliers, further studies show no significant evidence for the presence of a gravitational wave signal. Finally, we have placed upper limits on the signal strain amplitude lower than the spin-down limit for 5 of the 11 targets over the bands searched: in the case of J1813-1749 the spin-down limit has been beaten for the first time. For an additional 3 targets, the median upper limit across the search bands is below the spin-down limit. This is the most sensitive narrow-band search for continuous gravitational waves carried out so far.
- Sep 28 2017 gr-qc arXiv:1709.09203v1We present results from the first directed search for nontensorial gravitational waves. While general relativity allows for tensorial (plus and cross) modes only, a generic metric theory may, in principle, predict waves with up to six different polarizations. This analysis is sensitive to continuous signals of scalar, vector or tensor polarizations, and does not rely on any specific theory of gravity. After searching data from the first observation run of the advanced LIGO detectors for signals at twice the rotational frequency of 200 known pulsars, we find no evidence of gravitational waves of any polarization. We report the first upper limits for scalar and vector strains, finding values comparable in magnitude to previously-published limits for tensor strain. Our results may be translated into constraints on specific alternative theories of gravity.
- Sep 28 2017 gr-qc astro-ph.HE arXiv:1709.09660v3On August 14, 2017 at 10:30:43 UTC, the Advanced Virgo detector and the two Advanced LIGO detectors coherently observed a transient gravitational-wave signal produced by the coalescence of two stellar mass black holes, with a false-alarm-rate of $\lesssim$ 1 in 27000 years. The signal was observed with a three-detector network matched-filter signal-to-noise ratio of 18. The inferred masses of the initial black holes are $30.5_{-3.0}^{+5.7}$ Msun and $25.3_{-4.2}^{+2.8}$ Msun (at the 90% credible level). The luminosity distance of the source is $540_{-210}^{+130}~\mathrm{Mpc}$, corresponding to a redshift of $z=0.11_{-0.04}^{+0.03}$. A network of three detectors improves the sky localization of the source, reducing the area of the 90% credible region from 1160 deg$^2$ using only the two LIGO detectors to 60 deg$^2$ using all three detectors. For the first time, we can test the nature of gravitational wave polarizations from the antenna response of the LIGO-Virgo network, thus enabling a new class of phenomenological tests of gravity.
- Jul 11 2017 gr-qc astro-ph.IM arXiv:1707.02667v2We report on an all-sky search for periodic gravitational waves in the frequency band 20-475 Hz and with a frequency time derivative in the range of [-1.0, +0.1]e-8 Hz/s. Such a signal could be produced by a nearby spinning and slightly non-axisymmetric isolated neutron star in our galaxy. This search uses the data from Advanced LIGO's first observational run, O1. No periodic gravitational wave signals were observed, and upper limits were placed on their strengths. The lowest upper limits on worst-case (linearly polarized) strain amplitude h0 are 4e-25 near 170 Hz. For a circularly polarized source (most favorable orientation), the smallest upper limits obtained are 1.5e-25. These upper limits refer to all sky locations and the entire range of frequency derivative values. For a population-averaged ensemble of sky locations and stellar orientations, the lowest upper limits obtained for the strain amplitude are 2.5e-25.
- Jul 11 2017 gr-qc arXiv:1707.02669v2We report results of a deep all-sky search for periodic gravitational waves from isolated neutron stars in data from the first Advanced LIGO observing run. This search investigates the low frequency range of Advanced LIGO data, between 20 and 100 Hz, much of which was not explored in initial LIGO. The search was made possible by the computing power provided by the volunteers of the Einstein@Home project. We find no significant signal candidate and set the most stringent upper limits to date on the amplitude of gravitational wave signals from the target population, corresponding to a sensitivity depth of 48.7 [1/$\sqrt{{\textrm{Hz}}}$]. At the frequency of best strain sensitivity, near 100 Hz, we set 90% confidence upper limits of $1.8 \times 10^{-25}$. At the low end of our frequency range, 20 Hz, we achieve upper limits of $3.9 \times 10^{-24}$. At 55 Hz we can exclude sources with ellipticities greater than $10^{-5}$ within 100 pc of Earth with fiducial value of the principal moment of inertia of $10^{38} \textrm{kg m}^2$.
- Jun 13 2017 astro-ph.HE gr-qc arXiv:1706.03119v3We present the results of a semicoherent search for continuous gravitational waves from the low-mass X-ray binary Scorpius X-1, using data from the first Advanced LIGO observing run. The search method uses details of the modelled, parametrized continuous signal to combine coherently data separated by less than a specified coherence time, which can be adjusted to trade off sensitivity against computational cost. A search was conducted over the frequency range from 25 Hz to 2000 Hz, spanning the current observationally-constrained range of the binary orbital parameters. No significant detection candidates were found, and frequency-dependent upper limits were set using a combination of sensitivity estimates and simulated signal injections. The most stringent upper limit was set at 175 Hz, with comparable limits set across the most sensitive frequency range from 100 Hz to 200 Hz. At this frequency, the 95 pct upper limit on signal amplitude h0 is 2.3e-25 marginalized over the unknown inclination angle of the neutron star's spin, and 8.03e-26 assuming the best orientation (which results in circularly polarized gravitational waves). These limits are a factor of 3-4 stronger than those set by other analyses of the same data, and a factor of about 7 stronger than the best upper limits set using initial LIGO data. In the vicinity of 100 Hz, the limits are a factor of between 1.2 and 3.5 above the predictions of the torque balance model, depending on inclination angle, if the most likely inclination angle of 44 degrees is assumed, they are within a factor of 1.7.
- Jun 07 2017 gr-qc astro-ph.HE arXiv:1706.01812v1We describe the observation of GW170104, a gravitational-wave signal produced by the coalescence of a pair of stellar-mass black holes. The signal was measured on January 4, 2017 at 10:11:58.6 UTC by the twin advanced detectors of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory during their second observing run, with a network signal-to-noise ratio of 13 and a false alarm rate less than 1 in 70,000 years. The inferred component black hole masses are $31.2^{+8.4}_{-6.0}\,M_\odot$ and $19.4^{+5.3}_{-5.9}\,M_\odot$ (at the 90% credible level). The black hole spins are best constrained through measurement of the effective inspiral spin parameter, a mass-weighted combination of the spin components perpendicular to the orbital plane, $\chi_\mathrm{eff} = -0.12^{+0.21}_{-0.30}.$ This result implies that spin configurations with both component spins positively aligned with the orbital angular momentum are disfavored. The source luminosity distance is $880^{+450}_{-390}~\mathrm{Mpc}$ corresponding to a redshift of $z = 0.18^{+0.08}_{-0.07}$. We constrain the magnitude of modifications to the gravitational-wave dispersion relation and perform null tests of general relativity. Assuming that gravitons are dispersed in vacuum like massive particles, we bound the graviton mass to $m_g \le 7.7 \times 10^{-23}~\mathrm{eV}/c^2$. In all cases, we find that GW170104 is consistent with general relativity.
- May 16 2017 gr-qc arXiv:1705.05244v1When a light scalar field with gravitational strength interacts with matter, the weak equivalence principle is in general violated, leading for instance to a violation of the universality of free fall. This has been known and tested for a while. However, recent developments [Minazzoli & Hees, PRD 2016] showed that a novel manifestation of the universality of free fall can appear in some models. Here we discuss this new scenario and expose how we intend to constrain it with INPOP ephemeris.
- Apr 28 2017 gr-qc astro-ph.HE arXiv:1704.08373v2The direct observation of gravitational waves with Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo offers novel opportunities to test general relativity in strong-field, highly dynamical regimes. One such opportunity is the measurement of gravitational-wave polarizations. While general relativity predicts only two tensor gravitational-wave polarizations, general metric theories of gravity allow for up to four additional vector and scalar modes. The detection of these alternative polarizations would represent a clear violation of general relativity. The LIGO-Virgo detection of the binary black hole merger GW170814 has recently offered the first direct constraints on the polarization of gravitational waves. The current generation of ground-based detectors, however, is limited in its ability to sensitively determine the polarization content of transient gravitational-wave signals. Observation of the stochastic gravitational-wave background, in contrast, offers a means of directly measuring generic gravitational-wave polarizations. The stochastic background, arising from the superposition of many individually unresolvable gravitational-wave signals, may be detectable by Advanced LIGO at design-sensitivity. In this paper, we present a Bayesian method with which to detect and characterize the polarization of the stochastic background. We explore prospects for estimating parameters of the background, and quantify the limits that Advanced LIGO can place on vector and scalar polarizations in the absence of a detection. Finally, we investigate how the introduction of new terrestrial detectors like Advanced Virgo aid in our ability to detect or constrain alternative polarizations in the stochastic background. We find that, although the addition of Advanced Virgo does not notably improve detection prospects, it may dramatically improve our ability to estimate the parameters of backgrounds of mixed polarization.
- Apr 18 2017 gr-qc arXiv:1704.04628v4During their first observational run, the two Advanced LIGO detectors attained an unprecedented sensitivity, resulting in the first direct detections of gravitational-wave signals and GW151226, produced by stellar-mass binary black hole systems. This paper reports on an all-sky search for gravitational waves (GWs) from merging intermediate mass black hole binaries (IMBHBs). The combined results from two independent search techniques were used in this study: the first employs a matched-filter algorithm that uses a bank of filters covering the GW signal parameter space, while the second is a generic search for GW transients (bursts). No GWs from IMBHBs were detected, therefore, we constrain the rate of several classes of IMBHB mergers. The most stringent limit is obtained for black holes of individual mass $100\,M_\odot$, with spins aligned with the binary orbital angular momentum. For such systems, the merger rate is constrained to be less than $0.93~\mathrm{Gpc^{-3}\,yr}^{-1}$ in comoving units at the $90\%$ confidence level, an improvement of nearly 2 orders of magnitude over previous upper limits.
- Apr 13 2017 gr-qc arXiv:1704.03719v3Results are presented from a semi-coherent search for continuous gravitational waves from the brightest low-mass X-ray binary, Scorpius X-1, using data collected during the first Advanced LIGO observing run (O1). The search combines a frequency domain matched filter (Bessel-weighted $\mathcal{F}$-statistic) with a hidden Markov model to track wandering of the neutron star spin frequency. No evidence of gravitational waves is found in the frequency range 60-650 Hz. Frequentist 95% confidence strain upper limits, $h_0^{95\%} = 4.0\times10^{-25}$, $8.3\times10^{-25}$, and $3.0\times10^{-25}$ for electromagnetically restricted source orientation, unknown polarization, and circular polarization, respectively, are reported at 106 Hz. They are $\leq 10$ times higher than the theoretical torque-balance limit at 106 Hz.
- Dec 17 2015 gr-qc astro-ph.EP arXiv:1512.05233v1In this paper, we present extensively the observational consequences of massless dilaton theories at the post-Newtonian level. We extend previous work by considering a general model including a dilaton-Ricci coupling as well as a general dilaton kinetic term while using the microphysical dilaton-matter coupling model proposed in [Damour and Donoghue, PRD 2010]. We derive all the expressions needed to analyze local gravitational observations in a dilaton framework, which is useful to derive constraints on the dilaton theories. In particular, we present the equations of motion of celestial bodies (in barycentric and planetocentric reference frames), the equation of propagation of light and the evolution of proper time as measured by specific clocks. Particular care is taken in order to derive properly the observables. The resulting equations can be used to analyse a large numbers of observations: universality of free fall tests, planetary ephemerides analysis, analysis of satellites motion, Very Long Baseline Interferometry, tracking of spacecraft, gravitational redshift tests, ...
- Dec 17 2015 gr-qc astro-ph.EP arXiv:1512.05232v2In this paper, we show that there exists a class of dilaton models with non-trivial scalar-Ricci and scalar-matter couplings that strongly reduces observational deviations from general relativity in the dust limit. Essentially, depending on the coupling between the dilaton and the fundamental matter fields, various strengths of decoupling can appear. They range from no decoupling at all to a total decoupling state. In this latter case, the theory becomes indistinguishable from general relativity (in the dust limit), as all dilatonic effects can be re-absorbed through a simple change of unit. Furthermore, for particular decouplings, we show that the phenomenology used to constrain theories from universality of free fall observations is significantly different from what is commonly used. Finally, from a fundamental perspective, the class of non-dynamical decouplings proposed in this paper might play a role in the current non-observation of any deviation from general relativity (in both tests of the equivalence principle and of the parametrized post-Newtonian formalism).
- Jun 11 2015 gr-qc arXiv:1506.03278v2We show that a Lagrangian density proportional to $\sqrt{-g} \L_m^2/R$ reduces to a pressuron theory of gravity that is indistinguishable from General Relativity in the dust limit. The combination of matter and geometry in the same Lagrangian density intrinsically satisfies Mach's Principle --- since matter cannot exist without curvature and vice versa --- while it may have the correct phenomenology in order to describe actual gravity.
- The pressuron is a specific case of a dilaton-like field that leads to a decoupling of the scalar-field in the field equation for pressureless fluids. Hence, the pressuron recovers general relativity in the limit of weak pressure. Here we review its basics.
- Apr 13 2015 gr-qc astro-ph.CO arXiv:1504.02676v2In this communication, we consider a wide class of extensions to General Relativity that break explicitly the Einstein Equivalence Principle by introducing a multiplicative coupling between a scalar field and the electromagnetic Lagrangian. In these theories, we show that 4 cosmological observables are intimately related to each other: a temporal variation of the fine structure constant, a violation of the distance-duality relation, the evolution of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature and CMB spectral distortions. This enables one to put very stringent constraints on possible violations of the distance-duality relation, on the evolution of the CMB temperature and on admissible CMB spectral distortions using current constraints on the fine structure constant. Alternatively, this offers interesting possibilities to test a wide range of theories of gravity by analyzing several data sets concurrently.
- Sep 26 2014 gr-qc astro-ph.CO arXiv:1409.7273v3We show how two seemingly different theories with a scalar multiplicative coupling to electrodynamics are actually two equivalent parametrisations of the same theory: despite some differences in the interpretation of some phenemenological aspects of the parametrisations, they lead to the same physical observables. This is illustrated on the interpretation of observations of the Cosmic Microwave Background.
- Jun 25 2014 astro-ph.CO gr-qc arXiv:1406.6187v4This paper proposes a systematic study of cosmological signatures of modifications of gravity via the presence of a scalar field with a multiplicative coupling to the electromagnetic Lagrangian. We show that, in this framework, variations of the fine structure constant, violations of the distance duality relation, evolution of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature and CMB distortions are intimately and unequivocally linked. This enables one to put very stringent constraints on possible violations of the distance duality relation, on the evolution of the CMB temperature and on admissible CMB distortions using current constraints on the fine structure constant. Alternatively, this offers interesting possibilities to test a wide range of theories of gravity by analysing several datasets concurrently. We discuss results obtained using current data as well as some forecasts for future data sets such as those coming from EUCLID or the SKA.
- Apr 17 2014 gr-qc arXiv:1404.4266v2We investigate the late-time cosmological behaviour of scalar-tensor theories with a universal multiplicative coupling between the scalar field and the matter Lagrangian in the matter era. This class of theory encompasses the case of the massless string dilaton (see Damour and Polyakov, General Relativity and Gravitation, 26, 1171) as well as a theory with an intrinsic decoupling mechanism in the solar system (see Minazzoli and Hees, Phys. Rev. D 88, 041504). The cosmological evolution is studied in the General Relativity limit justified by solar system constraints on the gravitation theory. The behaviour of these cosmological evolutions are then compared to two types of observations: the constraints on temporal variations of the constants of Nature and the distance-luminosity measurements. In particular, the non-minimal coupling implies that the distance-luminosity relation is modified compared to General Relativity. Theories producing a cosmological behaviour in agreement with these observations are identified.
- The converging mechanism discussed in [Damour & Nordtvedt, Physical Review Letters,70,15] for scalar-tensor theories has been applied to dilaton-like theories in several subsequent papers. In the present communication, we show that an unfortunate assumption in those studies led to a scalar-field equation unsuitable for the study of the dilaton field. The corrected scalar-field equation turns to change the numerical outcome of those studies in general, but even sometimes their qualitative aftermath. Therefore, the present result call for new investigations of the subject. On the other hand, our result shows that the string-inspired theory presented in [Minazzoli & Hees, Physical Review D,88,4] is naturally solution to the problem of the effective constancy of the fundamental coupling constants at late cosmic times, while it requires less fine-tuning than other massless dilaton or usual stalar-tensor theories.
- The post-Newtonian parameter \gamma resulting from a universal scalar/matter coupling is investigated in Brans-Dicke-like Scalar-Tensor theories where the scalar potential is assumed to be negligible. Conversely to previous studies, we use a perfect fluid formalism in order to get the explicit scalar-field equation. It is shown that the metric can be put in its standard post-Newtonian form. However, it is pointed out that 1-\gamma could be either positive, null or negative for finite value of \omega_0, depending on the coupling function; while Scalar-Tensor theories without coupling always predict \gamma<1 for finite value of \omega_0.
- In this communication, we present a class of Brans-Dicke-like theories with a universal coupling between the scalar field and the matter Lagrangian. We show this class of theories naturally exhibits a decoupling mechanism between the scalar field and matter. As a consequence, this coupling leads to almost the same phenomenology as general relativity in the Solar System: the trajectories of massive bodies and the light propagation differ from general relativity only at the second post-Newtonian order. Deviations from general relativity are beyond present detection capabilities. However, this class of theories predicts a deviation of the gravitational redshift at a level detectable by the future ACES and STE/QUEST missions.
- In this paper, we investigate the conservation laws of different type of particles in theories with a universal gravity/matter coupling. The result brings new insights about previous studies on universal gravity/matter theories. Especially, the paper demonstrates that for perfect fluids, there is an equivalence between the assumption $\L_m=-\epsilon$, where $\epsilon$ is the total energy density; and the assumption that the matter fluid current is conserved ($\nabla_\sigma (\rho u^\sigma)=0$, where $\rho$ is the rest mass density). However, the main result is given in the general case where one does not make any assumption on the conservation of the matter fluid current.
- Jun 12 2013 gr-qc arXiv:1306.2367v1Given the extreme accuracy of modern space astrometry, a precise relativistic modeling of observations is required. Concerning light propagation, the standard procedure is the solution of the null-geodesic equations. However, another approach based on the Time Transfer Functions (TTF) has demonstrated its capability to give access to key quantities such as the time of flight of a light signal between two point-events and the tangent vector to its null-geodesic in a weak gravitational field using an integral-based method. The availability of several models, formulated in different and independent ways, must not be considered like an oversized relativistic toolbox. Quite the contrary, they are needed as validation to put future experimental results on solid ground. The objective of this work is then twofold. First, we build the time of flight and tangent vectors in a closed form within the TTF formalism giving the case of a time dependent metric. Second, we show how to use this new approach to obtain a comparison of the TTF with two existing modelings, namely GREM and RAMOD. In this way, we evidentiate the mutual consistency of the three models, opening the basis for further links between all the approaches, which is mandatory for the interpretation of future space missions data. This will be illustrated through two recognized cases: a static gravitational field and a system of monopoles in uniform motion.
- Oct 15 2012 gr-qc astro-ph.CO arXiv:1210.4218v3We generalize previous work by considering a novel gravitational model with an action given by an arbitrary function of the Ricci scalar, the matter Lagrangian density, a scalar field and a kinetic term constructed from the gradients of the scalar field, respectively. The gravitational field equations in the metric formalism are obtained, as well as the equations of motion for test particles, which follow from the covariant divergence of the stress-energy tensor. Specific models with a nonminimal coupling between the scalar field and the matter Lagrangian are further explored. We emphasize that these models are extremely useful for describing an interaction between dark energy and dark matter, and for explaining the late-time cosmic acceleration.
- Oct 12 2012 gr-qc astro-ph.EP arXiv:1210.3073v1In this note we study the 2PN/RM gauge invariance structure of a \textitBrans-Dicke-like Scalar-Tensor Theories (STT) without potential. Since the spherical isotropic metric plays an important role in the literature, its 2PN/RM STT version is deduced from the general equations given in \citemoiCQG11, by using the invariance structure properties. It is found that the second order Eddington parameter $\epsilon$ can be written in terms of the usual post-Newtonian parameter $\gamma$ and $\beta$ as $ \epsilon=4/3 \gamma^2 + 4/3 \beta - 1/6 \gamma -3/2$
- In this paper we give a simple proof that when the particle number is conserved, the Lagrangian of a barotropic perfect fluid is $\mathcal{L}_m=-\rho [c^2 +\int P(\rho)/\rho^2 d\rho]$, where $\rho$ is the \textitrest mass density and $P(\rho)$ is the pressure. To prove this result nor additional fields neither Lagrange multipliers are needed. Besides, the result is applicable to a wide range of theories of gravitation. The only assumptions used in the derivation are: 1) the matter part of the Lagrangian does not depend on the derivatives of the metric, and 2) the particle number of the fluid is conserved ($\nabla_\sigma (\rho u^\sigma)=0$).
- Aug 14 2012 gr-qc arXiv:1208.2372v4The post-Newtonian parameter $\gamma$ resulting from a universal scalar/matter coupling is investigated in Brans-Dicke-like Scalar-Tensor theories where the scalar potential is assumed to be negligible. Conversely to previous studies, we use a perfect fluid formalism in order to get the explicit scalar-field equation. It is shown that the metric can be put in its standard post-Newtonian form. However, it is pointed out that $1-\gamma$ could be either positive, null or negative for finite value of $\omega_0$, depending on the coupling function; while Scalar-Tensor theories without coupling always predict $\gamma<1$ for finite value of $\omega_0$. Moreover, regardless the value of $\omega_0$, the subclass of theories satisfying $\gamma=1$ and $\beta=1$ surprisingly leads to almost the same phenomenology as general relativity in the solar system.
- We study accelerating relativistic reference frames in Minkowski space-time under the harmonic gauge. It is well-known that the harmonic gauge imposes constraints on the components of the metric tensor and also on the functional form of admissible coordinate transformations. These two sets of constraints are equivalent and represent the dual nature of the harmonic gauge. We explore this duality and show that the harmonic gauge allows presenting an accelerated metric in an elegant form that depends only on two harmonic potentials. It also allows reconstruction of the spatial structure of the post-Galilean coordinate transformation functions relating inertial and accelerating frames. The remaining temporal dependence of these functions together with corresponding equations of motion are determined from dynamical conditions, obtained by constructing the relativistic proper reference frame of an accelerated test particle. In this frame, the effect of external forces acting on the observer is balanced by the fictitious frame-reaction force that is needed to keep the test particle at rest with respect to the frame, conserving its relativistic linear momentum. We find that this approach is sufficient to determine all the terms of the coordinate transformation. The same method is then used to develop the inverse transformations. The resulting post-Galilean coordinate transformations extend the Poincaré group on the case of accelerating observers. We present and discuss the resulting coordinate transformations, relativistic equations of motion, and the structure of the metric tensors corresponding to the relativistic reference frames involved.
- Jul 23 2010 gr-qc physics.space-ph arXiv:1007.3942v1In a recent paper [1], motivated by forthcoming space experiments involving propagation of light in the Solar System, we have proposed an extention of the IAU metric equations at the c-4 level in General Relativity. However, scalar-tensor theories may induce corrections numerically comparable to the c-4 general relativistic terms. Accordingly, one first proposes in this paper an extension of [1] to the scalar-tensor case. The case of a hierarchized system (such as the Solar system) is emphasized. In this case, the relevant metric solution is proposed. Then, the geodesic solution relevant for propagation of light in the inner solar system at the millimetric level is given in explicit form.
- Mar 10 2010 gr-qc arXiv:1003.1889v2The metric recommanded by the IAU2000 resolutions allows propagation of light calculations at the c-3 level in the general relativity framework. In a recent paper [1], motivated by forthcoming space experiments involving propagation of light in the Solar System (ASTROD, GAIA, LATOR, ODYSSEY, SAGAS, SIM, TIPO, ...), we have proposed an extention of the IAU metric equations at the c-4 level. This has been made in the general relativity framework. However, scalar-tensor theories may induce corrections numerically comparable to the c-4 general relativistic terms. Accordingly, one proposes in this paper an extension of [1] to the scalar-tensor case. The case of a strongly hierarchized system (such as the Solar system) is emphasized. In this case, an explicit metric solution is proposed.
- Apr 25 2008 gr-qc arXiv:0804.3863v2We present a derivation of 2PN/RM metric field equations from the Einstein field equation in General Relativity. We use the exponential parametrization and the $c^{-3}$ isotropic spatial coordinates such as in IAU2000 recommendations.
- Oct 01 2007 gr-qc arXiv:0709.4604v1Analytical treatment of time transfer problem for Earth-Satellite system is presented. The development was made in a complete relativistic framework. In accordance with modern clock precision and for low altitude orbits, we neglect the other bodies and consider only the 1/c^2 Earth potential developed up to the J_2 term in spherical harmonics.