results for au:Meyer_Scott_E in:quant-ph

- May 16 2018 quant-ph arXiv:1805.05881v1Detecting light is fundamental to all optical experiments and applications. At the single photon level, the quantised nature of light requires specialised detectors, which typically saturate for more than one photon, rendering the measurement of bright light impossible. Saturation can be partially overcome by multiplexing single-photon-sensitive detectors, enabling measurement up to tens of photons. However, current approaches are still far from bridging the gap to bright light levels. Here, we report on a massively-multiplexed single-photon detector, which exhibits a dynamic range of 123 dB, from optical energies as low as $\mathbf{10^{-7}}$ photons per pulse to $\mathbf{\sim2.5\times10^{5}}$ photons per pulse. This allows us to calibrate a single photon detector directly to a power meter. The use of a single-photon sensitive detector further allows us to characterise the nonclassical features of a variety of quantum states. This device will find application where high dynamic range and single-photon sensitivity are required.
- Mar 08 2018 quant-ph arXiv:1803.02401v1Heralded single photon sources are often implemented using spontaneous parametric downconversion, but their quality can be restricted by optical loss, double pair emission and detector dark counts. Here, we show that the performance of such sources can be improved using cascaded downconversion, by providing a second trigger signal to herald the presence of a single photon, thereby reducing the effects of detector dark counts. We find that for a setup with fixed detectors, an improved heralded second-order correlation function $g^{(2)}$ can always be achieved with cascaded downconversion given sufficient efficiency for the second downconversion, even for equal single-photon production rates. Furthermore, the minimal $g^{(2)}$ value is unchanged for a large range in pump beam intensity. These results are interesting for applications where achieving low, stable values of $g^{(2)}$ is of primary importance.
- Superconducting detectors are now well-established tools for low-light optics, and in particular quantum optics, boasting high-efficiency, fast response and low noise. Similarly, lithium niobate is an important platform for integrated optics given its high second-order nonlinearity, used for high-speed electro-optic modulation and polarization conversion, as well as frequency conversion and sources of quantum light. Combining these technologies addresses the requirements for a single platform capable of generating, manipulating and measuring quantum light in many degrees of freedom, in a compact and potentially scalable manner. We will report on progress integrating tungsten transition-edge sensors (TESs) and amorphous tungsten silicide superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPDs) on titanium in-diffused lithium niobate waveguides. The travelling-wave design couples the evanescent field from the waveguides into the superconducting absorber. We will report on simulations and measurements of the absorption, which we can characterize at room temperature prior to cooling down the devices. Independently, we show how the detectors respond to flood illumination, normally incident on the devices, demonstrating their functionality.
- Feb 21 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1702.05501v3Photon pairs produced by parametric down-conversion or four-wave mixing can interfere with each other in multiport interferometers, or carry entanglement between distant nodes for use in entanglement swapping. This requires the photons be spectrally pure to ensure good interference, and have high heralding efficiency to know accurately the number of photons involved and to maintain high rates as the number of photons grows. Spectral filtering is often used to remove noise and define spectral properties. For heralded single photons high purity and heralding efficiency is possible by filtering the heralding arm, but when both photons in typical pair sources are filtered, we show that the heralding efficiency of one or both of the photons is strongly reduced even by ideal spectral filters with 100% transmission in the passband: any improvement in reduced-state spectral purity from filtering comes at the cost of lowered heralding efficiency. We consider the fidelity to a pure, lossless single photon, symmetrize it to include both photons of the pair, and show this quantity is intrinsically limited for sources with spectral correlation. We then provide a framework for this effect for benchmarking common photon pair sources, and present an experiment where we vary the photon filter bandwidths and measure the increase in purity and corresponding reduction in heralding efficiency.
- Jan 17 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1701.04229v2Reliable generation of single photons is of key importance for fundamental physical experiments and to demonstrate quantum technologies. Waveguide-based photon pair sources have shown great promise in this regard due to their large degree of spectral tunability, high generation rates and long photon coherence times. However, for such a source to have real world applications it needs to be efficiently integrated with fiber-optic networks. We answer this challenge by presenting an alignment-free source of photon pairs in the telecommunications band that maintains heralding efficiency > 50 % even after fiber pigtailing, photon separation, and pump suppression. The source combines this outstanding performance in heralding efficiency and brightness with a compact, stable, and easy-to-use 'plug & play' package: one simply connects a laser to the input and detectors to the output and the source is ready to use. This high performance can be achieved even outside the lab without the need for alignment which makes the source extremely useful for any experiment or demonstration needing heralded single photons.
- Sep 27 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1609.07508v2Multiparticle quantum interference is critical for our understanding and exploitation of quantum information, and for fundamental tests of quantum mechanics. A remarkable example of multi-partite correlations is exhibited by the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state. In a GHZ state, three particles are correlated while no pairwise correlation is found. The manifestation of these strong correlations in an interferometric setting has been studied theoretically since 1990 but no three-photon GHZ interferometer has been realized experimentally. Here we demonstrate three-photon interference that does not originate from two-photon or single photon interference. We observe phase-dependent variation of three-photon coincidences with 90.5 \pm 5.0 % visibility in a generalized Franson interferometer using energy-time entangled photon triplets. The demonstration of these strong correlations in an interferometric setting provides new avenues for multiphoton interferometry, fundamental tests of quantum mechanics and quantum information applications in higher dimensions.
- Jun 15 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1606.04369v2The statistical properties of photons are fundamental to investigating quantum mechanical phenomena using light. In multi-photon, two-mode systems, correlations may exist between outcomes of measurements made on each mode which exhibit useful properties. Correlation in this sense can be thought of as increasing the probability of a particular outcome of a measurement on one subsystem given a measurement on a correlated subsystem. Here, we show a statistical property we call "discorrelation," in which the probability of a particular outcome of one subsystem is reduced to zero, given a measurement on a discorrelated subsystem. We show how such a state can be constructed using readily available building blocks of quantum optics, namely coherent states, single photons, beam splitters and projective measurement. We present a variety of discorrelated states, show that they are entangled, and study their sensitivity to loss.
- Dec 21 2015 quant-ph arXiv:1512.05789v1Quantum key distribution (QKD) has the potential to improve communications security by offering cryptographic keys whose security relies on the fundamental properties of quantum physics. The use of a trusted quantum receiver on an orbiting satellite is the most practical near-term solution to the challenge of achieving long-distance (global-scale) QKD, currently limited to a few hundred kilometers on the ground. This scenario presents unique challenges, such as high photon losses and restricted classical data transmission and processing power due to the limitations of a typical satellite platform. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of such a system by implementing a QKD protocol, with optical transmission and full post-processing, in the high-loss regime using minimized computing hardware at the receiver. Employing weak coherent pulses with decoy states, we demonstrate the production of secure key bits at up to 56.5 dB of photon loss. We further illustrate the feasibility of a satellite uplink by generating secure key while experimentally emulating the varying channel losses predicted for realistic low-Earth-orbit satellite passes at 600 km altitude. With a 76 MHz source and including finite-size analysis, we extract 3374 bits of secure key from the best pass. We also illustrate the potential benefit of combining multiple passes together: while one suboptimal "upper-quartile" pass produces no finite-sized key with our source, the combination of three such passes allows us to extract 165 bits of secure key. Alternatively, we find that by increasing the signal rate to 300 MHz it would be possible to extract 21570 bits of secure finite-sized key in just a single upper-quartile pass.
- Nov 11 2015 quant-ph arXiv:1511.03189v2We present a loophole-free violation of local realism using entangled photon pairs. We ensure that all relevant events in our Bell test are spacelike separated by placing the parties far enough apart and by using fast random number generators and high-speed polarization measurements. A high-quality polarization-entangled source of photons, combined with high-efficiency, low-noise, single-photon detectors, allows us to make measurements without requiring any fair-sampling assumptions. Using a hypothesis test, we compute p-values as small as $5.9\times 10^{-9}$ for our Bell violation while maintaining the spacelike separation of our events. We estimate the degree to which a local realistic system could predict our measurement choices. Accounting for this predictability, our smallest adjusted p-value is $2.3 \times 10^{-7}$. We therefore reject the hypothesis that local realism governs our experiment.
- Oct 16 2015 quant-ph arXiv:1510.04531v2We present an implementation of photonic qubit precertification that performs the delicate task of detecting the presence of a flying photon without destroying its qubit state, allowing loss-sensitive quantum cryptography and tests of nonlocality even over long distance. By splitting an incoming single photon in two via parametric down-conversion, we herald the photon's arrival from an independent photon source while preserving its quantum information with up to $92.3\pm0.6$ % fidelity. With reduced detector dark counts, precertification will be immediately useful in quantum communication.
- Jan 16 2015 quant-ph physics.optics arXiv:1501.03532v2Using tapered fibers of As2Se3 chalcogenide glass, we produce photon pairs at telecommunication wavelengths with low pump powers. We found maximum coincidences-to-accidentals ratios of $2.13\pm0.07$ for degenerate pumping with 3.2 \muW average power, and $1.33\pm0.03$ for non-degenerate pumping with 1.0 \muW and 1.5 \muW average power of the two pumps. Our results show that the ultrahigh nonlinearity in these microwires could allow single-photon pumping to produce photon pairs, enabling the production of large entangled states, heralding of single photons after lossy transmission, and photonic quantum information processing with nonlinear optics.
- Oct 21 2014 quant-ph arXiv:1410.5384v1We study entanglement creation over global distances based on a quantum repeater architecture that uses low-earth orbit satellites equipped with entangled photon sources, as well as ground stations equipped with quantum non-demolition detectors and quantum memories. We show that this approach allows entanglement creation at viable rates over distances that are inaccessible via direct transmission through optical fibers or even from very distant satellites.
- Jul 07 2014 quant-ph physics.optics arXiv:1407.1250v1Observing nonlinear optical quantum effects or implementing quantum information protocols using nonlinear optics requires moving to ever-smaller input light intensities. However, low light intensities generally mean weak optical nonlinearities, inadequate for many applications. Here we calculate the performance of four-wave mixing in various optical fibers for the case where one of the input beams is a single photon. We show that in tapered chalcogenide glass fibers (microwires) a single photon plus strong pump beam can produce a pair of photons with probability 0.1%, much higher than in previous work on bulk and waveguided crystal sources. Such a photon converter could be useful for creating large entangled photon states, for performing a loophole-free test of Bell's inequalities, and for quantum communication.
- Sep 06 2013 quant-ph arXiv:1309.1379v1Quantum correlations are critical to our understanding of nature, with far-reaching technological and fundamental impact. These often manifest as violations of Bell's inequalities, bounds derived from the assumptions of locality and realism, concepts integral to classical physics. Many tests of Bell's inequalities have studied pairs of correlated particles; however, the immense interest in multi-particle quantum correlations is driving the experimental frontier to test systems beyond just pairs. All experimental violations of Bell's inequalities to date require supplementary assumptions, opening the results to one or more loopholes, the closing of which is one of the most important challenges in quantum science. Individual loopholes have been closed in experiments with pairs of particles and a very recent result closed the detection loophole in a six ion experiment. No experiment thus far has closed the locality loopholes with three or more particles. Here, we distribute three-photon Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger entangled states using optical fibre and free-space links to independent measurement stations. The measured correlations constitute a test of Mermin's inequality while closing both the locality and related freedom-of-choice loopholes due to our experimental configuration and timing. We measured a Mermin parameter of 2.77 +/- 0.08, violating the inequality bound of 2 by over 9 standard deviations, with minimum tolerances for the locality and freedom-of-choice loopholes of 264 +/- 28 ns and 304 +/- 25 ns, respectively. These results represent a significant advance towards definitive tests of the foundations of quantum mechanics and practical multi-party quantum communications protocols.
- Jun 07 2013 quant-ph arXiv:1306.1342v2We propose a linear-optical scheme for an efficient amplification of a photonic qubit based on interaction of the signal mode with a pair of entangled ancillae. In contrast to a previous proposal for qubit amplifier by Gisin et al., [Phys Rev. Lett. 105, 070501 (2010)] the success probability of our device does not decrease asymptotically to zero with increasing gain. Moreover we show how the device can be used to restore entanglement deteriorated by transmission over a lossy channel and calculate the secure key rate for device-independent quantum key distribution.
- Dec 20 2012 quant-ph physics.optics arXiv:1212.4780v2We demonstrate a novel polarization-entangled photon-pair source based on standard birefringent polarization-maintaining optical fiber. The source consists of two stretches of fiber spliced together with perpendicular polarization axes, and has the potential to be fully fiber-based, with all bulk optics replaced with in-fiber equivalents. By modelling the temporal walk-off in the fibers, we implement compensation necessary for the photon creation processes in the two stretches of fiber to be indistinguishable. Our source subsequently produces a high quality entangled state having (92.2 \pm 0.2) % fidelity with a maximally entangled Bell state.
- Nov 15 2012 quant-ph physics.optics arXiv:1211.3194v1To implement the BB84 decoy-state quantum key distribution (QKD) protocol over a lossy ground-satellite quantum uplink requires a source that has high repetition rate of short laser pulses, long term stability, and no phase correlations between pulses. We present a new type of telecom optical polarization and amplitude modulator, based on a balanced Mach-Zehnder interferometer configuration, coupled to a polarization-preserving sum-frequency generation (SFG) optical setup, generating 532 nm photons with modulated polarization and amplitude states. The weak coherent pulses produced by SFG meet the challenging requirements for long range QKD, featuring a high clock rate of 76 MHz, pico-second pulse width, phase randomization, and 98% polarization visibility for all states. Successful QKD has been demonstrated using this apparatus with full system stability up to 160 minutes and channel losses as high 57 dB [Phys. Rev. A, Vol. 84, p.062326]. We present the design and simulation of the hardware through the Mueller matrix and Stokes vector relations, together with an experimental implementation working in the telecom wavelength band. We show the utility of the complete system by performing high loss QKD simulations, and confirm that our modulator fulfills the expected performance.
- Nov 13 2012 quant-ph physics.optics arXiv:1211.2733v1Optical quantum communication utilizing satellite platforms has the potential to extend the reach of quantum key distribution (QKD) from terrestrial limits of ~200 km to global scales. We have developed a thorough numerical simulation using realistic simulated orbits and incorporating the effects of pointing error, diffraction, atmosphere and telescope design, to obtain estimates of the loss and background noise which a satellite-based system would experience. Combining with quantum optics simulations of sources and detection, we determine the length of secure key for QKD, as well as entanglement visibility and achievable distances for fundamental experiments. We analyze the performance of a low Earth orbit (LEO) satellite for downlink and uplink scenarios of the quantum optical signals. We argue that the advantages of locating the quantum source on the ground justify a greater scientific interest in an uplink as compared to a downlink. An uplink with a ground transmitter of at least 25 cm diameter and a 30 cm receiver telescope on the satellite could be used to successfully perform QKD multiple times per week with either an entangled photon source or with a weak coherent pulse source, as well as perform long-distance Bell tests and quantum teleportation. Our model helps to resolve important design considerations such as operating wavelength, type and specifications of sources and detectors, telescope designs, specific orbits and ground station locations, in view of anticipated overall system performance.
- Studying Free-Space Transmission Statistics and Improving Free-Space QKD in the Turbulent AtmosphereAug 03 2012 quant-ph arXiv:1208.0609v2The statistical fluctuations in free-space links in the turbulent atmosphere are important for the distribution of quantum signals. To that end, we first study statistics generated by the turbulent atmosphere in an entanglement based free-space quantum key distribution (QKD) system. Using the insights gained from this analysis, we study the effect of link fluctuations on the security and key generation rate of decoy state QKD concluding that it has minimal effect in the typical operating regimes. We then investigate the novel idea of using these turbulent fluctuations to our advantage in QKD experiments. We implement a signal-to-noise ratio filter (SNRF) in our QKD system which rejects measurements during periods of low transmission efficiency, where the measured quantum bit error rate (QBER) is temporarily elevated. Using this, we increase the total secret key generated by the system from 78,009 bits to 97,678 bits, representing an increase of 25.2% in the final secure key rate, generated from the same raw signals. Lastly, we present simulations of a QKD exchange with an orbiting LEO satellite and show that an SNRF will be extremely useful in such a situation, allowing many more passes to extract a secret key than would otherwise be possible.
- How to implement decoy-state quantum key distribution for a satellite uplink with 50 dB channel lossNov 04 2011 quant-ph arXiv:1111.0976v2Quantum key distribution (QKD) takes advantage of fundamental properties of quantum physics to allow two distant parties to share a secret key; however, QKD is hampered by a distance limitation of a few hundred kilometers on earth. The most immediate solution for global coverage is to use a satellite, which can receive separate QKD transmissions from two or more ground stations and act as a trusted node to link these ground stations. In this article, we report a system capable of performing QKD in the high loss regime expected in an uplink to a satellite using weak coherent pulses and decoy states. Such a scenario profits from the simplicity of its receiver payload, but has so far considered to be infeasible due to very high transmission losses (40 - 50 dB). The high loss is overcome by implementing an innovative photon source and advanced timing analysis. Our system handles up to 57 dB photon loss in the infinite key limit, confirming the viability of the satellite uplink scenario. We emphasize that while this system was designed with a satellite uplink in mind, it could just as easily overcome high losses on any free space QKD link.
- Sep 13 2011 quant-ph arXiv:1109.2519v2We demonstrate the distribution of polarization-entangled photons for the purpose of quantum key distribution (QKD) along active telecom fibers. Entangled photon pairs of 810 nm wavelength generated by a Sagnac interferometer source were coupled into standard telecom single mode fibers. The fibers were either dark or carrying a standardized 1550 nm ethernet signals (1000BASE-ZX) with a nominal speed of 1 GBps from regular media converter devices, without any requirements on the optical power or spectrum transmitted. Our system demonstrates a QKD network covering 6 km in distance with a central service provider for classical and quantum data.
- Jul 27 2010 quant-ph arXiv:1007.4495v1We demonstrate the distribution of polarization entangled photons of wavelength 810 nm through standard telecom fibers. This technique allows quantum communication protocols to be performed over established fiber infrastructure, and makes use of the smaller and better performing setups available around 800 nm, as compared to those which use telecom wavelengths around 1550 nm. We examine the excitation and subsequent quenching of higher-order spatial modes in telecom fibers up to 6 km in length, and perform a distribution of high quality entanglement (visibility 95.6%). Finally, we demonstrate quantum key distribution using entangled 810 nm photons over a 4.4 km long installed telecom fiber link.