We perform decoy-state quantum key distribution between a low-Earth-orbit satellite and multiple ground stations located in Xinglong, Nanshan, and Graz, which establish satellite-to-ground secure keys with ~kHz rate per passage of the satellite Micius over a ground station. The satellite thus establishes a secure key between itself and, say, Xinglong, and another key between itself and, say, Graz. Then, upon request from the ground command, Micius acts as a trusted relay. It performs bitwise exclusive OR operations between the two keys and relays the result to one of the ground stations. That way, a secret key is created between China and Europe at locations separated by 7600 km on Earth. These keys are then used for intercontinental quantum-secured communication. This was on the one hand the transmission of images in a one-time pad configuration from China to Austria as well as from Austria to China. Also, a videoconference was performed between the Austrian Academy of Sciences and the Chinese Academy of Sciences, which also included a 280 km optical ground connection between Xinglong and Beijing. Our work points towards an efficient solution for an ultralong-distance global quantum network, laying the groundwork for a future quantum internet.
Since star network of spins was proposed, generating entanglement directly through spin interactions between distant parties became much possible. We propose an architecture which involves coupled spin chains based on nitrogen-vacancy centers and nitrogen defect spins to expand star network, the numerical analysis shows that the length of spin chains $M$ and spin noise can determine the maximally achievable entanglement $E_m$. The entanglement capability of this configuration under effect of disorder and spin loss is also studied. Moreover, it is shown that with this kind of architecture, star network of spins is feasible in measurement of magnetic-field gradient.
Quantum key distribution (QKD) uses individual light quanta in quantum superposition states to guarantee unconditional communication security between distant parties. In practice, the achievable distance for QKD has been limited to a few hundred kilometers, due to the channel loss of fibers or terrestrial free space that exponentially reduced the photon rate. Satellite-based QKD promises to establish a global-scale quantum network by exploiting the negligible photon loss and decoherence in the empty out space. Here, we develop and launch a low-Earth-orbit satellite to implement decoy-state QKD with over kHz key rate from the satellite to ground over a distance up to 1200 km, which is up to 20 orders of magnitudes more efficient than that expected using an optical fiber (with 0.2 dB/km loss) of the same length. The establishment of a reliable and efficient space-to-ground link for faithful quantum state transmission constitutes a key milestone for global-scale quantum networks.
Nonclassical beams in high order spatial modes have attracted much interest but they exhibit much less squeezing and entanglement than the fundamental spatial modes, limiting their applications. We experimentally demonstrate the relation between pump modes and entanglement of first-order HG modes (HG10 entangled states) in a type II OPO and show that the maximum entanglement of high order spatial modes can be obtained by optimizing the pump spatial mode. To our knowledge, this is the first time to report this. Utilizing the optimal pump mode, the HG10 mode threshold can be reached easily without HG00 oscillation and HG10 entanglement is enhanced by 53.5% over HG00 pumping. The technique is broadly applicable to entanglement generation in high order modes.
Quantum discord quantifies quantum correlation between quantum systems, which has potential application in quantum information processing. In this paper, we propose a scheme realizing the remote transfer of Gaussian quantum discord, in which another quantum discordant state or an Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entangled state serves as ancillary state. The calculation shows that two independent optical modes that without direct interaction become quantum correlated after the transfer. The output Gaussian quantum discord can be higher than the initial Gaussian quantum discord when optimal gain of the classical channel and the ancillary state are chosen. The physical reason for this result comes from the fact that the quantum discord of an asymmetric Gaussian quantum discordant state can be higher than that of a symmetric one. The presented scheme has potential application in quantum information network.
Measurement-based one-way quantum computation (QC) using cluster states as resources provides an efficient model to perform computation and information processing of quantum codes. Arbitrary Gaussian QC can be implemented by sufficiently long single-mode and two-mode gate sequences. However, continuous variable (CV) gate sequences have not been realized so far due to an absence of cluster states larger than four submodes. Here we present the first CV gate sequence consisting of a single-mode squeezing gate and a two-mode controlled-phase gate based on a six-mode cluster state. The quantum property of this gate sequence is confirmed by the fidelities and the quantum entanglement of two output modes, which depend on both the squeezing and controlled-phase gates. The experiment demonstrates the feasibility of implementing Gaussian QC by means of accessible gate sequences.
Hybrid quantum information devices that combine disparate physical systems interacting through photons offer the promise of combining low-loss telecommunications wavelength transmission with high fidelity visible wavelength storage and manipulation. The realization of such systems requires control over the waveform of single photons to achieve spectral and temporal matching. Here, we experimentally demonstrate the simultaneous wavelength translation and amplitude modulation of single photons generated by a quantum dot emitting near 1300 nm with an exponentially-decaying waveform (lifetime $\approx$1.5 ns). Quasi-phase-matched sum-frequency generation with a pulsed 1550 nm laser creates single photons at 710 nm with a controlled amplitude modulation at 350 ps timescales.
The ability to transduce non-classical states of light from one wavelength to another is a requirement for integrating disparate quantum systems that take advantage of telecommunications-band photons for optical fiber transmission of quantum information and near-visible, stationary systems for manipulation and storage. In addition, transducing a single-photon source at 1.3 \mum to visible wavelengths for detection would be integral to linear optical quantum computation due to the challenges of detection in the near-infrared. Recently, transduction at single-photon power levels has been accomplished through frequency upconversion, but it has yet to be demonstrated for a true single-photon source. Here, we transduce the triggered single-photon emission of a semiconductor quantum dot at 1.3 \mum to 710 nm with a total detection (internal conversion) efficiency of 21% (75%). We demonstrate that the 710 nm signal maintains the quantum character of the 1.3 \mum signal, yielding a photon anti-bunched second-order intensity correlation, g^(2)(t), that shows the optical field is composed of single photons with g^(2)(0) = 0.165 < 0.5.
We propose schemes to prepare atomic entangled states in a bi-mode cavity via stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (STIRAP) and fractional stimulated Raman adiabatic passage (f-STIRAP) tech- niques. According to the simulation results, our schemes keep the cavity modes almost unexcited and the atomic excited states are nearly unpopulated during the whole process. The simulation also shows that the error probability is very small.
Feb 28 2006 quant-ph
We analyze the nonlinear optical response of a six-level atomic system under a configuration of electromagnetically induced transparency. The giant fifth-order nonlinearity generated in such a system with a relatively large cross-phase modulation effect can produce efficient three-way entanglement and may be used for realizing a three-qubit quantum phase gate. We demonstrate that such phase gate can be transferred to a Toffoli gate, facilitating practical applications in quantum information and computation.
Nov 04 2005 quant-ph
We analyze the nonlinear optical response of a five-level system under a novel configuration of electro-magnetically induced transparency. We show that a giant Kerr nonlinearity with a relatively large cross-phase modulation coefficient that occurs in such system may be used to produce an efficient photon-photon entanglement. We demonstrate that such photon-photon entanglement is practically controllable and hence facilitates promising applications in quantum information and computation.
Jul 16 2004 quant-ph
We show that any arbitrary time-dependent density operator of an open system can always be described in terms of an operator-sum representation regardless of its initial condition and the path of its evolution in the state space, and we provide a general expression of Kraus operators for arbitrary time-dependent density operator of an $N$-dimensional system. Moreover, applications of our result are illustrated through several examples.
Feb 18 2003 quant-ph
The Letter presents an exact expression for the non-adiabatic non-cyclic geometric phase of photons propagating inside a noncoplanarly curved optical fiber by using the Lewis-Riesenfeld invariant theory. It is shown that the helicity inversion of photons arises in the curved fiber. Since we have exactly solved the time-dependent Schrödinger equation that governs the propagation of photons in a curved fiber and, moreover, the chronological product is not involved in this exact solution, our formulation therefore has several advantages over other treatments based on the classical Maxwell's theory and the Berry's adiabatic quantum theory. The potential application of helicity inversion of photons to information science is briefly suggested.
Apr 08 2002 quant-ph
We propose a non-adiabatic scheme for geometric quantum computation with trapped ions. By making use of the Aharonov-Anandan phase, the proposed scheme not only preserves the globally geometric nature in quantum computation, but also provides the advantage of non-adiabaticity that overcomes the problem of slow evolution in the existing adiabatic schemes. Moreover, the present scheme requires only two atomic levels in each ion, making it an appealing candidate for quantum computation.