results for au:Liu_N in:quant-ph

- Mar 22 2018 quant-ph physics.optics arXiv:1803.07735v1Improving the phase resolution of interferometry is crucial for high-precision measurements of various physical quantities. Systematic phase errors dominate the phase uncertainties in most realistic optical interferometers. Here we propose and experimentally demonstrate a weak measurement scheme to considerably suppress the phase uncertainties by the direct amplification of phase shift in optical interferometry. Given an initial ultra-small phase shift between orthogonal polarization states, we observe the phase amplification effect with a factor of 388. Our weak measurement scheme provides a practical approach to significantly improve the interferometric phase resolution, which is favorable for precision measurement applications.
- Topological data analysis offers a robust way to extract useful information from noisy, unstructured data by identifying its underlying structure. Recently, an efficient quantum algorithm was proposed [Lloyd, Garnerone, Zanardi, Nat. Commun. 7, 10138 (2016)] for calculating Betti numbers of data points -- topological features that count the number of topological holes of various dimensions in a scatterplot. Here, we implement a proof-of-principle demonstration of this quantum algorithm by employing a six-photon quantum processor to successfully analyze the topological features of Betti numbers of a network including three data points, providing new insights into data analysis in the era of quantum computing.
- Jan 16 2018 quant-ph arXiv:1801.04418v1We perform decoy-state quantum key distribution between a low-Earth-orbit satellite and multiple ground stations located in Xinglong, Nanshan, and Graz, which establish satellite-to-ground secure keys with ~kHz rate per passage of the satellite Micius over a ground station. The satellite thus establishes a secure key between itself and, say, Xinglong, and another key between itself and, say, Graz. Then, upon request from the ground command, Micius acts as a trusted relay. It performs bitwise exclusive OR operations between the two keys and relays the result to one of the ground stations. That way, a secret key is created between China and Europe at locations separated by 7600 km on Earth. These keys are then used for intercontinental quantum-secured communication. This was on the one hand the transmission of images in a one-time pad configuration from China to Austria as well as from Austria to China. Also, a videoconference was performed between the Austrian Academy of Sciences and the Chinese Academy of Sciences, which also included a 280 km optical ground connection between Xinglong and Beijing. Our work points towards an efficient solution for an ultralong-distance global quantum network, laying the groundwork for a future quantum internet.
- Jan 15 2018 quant-ph arXiv:1801.04043v1A central theme in quantum information science is to coherently control an increasing number of quantum particles as well as their internal and external degrees of freedom (DoFs), meanwhile maintaining a high level of coherence. The ability to create and verify multiparticle entanglement with individual control and measurement of each qubit serves as an important benchmark for quantum technologies. To this end, genuine multipartite entanglement have been reported up to 14 trapped ions, 10 photons, and 10 superconducting qubits. Here, we experimentally demonstrate an 18-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) entanglement by simultaneous exploiting three different DoFs of six photons, including their paths, polarization, and orbital angular momentum (OAM). We develop high-stability interferometers for reversible quantum logic operations between the photon's different DoFs with precision and efficiencies close to unity, enabling simultaneous readout of 262,144 outcome combinations of the 18-qubit state. A state fidelity of 0.708(16) is measured, confirming the genuine entanglement of all the 18 qubits.
- Nov 07 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1711.01784v1Creating large-scale entanglement lies at the heart of many quantum information processing protocols and the investigation of fundamental physics. Due to unavoidable interactions with the environment and current technological limitations, the generated many-body quantum state may not contain genuine multipartite entanglement but rather only a mixture of fewer-body entanglements. Still, identifying the precise structure of such many-body, but lower-order entanglement is of paramount importance. On the one hand, it provides hints on the whereabouts of imperfection in the setup, whereas on the other, it allows one to benchmark our technological progress towards the ultimate goal of demonstrating quantum supremacy. Here, we propose two complementary families of witnesses for the identification of such structures, each applicable to an arbitrary number of subsystems and whose evaluation requires only the implementation of solely two local measurements. As a proof of principle, we experimentally generate-via a reconfigurable photonic interferometer-five different eight-photon entangled states and demonstrate how their entanglement structure can be precisely and systematically inferred from the experimental measurement of these witnesses.
- Oct 23 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1710.07405v1Anomaly detection is used for identifying data that deviate from `normal' data patterns. Its usage on classical data finds diverse applications in many important areas like fraud detection, medical diagnoses, data cleaning and surveillance. With the advent of quantum technologies, anomaly detection of quantum data, in the form of quantum states, may become an important component of quantum applications. Machine learning algorithms are playing pivotal roles in anomaly detection using classical data. Two widely-used algorithms are kernel principal component analysis and one-class support vector machine. We find corresponding quantum algorithms to detect anomalies in quantum states. We show that these two quantum algorithms can be performed using resources logarithmic in the dimensionality of quantum states. For pure quantum states, these resources can also be logarithmic in the number of quantum states used for training the machine learning algorithm. This makes these algorithms potentially applicable to big quantum data applications.
- Multiphoton interference in quantum Fourier transform circuits and applications to quantum metrologyAug 02 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1708.00296v1Quantum Fourier transforms (QFT) have gained increased attention with the rise of quantum walks, boson sampling, and quantum metrology. Here we present and demonstrate a general technique that simplifies the construction of QFT interferometers using both path and polarization modes. On that basis, we first observed the generalized Hong-Ou-Mandel effect with up to four photons. Furthermore, we directly exploited number-path entanglement generated in these QFT interferometers and demonstrated optical phase supersensitivities deterministically.
- With the rise of quantum technologies, it is necessary to have practical and preferably non-destructive methods to measure and read-out from such devices. A current line of research towards this has focussed on the use of ancilla systems which couple to the system under investigation, and through their interaction, enable properties of the primary system to be imprinted onto and inferred from the ancillae. We propose the use of continuous variable qumodes as ancillary probes, and show that the interaction Hamiltonian can be fully characterised and directly sampled from measurements of the qumode alone. We suggest how such probes may also be used to determine thermodynamical properties, including reconstruction of the partition function. We show that the method is robust to realistic experimental imperfections such as finite-sized measurement bins and squeezing, and discuss how such probes are already feasible with current experimental setups.
- Long-distance entanglement distribution is essential both for foundational tests of quantum physics and scalable quantum networks. Owing to channel loss, however, the previously achieved distance was limited to ~100 km. Here, we demonstrate satellite-based distribution of entangled photon pairs to two locations separated by 1203 km on the Earth, through satellite-to-ground two-downlink with a sum of length varies from 1600 km to 2400 km. We observe a survival of two-photon entanglement and a violation of Bell inequality by 2.37+/-0.09 under strict Einstein locality conditions. The obtained effective link efficiency at 1200 km in this work is over 12 orders of magnitude higher than the direct bidirectional transmission of the two photons through the best commercial telecommunication fibers with a loss of 0.16 dB/km.
- Jul 05 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1707.00851v1We in this paper study quantum correlations for two neutral spin-particles coupled with a single-mode optical cavity through the usual magnetic interaction. Two-spin entangled states for both antiparallel and parallel spin-polarizations are generated under the photon coherent-state assumption. Based on the quantum master equation we derive the time-dependent quantum correlation of Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) type explicitly in comparison with the well known entanglement-measure concurrence. In the two-spin singlet state, which is recognized as one eigenstate of the system, the CHSH correlation and concurrence remain in their maximum values invariant with time and independent of the average photon-numbers either. The correlation varies periodically with time in the general entangled-states for the low average photon-numbers. When the photon number increases to a certain value the oscillation becomes random and the correlations are suppressed below the Bell bound indicating the decoherence of the entangled states. In the high photon-number limit the coherence revivals periodically such that the CHSH correlation approaches the upper bound value at particular time points associated with the cavity-field period
- An arbitrary unknown quantum state cannot be precisely measured or perfectly replicated. However, quantum teleportation allows faithful transfer of unknown quantum states from one object to another over long distance, without physical travelling of the object itself. Long-distance teleportation has been recognized as a fundamental element in protocols such as large-scale quantum networks and distributed quantum computation. However, the previous teleportation experiments between distant locations were limited to a distance on the order of 100 kilometers, due to photon loss in optical fibres or terrestrial free-space channels. An outstanding open challenge for a global-scale "quantum internet" is to significantly extend the range for teleportation. A promising solution to this problem is exploiting satellite platform and space-based link, which can conveniently connect two remote points on the Earth with greatly reduced channel loss because most of the photons' propagation path is in empty space. Here, we report the first quantum teleportation of independent single-photon qubits from a ground observatory to a low Earth orbit satellite - through an up-link channel - with a distance up to 1400 km. To optimize the link efficiency and overcome the atmospheric turbulence in the up-link, a series of techniques are developed, including a compact ultra-bright source of multi-photon entanglement, narrow beam divergence, high-bandwidth and high-accuracy acquiring, pointing, and tracking (APT). We demonstrate successful quantum teleportation for six input states in mutually unbiased bases with an average fidelity of 0.80+/-0.01, well above the classical limit. This work establishes the first ground-to-satellite up-link for faithful and ultra-long-distance quantum teleportation, an essential step toward global-scale quantum internet.
- Jul 04 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1707.00400v1To date, blind quantum computing demonstrations require clients to have weak quantum devices. Here we implement a proof-of-principle experiment for completely classical clients. Via classically interacting with two quantum servers that share entanglement, the client accomplishes the task of having the number 15 factorized by servers who are denied information about the computation itself. This concealment is accompanied by a verification protocol that tests servers' honesty and correctness. Our demonstration shows the feasibility of completely classical clients and thus is a key milestone towards secure cloud quantum computing.
- Quantum key distribution (QKD) uses individual light quanta in quantum superposition states to guarantee unconditional communication security between distant parties. In practice, the achievable distance for QKD has been limited to a few hundred kilometers, due to the channel loss of fibers or terrestrial free space that exponentially reduced the photon rate. Satellite-based QKD promises to establish a global-scale quantum network by exploiting the negligible photon loss and decoherence in the empty out space. Here, we develop and launch a low-Earth-orbit satellite to implement decoy-state QKD with over kHz key rate from the satellite to ground over a distance up to 1200 km, which is up to 20 orders of magnitudes more efficient than that expected using an optical fiber (with 0.2 dB/km loss) of the same length. The establishment of a reliable and efficient space-to-ground link for faithful quantum state transmission constitutes a key milestone for global-scale quantum networks.
- Apr 17 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1704.04371v3Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) protocol was proposed to remove all the detector side channel attacks, while its security relies on the trusted encoding systems. Here we propose a one-sided MDI-QKD (1SMDI-QKD) protocol, which enjoys detection loophole-free advantage, and at the same time weakens the state preparation assumption in MDI-QKD. The 1SMDI-QKD can be regarded as a modified MDI-QKD, in which Bob's encoding system is trusted, while Alice's is uncharacterized. For the practical implementation, we also provide a scheme by utilizing coherent light source with an analytical two decoy state estimation method. Simulation with realistic experimental parameters shows that the protocol has a promising performance, and thus can be applied to practical QKD applications.
- In this paper we investigate the ground-state properties and related quantum phase transitions for the two-component Bose-Einstein condensate in a single-mode optical cavity. Apart from the usual normal and superradiant phases multi-stable macroscopic quantum states are realized by means of the spin-coherent-state variational method. We demonstrate analytically the stimulated radiation from collective state of atomic population inversion, which does not exist in the normal Dicke model with single-component atoms. It is also revealed that the stimulated radiation can be generated only from one component of atoms and the other remains in the ordinary superradiant state. However the order of superradiant and stimulatedradiation states is interchangeable between two components of atoms by tuning the relative atom-field couplings and the frequency detuning as well.
- Feb 27 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1702.07438v1We in this paper derive the analytical expressions of ground-state energy, average photon-number, and the atomic population by means of the spin-coherent-state variational method for arbitrary number of atoms in an optomechanical cavity. It is found that the existence of mechanical oscil- lator does not affect the phase boundary between the normal and superradiant phases. However, the superradiant phase collapses by the resonant damping of the oscillator when the atom-field coupling increases to a so-called turning point. As a consequence the system undergoes at this point an additional phase transition from the superradiant phase to a new normal phase of the atomic population-inversion state. The region of superradiant phase decreases with the increase of photon-phonon coupling. It shrinks to zero at a critical value of the coupling and a direct atomic population transfer appears between two atom-levels. Moreover we find an unstable nonzero-photon state, which is the counterpart of the superradiant state. In the absence of oscillator our result re- duces exactly to that of Dicke model. Particularly the ground-state energy for N = 1 (i.e. the Rabi model) is in perfect agreement with the numerical diagonalization in a wide region of coupling constant for both red and blue detuning. The Dicke phase transition remains for the Rabi model in agreement with the recent observation.
- Dec 13 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1612.03621v2Precise device characterization is a fundamental requirement for a large range of applications using photonic hardware, and constitutes a multi-parameter estimation problem. Estimates based on measurements using single photons or classical light have precision which is limited by shot-noise, while quantum resources can be used to achieve sub-shot-noise precision. However, there are many open questions with regard to the best quantum protocols for multi-parameter estimation, including the ultimate limits to achievable precision, as well as optimal choices for probe states and measurements. In this paper, we develop a formalism based on Fisher information to tackle these questions for set-ups based on linear-optical components and photon-counting measurements. A key ingredient of our analysis is a mapping for equivalent protocols defined for photonic and spin systems, which allows us to draw upon results in the literature for general finite-dimensional systems. Motivated by the protocol in X.-Q. Zhou, et al., Optica 2, 510 (2015), we present new results for quantum-enhanced tomography of unitary processes, including a comparison of Holland-Burnett and NOON probe states.
- Dec 01 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1611.09990v1Bell's theorem shows a profound contradiction between local realism and quantum mechanics on the level of statistical predictions. It does not involve directly Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) correlations. The paradox of Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) disproves directly the concept of EPR elements of reality, based on the EPR correlations, in an all-versus-nothing way. A three-qubit experimental demonstration of the GHZ paradox was achieved nearly twenty years ago, and followed by demonstrations for more qubits. Still, the GHZ contradictions underlying the tests can be reduced to three-qubit one. We show an irreducible four-qubit GHZ paradox, and report its experimental demonstration. The reducibility loophole is closed. The bound of a three-setting per party Bell-GHZ inequality is violated by $7\sigma$. The fidelity of the GHZ state was around $81\%$, and an entanglement witness reveals a violation of the separability threshold by $19\sigma$.
- Sep 02 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1609.00228v3We report on the experimental realization of a ten-photon Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state using thin BiB$_{3}$O$_{6}$ crystals. The observed fidelity is $0.606\pm0.029$, demonstrating a genuine entanglement with a standard deviation of 3.6 $\sigma$. This result is further verified using $p$-value calculation, obtaining an upper bound of $3.7\times10^{-3}$ under an assumed hypothesis test. Our experiment paves a new way to efficiently engineer BiB$_{3}$O$_{6}$ crystal-based multi-photon entanglement systems, which provides a promising platform for investigating advanced optical quantum information processing tasks such as boson sampling, quantum error correction and quantum-enhanced measurement.
- Jul 06 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1607.01057v2This thesis is an exploration of the power of photonic resources, as viewed from several different but related perspectives. They range from quantum computation, precision parameter estimation to the thermodynamics of relativistic quantum systems, as applied to cosmology in particular. In chapter 1, we propose a new quantum computational model, called the `power of one qumode', that relies mainly on a single-mode photonic squeezed state. In particular, we show the amount of squeezing can quantitatively relate the resource requirements of factoring to the problem of finding the trace of large unitary matrices, a result with consequences for understanding how powerful quantum computation really is. Furthermore, we can connect squeezing to other known resources like precision, energy, qudit dimensionality and qubit number, which is a useful stepping stone to finding the resources that enable quantum computation. In chapter 2, we exploit the quantum mechanical properties of photonic states for use in precision parameter estimation of general linear optical processes, which is useful for a diverse number of applications, from characterising an unknown process in a photonic quantum computer to biological imaging. We introduce a formalism that quantifies this improvement in precision. We also provide conditions under which one can easily check for photonic states that are optimal to use in this context, which is a potentially important result for future experimental efforts. In chapter 3, we explore the connection between two-mode squeezed states, commonly used in quantum optics, and relativistic quantum processes, in particular in cosmology. Using this connection, we apply recently developed tools from the thermodynamics of quantum systems perturbed far from equilibrium to address an old question of entropy production in cosmology from a surprising new angle.
- May 30 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1605.08547v3Quantum entanglement among multiple spatially separated particles is of fundamental interest, and can serve as central resources for studies in quantum nonlocality, quantum-to-classical transition, quantum error correction, and quantum simulation. The ability of generating an increasing number of entangled particles is an important benchmark for quantum information processing. The largest entangled states were previously created with fourteen trapped ions, eight photons, and five superconducting qubits. Here, based on spontaneous parametric down-converted two-photon entanglement source with simultaneously a high brightness of ~12 MHz/W, a collection efficiency of ~70% and an indistinguishability of ~91% between independent photons, we demonstrate, for the first time, genuine and distillable entanglement of ten single photons under different pump power. Our work creates a state-of-the-art platform for multi-photon experiments, and provide enabling technologies for challenging optical quantum information tasks such as high-efficiency scattershot boson sampling with many photons.
- Apr 28 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1604.08093v1Secret sharing of a quantum state, or quantum secret sharing, in which a dealer wants to share certain amount of quantum information with a few players, has wide applications in quantum information. The critical criterion in a threshold secret sharing scheme is confidentiality, with less than the designated number of players, no information can be recovered. Furthermore, in a quantum scenario, one additional critical criterion exists, the capability of sharing entangled and unknown quantum information. Here by employing a six-photon entangled state, we demonstrate a quantum threshold scheme, where the shared quantum secrecy can be efficiently reconstructed with a state fidelity as high as 93%. By observing that any one or two parties cannot recover the secrecy, we show that our scheme meets the confidentiality criterion. Meanwhile, we also demonstrate that entangled quantum information can be shared and recovered via our setting, which demonstrates that our implemented scheme is fully quantum. Moreover, our experimental setup can be treated as a decoding circuit of the 5-qubit quantum error-correcting code with two erasure errors.
- Dec 07 2015 quant-ph arXiv:1512.01386v1We demonstrate that a phase-insensitive parametric amplifier, coupled to a quantum correlated source, can be used as a quantum information tap for noiseless three-way signal splitting. We find that the output signals are amplified noiselessly in two of the three output ports while the other can more or less keep its original input size without adding noise. This scheme is able to cascade and scales up for efficient information distribution in an optical network. Furthermore, we find this scheme satisfies the criteria for a non-ideal quantum non-demolition (QND) measurement and thus can serve as a QND measurement device. With two readouts correlated to the input, we find this scheme also satisfies the criterion for sequential QND measurement.
- Oct 19 2015 quant-ph arXiv:1510.04758v2Although quantum computers are capable of solving problems like factoring exponentially faster than the best-known classical algorithms, determining the resources responsible for their computational power remains unclear. An important class of problems where quantum computers possess an advantage is phase estimation, which includes applications like factoring. We introduce a new computational model based on a single squeezed state resource that can perform phase estimation, which we call the power of one qumode. This model is inspired by an interesting computational model known as deterministic quantum computing with one quantum bit (DQC1). Using the power of one qumode, we identify that the amount of squeezing is sufficient to quantify the resource requirements of different computational problems based on phase estimation. In particular, it establishes a quantitative relationship between the resources required for factoring and DQC1. For example, we find the squeezing required to factor has an exponential scaling whereas no squeezing (i.e., a coherent state) is already sufficient to solve the hardest problem in DQC1.
- Jun 18 2015 quant-ph arXiv:1506.05353v2We reports direct and scalable measurement of multiparticle entanglement concurrence and three-tangle with embedding photonic quantum simulators. In this embedding framework [Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 240502 (2013)], $N$-qubit entanglement monotone, which associates with non-Hermitian operators, can be efficiently measured with only 2 (for even $N$) and 6 (for odd $N$) local measurement settings. Our experiment uses a multiphoton quantum simulator to mimic the dynamical entanglement evolution and track its concurrence and three-tangle.
- May 13 2015 quant-ph arXiv:1505.02879v2Quantum simulation is of great importance in quantum information science. Here, we report an experimental quantum channel simulator imbued with an algorithm for imitating the behavior of a general class of quantum systems. The reported quantum channel simulator consists of four single-qubit gates and one controlled-NOT gate. All types of quantum channels can be decomposed by the algorithm and implemented on this device. We deploy our system to simulate various quantum channels, such as quantum-noise channels and weak quantum measurement. Our results advance experimental quantum channel simulation, which is integral to the goal of quantum information processing.
- Apr 29 2015 quant-ph physics.optics arXiv:1504.07345v2One of the important function in optical communication system is the distribution of information encoded in an optical beam. It is not a problem to accomplish this in a classical system since classical information can be copied at will. However, challenges arise in quantum system because extra quantum noise is often added when the information content of a quantum state is distributed to various users. Here, we experimentally demonstrate a quantum information tap by using a fiber optical parametric amplifier (FOPA) with correlated inputs, whose noise is reduced by the destructive quantum interference through quantum entanglement between the signal and the idler input fields. By measuring the noise figure of the FOPA and comparing with a regular FOPA, we observe an improvement of 0.7+-0.1 dB and 0.84+-0.09 dB from the signal and idler outputs, respectively. When the low noise FOPA functions as an information splitter, the device has a total information transfer coefficient of Ts+Ti=1.47+-0.2, which is greater than the classical limit of 1. Moreover, this fiber based device works at the 1550 nm telecom band, so it is compatible with the current fiber-optical network.
- Oct 14 2014 quant-ph arXiv:1410.2928v2Vulnerabilities and imperfections of single-photon detectors have been shown to compromise security for quantum key distribution (QKD). The measurement-device-independent QKD (MDI-QKD) appears to be the most appealing solution to solve the issues. However, in practice one faces severe obstacles of having significantly lower key generation rate, difficult two photon interferences, and remote synchronization etc. In this letter, we propose a highly efficient and simple quantum key distribution scheme to remove all of these drawbacks. Our proposal can be implemented with only small modifications over the standard decoy BB84 system. Remarkably it enjoys both the advantages of high key generation rate (being almost two orders of magnitude higher than that based on conventional MDI-QKD) comparable to the normal decoy system, and security against any detector side channel attacks. Most favorably one can achieve complete Bell state measurements with resort to single photon interference, which reduces significantly experimental costs. Our approach enables utilization of high speed and efficient secure communication, particularly in real-life scenario of both metropolitan and intercity QKD network, with an attack free fashion from arbitrary detector side channels.
- Sep 30 2014 quant-ph cond-mat.other arXiv:1409.7770v3Machine learning, a branch of artificial intelligence, learns from previous experience to optimize performance, which is ubiquitous in various fields such as computer sciences, financial analysis, robotics, and bioinformatics. A challenge is that machine learning with the rapidly growing "big data" could become intractable for classical computers. Recently, quantum machine learning algorithms [Lloyd, Mohseni, and Rebentrost, arXiv.1307.0411] were proposed which could offer an exponential speedup over classical algorithms. Here, we report the first experimental entanglement-based classification of 2-, 4-, and 8-dimensional vectors to different clusters using a small-scale photonic quantum computer, which are then used to implement supervised and unsupervised machine learning. The results demonstrate the working principle of using quantum computers to manipulate and classify high-dimensional vectors, the core mathematical routine in machine learning. The method can in principle be scaled to larger number of qubits, and may provide a new route to accelerate machine learning.
- Quantum teleportation provides a "disembodied" way to transfer quantum states from one object to another at a distant location, assisted by priorly shared entangled states and a classical communication channel. In addition to its fundamental interest, teleportation has been recognized as an important element in long-distance quantum communication, distributed quantum networks and measurement-based quantum computation. There have been numerous demonstrations of teleportation in different physical systems such as photons, atoms, ions, electrons, and superconducting circuits. Yet, all the previous experiments were limited to teleportation of one degree of freedom (DoF) only. However, a single quantum particle can naturally possess various DoFs -- internal and external -- and with coherent coupling among them. A fundamental open challenge is to simultaneously teleport multiple DoFs, which is necessary to fully describe a quantum particle, thereby truly teleporting it intactly. Here, we demonstrate the first teleportation of the composite quantum states of a single photon encoded in both the spin and orbital angular momentum. We develop a method to project and discriminate hyper-entangled Bell states exploiting probabilistic quantum non-demolition measurement, which can be extended to more DoFs. We verify the teleportation for both spin-orbit product states and hybrid entangled state, and achieve a teleportation fidelity ranging from 0.57 to 0.68, above the classical limit. Our work moves a step toward teleportation of more complex quantum systems, and demonstrates an enhanced capability for scalable quantum technologies.
- We investigate the thermodynamical properties of quantum fields in curved spacetime. Our approach is to consider quantum fields in curved spacetime as a quantum system undergoing an out-of-equilibrium transformation. The non-equilibrium features are studied by using a formalism which has been developed to derive fluctuation relations and emergent irreversible features beyond the linear response regime. We apply these ideas to an expanding universe scenario, therefore avoiding assumptions on the relation between entropy and quantum matter. We provide a fluctuation theorem which allows us to understand particle production due to the expansion of the universe as an entropic increase. Our results pave the way towards a different understanding of the thermodynamics of relativistic and quantum systems in our universe.
- May 23 2014 cond-mat.quant-gas quant-ph arXiv:1405.5612v1In this paper we explore the rich structure of macroscopic many-particle quantum states for Bose- Einstein condensate in an optical cavity with the tunable nonlinear atom-photon interaction [Nature (London) 464, 1301 (2010)]. Population inversion, bistable normal phases and the coexistence of normalsuperradiant phases are revealed by adjusting of the experimentally realizable interaction strength and pump-laser frequency. For the negative (effective) cavity-frequency we observe remark- ably an inverted quantum phase transition (QPT) from the superradiant to normal phases with the increase of atom-field coupling, which is just opposite to the QPT in the normal Dicke model. The bistable macroscopic states are derived analytically in terms of the spin-coherent-state variational method by taking into account of both normal and inverted pseudospin states.
- Apr 22 2013 quant-ph physics.optics arXiv:1304.5318v2Using the Bogoliubov transformation in multi-frequency modes to describe the evolution of the non-degenerate signal and idler twin beams, we theoretically investigate the quantum noise properties of the pulse pumped high gain fiber optical parametric amplifiers (FOPA). The results show that the noise figure of the FOPA is generally greater than the 3 dB quantum limit unless the joint spectral function is factorable and the spectrum of the input signal well matches the gain spectrum in the signal band. However, the intensity difference noise of the twin beams, which weakly depends on the joint spectral function, can be significantly less than the shot-noise limit when the temporal modes of the pump and the input signal are properly matched. Moreover, to closely resemble the real experimental condition, the quantum noise of twin beams generated from a broadband FOPA is numerically studied by taking the various kinds of experimental imperfections into account. Our study is not only useful for developing a compact fiber source of twin beams, but also helpful for understanding the quantum noise limit of a pulse pumped FOPA in the fiber communication system.
- Feb 19 2013 quant-ph arXiv:1302.4310v2Solving linear systems of equations is ubiquitous in all areas of science and engineering. With rapidly growing data sets, such a task can be intractable for classical computers, as the best known classical algorithms require a time proportional to the number of variables N. A recently proposed quantum algorithm shows that quantum computers could solve linear systems in a time scale of order log(N), giving an exponential speedup over classical computers. Here we realize the simplest instance of this algorithm, solving 2*2 linear equations for various input vectors on a quantum computer. We use four quantum bits and four controlled logic gates to implement every subroutine required, demonstrating the working principle of this algorithm.
- Sep 28 2012 quant-ph arXiv:1209.6178v1Throughout history, every advance in encryption has been defeated by advances in hacking with severe consequences. Quantum cryptography holds the promise to end this battle by offering unconditional security when ideal single-photon sources and detectors are employed. Unfortunately, ideal devices never exist in practice and device imperfections have become the targets of various attacks. By developing up-conversion single-photon detectors with high efficiency and low noise, we build up a measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) system, which is immune to all hacking strategies on detection. Meanwhile, we employ the decoy-state method to defeat attacks on non-ideal source. By closing the loopholes in both source and detection, our practical system, which generates more than 25 kbit secure key over a 50-km fiber link, provides an ultimate solution for communication security.
- Aug 27 2012 quant-ph physics.optics arXiv:1208.4971v3Motivated by the pursuit of a simple system to produce non-classical light sources for long- distance quantum communication, we generate for the first time an all-fiber source of pulsed twin beams in 1550 nm band by using a high gain fiber optical parametric amplifier. The noise of intensity difference of the twin beams is below the shot noise limit by 3.1 dB (10.4 dB after correction for losses). A detailed study reveals a number of limiting factors for higher noise reduction. Therefore, further noise reduction will be feasible once care is taken for these limiting factors.
- Quantum memories are regarded as one of the fundamental building blocks of linear-optical quantum computation and long-distance quantum communication. A long standing goal to realize scalable quantum information processing is to build a long-lived and efficient quantum memory. There have been significant efforts distributed towards this goal. However, either efficient but short-lived or long-lived but inefficient quantum memories have been demonstrated so far. Here we report a high-performance quantum memory in which long lifetime and high retrieval efficiency meet for the first time. By placing a ring cavity around an atomic ensemble, employing a pair of clock states, creating a long-wavelength spin wave, and arranging the setup in the gravitational direction, we realize a quantum memory with an intrinsic spin wave to photon conversion efficiency of 73(2)% together with a storage lifetime of 3.2(1) ms. This realization provides an essential tool towards scalable linear-optical quantum information processing.
- Apr 09 2012 quant-ph arXiv:1204.1532v1Coherent and reversible storage of multi-photon entanglement with a multimode quantum memory is essential for scalable all-optical quantum information processing. Although single photon has been successfully stored in different quantum systems, storage of multi-photon entanglement remains challenging because of the critical requirement for coherent control of photonic entanglement source, multimode quantum memory, and quantum interface between them. Here we demonstrate a coherent and reversible storage of biphoton Bell-type entanglement with a holographic multimode atomic-ensemble-based quantum memory. The retrieved biphoton entanglement violates Bell's inequality for 1 microsecond storage time and a memory-process fidelity of 98% is demonstrated by quantum state tomography.
- Feb 27 2012 quant-ph arXiv:1202.5459v1Scalable quantum computing can only be achieved if qubits are manipulated fault-tolerantly. Topological error correction - a novel method which combines topological quantum computing and quantum error correction - possesses the highest known tolerable error rate for a local architecture. This scheme makes use of cluster states with topological properties and requires only nearest-neighbour interactions. Here we report the first experimental demonstration of topological error correction with an eight-photon cluster state. It is shown that a correlation can be protected against a single error on any qubit, and when all qubits are simultaneously subjected to errors with equal probability, the effective error rate can be significantly reduced. This demonstrates the viability of topological error correction. Our work represents the first experimental effort to achieve fault-tolerant quantum information processing by exploring the topological properties of quantum states.
- Feb 16 2012 quant-ph arXiv:1202.3326v1We investigate quantitatively the wave-particle duality in a general Mach-Zehnder interferometer setup with an asymmetric beam splitter. The asymmetric beam splitter introduces additional a priori which-path knowledge, which is different for a particle detected at one output port of the interferometer and a particle detected at the other. Accordingly, the fringe visibilities of the interference patterns emerging at the two output ports are also different. Hence, in sharp contrast with the symmetric case, here we should concentrate on one output port and distinguish two possible paths taken by the particles detected at that port among four paths. It turns out that two nonorthogonal unsharp observables are measured jointly in this setup. We apply the condition for joint measurability of these unsharp observables to obtain a trade-off relation between the fringe visibility of the interference pattern and the which-path distinguishability.
- Jul 20 2011 quant-ph cond-mat.quant-gas arXiv:1107.3605v1In this paper we reveal the rich ground-state properties induced by the strong nonlinear atom-photon interaction, which has been found in the recent experiment about a Bose-Einstein condensate coupling with a high-finesse cavity [Nature (London) 464, 1301 (2010)]. Two detuning-dependent phase diagrams are revealed by investigating the experimentally-measurable atomic population. In particular, two new quantum phase transitions from the superradiant phase or the normal phase to a dynamically-unstable phase are predicted in the blue detuning, and moreover, the three-phase coexistence points are found. It is also demonstrated that these predicted quantum phase transitions are the intrinsic transitions governed only by the second-order derivative of the ground-state energy. Finally, we also point out that the region involving coexistence of the superradiant phase and the normal phase predicted before can not happen in the ground state.
- May 13 2008 quant-ph arXiv:0805.1538v2We present a single inequality as the necessary and sufficient condition for two unsharp observables of a two-level system to be jointly measurable in a single apparatus and construct explicitly the joint observables. A complementarity inequality arising from the condition of joint measurement, which generalizes Englert's duality inequality, is derived as the trade-off between the unsharpnesses of two jointly measurable observables.
- Dec 24 2007 quant-ph arXiv:0712.3653v3The Mach-Zehnder interferometric setup quantitatively characterizing the wave-particle duality implements in fact a joint measurement of two unsharp observables. We present a necessary and sufficient condition for such a pair of unsharp observables to be jointly measurable. The condition is shown to be equivalent to a duality inequality, which for the optimal strategy of extracting the which-path information is more stringent than the Jaeger-Shimony-Vaidman-Englert inequality.
- Jun 13 2007 quant-ph arXiv:0706.1598v5We derive the lower and upper bounds on the entanglement of a given multipartite superposition state in terms of the entanglement of the states being superposed. The first entanglement measure we use is the geometric measure, and the second is the q-squashed entanglement. These bounds allow us to estimate the amount of the multipartite entanglement of superpositions. We also show that two states of high fidelity to one another do not necessarily have nearly the same q-squashed entanglement.
- Mar 13 2006 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0603085v3We introduce the general catalysts for pure entanglement transformations under local operations and classical communications in such a way that we disregard the profit and loss of entanglement of the catalysts per se. As such, the possibilities of pure entanglement transformations are greatly expanded. Remarkably, we find an interesting phenomenon that, in some situations, incomparable pairs ${| \psi> ,| \phi> \} $ and ${| \chi> ,| \chi^{\prime}> \} $ can assist each other mutually so as to realize the transformation $| \psi> | \chi> \to| \phi> | \chi^{\prime}>$. We also design an efficient algorithm to detect whether a $k\times k$ general catalyst exists for a given entanglement transformation. This algorithm can as well be exploited to witness the existence of standard catalysts.
- Jan 03 2005 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0412220v2We propose a family of entanglement witnesses and corresponding positive maps that are not completely positive based on local orthogonal observables. As applications the entanglement witness of the $3\times 3$ bound entangled state [P. Horodecki, Phys. Lett. A \bf 232, 333 (1997)] is explicitly constructed and a family of $d$-dimensional bound entangled states is designed so that the entanglement can be detected by permuting local orthogonal observables. Further the proposed physically not implementable positive maps can be physically realized by measuring a Hermitian correlation matrix of local orthogonal observables.
- Aug 21 2003 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0308102v1Although entanglement is widely recognized as one of the most fascinating characteristics of quantum mechanics, nonlocality remains to be a big labyrinth. The proof of existence of nonlocality is as yet not much convincing because of its strong reliance on Bell's theorem where the assumption of realism weakens the proof. We demonstrate that entanglement and quantum nonlocality are two equivalent aspects of the same quantum wholeness for spacelike separated quantum systems. This result implies that quantum mechanics is indeed a nonlocal theory and lays foundation of understanding quantum nonlocality beyond Bell's theorem.
- Jul 22 2003 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0307144v1We prove that for a three-qubit system in the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state, locality per se is in conflict with the perfect GHZ correlations. The proof does not in any way use the realism assumption and can lead to a refutation of locality. We also provide inequalities that are imposed by locality. The experimental confirmation of the present reasoning may imply a genuine quantum nonlocality and will deepen our understanding of nonlocality of nature.