results for au:Liu_J in:gr-qc

- Feb 15 2018 gr-qc arXiv:1802.05241v1We report on a new all-sky search for periodic gravitational waves in the frequency band 475-2000 Hz and with a frequency time derivative in the range of [-1.0e-8, +1e-9] Hz/s. Potential signals could be produced by a nearby spinning and slightly non-axisymmetric isolated neutron star in our galaxy. This search uses the data from Advanced LIGO's first observational run O1. No gravitational wave signals were observed, and upper limits were placed on their strengths. For completeness, results from the separately published low frequency search 20-475 Hz are included as well. Our lowest upper limit on worst-case (linearly polarized) strain amplitude h_0 is 4e-25 near 170 Hz, while at the high end of our frequency range we achieve a worst-case upper limit of 1.3e-24. For a circularly polarized source (most favorable orientation), the smallest upper limit obtained is ~1.5e-25.
- Appending new microstates to a system inevitably increases the entropy associated with a fixed macroscopic configuration. If those extra degrees of freedom are short-distance modes, then their long-distance effects are encoded by higher-dimension operators. In the context of Einstein-Maxwell theory, these corrections modify the entropy of a charged black hole through the Wald entropy formula. Requiring that the shift in black hole entropy be strictly positive at fixed mass and charge then mandates new positivity conditions on the coefficients of higher-dimension operators. These bounds imply that the coefficient of the Riemann-squared term is positive and that the charge-to-mass ratio of an extremal black hole asymptotes to unity from above for increasing mass. Large extremal black holes are thus unstable to decay to smaller extremal black holes, which automatically satisfy the weak gravity conjecture. Our results generalize to arbitrary spacetime dimension and to the case of multiple gauge fields.
- Dec 05 2017 gr-qc astro-ph.CO arXiv:1712.01168v1Cosmic strings are topological defects which can be formed in GUT-scale phase transitions in the early universe. They are also predicted to form in the context of string theory. The main mechanism for a network of Nambu-Goto cosmic strings to lose energy is through the production of loops and the subsequent emission of gravitational waves, thus offering an experimental signature for the existence of cosmic strings. Here we report on the analysis conducted to specifically search for gravitational-wave bursts from cosmic string loops in the data of Advanced LIGO 2015-2016 observing run (O1). No evidence of such signals was found in the data, and as a result we set upper limits on the cosmic string parameters for three recent loop distribution models. In this paper, we initially derive constraints on the string tension $G\mu$ and the intercommutation probability, using not only the burst analysis performed on the O1 data set, but also results from the previously published LIGO stochastic O1 analysis, pulsar timing arrays, cosmic microwave background and Big-Bang nucleosynthesis experiments. We show that these data sets are complementary in that they probe gravitational waves produced by cosmic string loops during very different epochs. Finally, we show that the data sets exclude large parts of the parameter space of the three loop distribution models we consider.
- Nov 21 2017 gr-qc astro-ph.HE arXiv:1711.06843v1We present the results of a search for long-duration gravitational wave transients in the data of the LIGO Hanford and LIGO Livingston second generation detectors between September 2015 and January 2016, with a total observational time of 49 days. The search targets gravitational wave transients of \unit[10 -- 500]s duration in a frequency band of \unit[24 -- 2048]Hz, with minimal assumptions about the signal waveform, polarization, source direction, or time of occurrence. No significant events were observed. %All candidate triggers were consistent with the expected background, As a result we set 90\% confidence upper limits on the rate of long-duration gravitational wave transients for different types of gravitational wave signals. We also show that the search is sensitive to sources in the Galaxy emitting at least $\sim$ \unit[$10^{-8}$]$\mathrm{M_{\odot} c^2}$ in gravitational waves.
- Nov 16 2017 astro-ph.HE gr-qc arXiv:1711.05578v1On June 8, 2017 at 02:01:16.49 UTC, a gravitational-wave signal from the merger of two stellar-mass black holes was observed by the two Advanced LIGO detectors with a network signal-to-noise ratio of 13. This system is the lightest black hole binary so far observed, with component masses $12^{+7}_{-2}\,M_\odot$ and $7^{+2}_{-2}\,M_\odot$ (90% credible intervals). These lie in the range of measured black hole masses in low-mass X-ray binaries, thus allowing us to compare black holes detected through gravitational waves with electromagnetic observations. The source's luminosity distance is $340^{+140}_{-140}$ Mpc, corresponding to redshift $0.07^{+0.03}_{-0.03}$. We verify that the signal waveform is consistent with the predictions of general relativity.
- Within eleven dimensional supergravity we compute the logarithmic correction to the entropy of magnetically charged asymptotically AdS${}_4$ black holes with arbitrary horizon topology. We find perfect agreement with the expected microscopic result arising from the dual field theory computation of the topologically twisted index. Our result relies crucially on a particular limit to the extremal black hole case and clarifies some aspects of quantum corrections in asymptotically AdS spacetimes.
- Oct 26 2017 astro-ph.HE gr-qc arXiv:1710.09320v1The first observation of a binary neutron star coalescence by the Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo gravitational-wave detectors offers an unprecedented opportunity to study matter under the most extreme conditions. After such a merger, a compact remnant is left over whose nature depends primarily on the masses of the inspiralling objects and on the equation of state of nuclear matter. This could be either a black hole or a neutron star (NS), with the latter being either long-lived or too massive for stability implying delayed collapse to a black hole. Here, we present a search for gravitational waves from the remnant of the binary neutron star merger GW170817 using data from Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo. We search for short ($\lesssim1$ s) and intermediate-duration ($\lesssim 500$ s) signals, which includes gravitational-wave emission from a hypermassive NS or supramassive NS, respectively. We find no signal from the post-merger remnant. Our derived strain upper limits are more than an order of magnitude larger than those predicted by most models. For short signals, our best upper limit on the root-sum-square of the gravitational-wave strain emitted from 1--4 kHz is $h_{\rm rss}^{50\%}=2.1\times 10^{-22}$ Hz$^{-1/2}$ at 50% detection efficiency. For intermediate-duration signals, our best upper limit at 50% detection efficiency is $h_{\rm rss}^{50\%}=8.4\times 10^{-22}$ Hz$^{-1/2}$ for a millisecond magnetar model, and $h_{\rm rss}^{50\%}=5.9\times 10^{-22}$ Hz$^{-1/2}$ for a bar-mode model. These results indicate that post-merger emission from a similar event may be detectable when advanced detectors reach design sensitivity or with next-generation detectors.
- Oct 17 2017 gr-qc arXiv:1710.05837v1The LIGO Scientific and Virgo Collaborations have announced the first detection of gravitational waves from the coalescence of two neutron stars. The merger rate of binary neutron stars estimated from this event suggests that distant, unresolvable binary neutron stars create a significant astrophysical stochastic gravitational-wave background. The binary neutron star background will add to the background from binary black holes, increasing the amplitude of the total astrophysical background relative to previous expectations. In the Advanced LIGO-Virgo frequency band most sensitive to stochastic backgrounds (near 25 Hz), we predict a total astrophysical background with amplitude $\Omega_{\rm GW} (f=25 \text{Hz}) = 1.8_{-1.3}^{+2.7} \times 10^{-9}$ with $90\%$ confidence, compared with $\Omega_{\rm GW} (f=25 \text{Hz}) = 1.1_{-0.7}^{+1.2} \times 10^{-9}$ from binary black holes alone. Assuming the most probable rate for compact binary mergers, we find that the total background may be detectable with a signal-to-noise-ratio of 3 after 40 months of total observation time, based on the expected timeline for Advanced LIGO and Virgo to reach their design sensitivity.
- Published in 1999, Christodoulou proved that the naked singularities of a self-gravitating scalar field are not stable in spherical symmetry and therefore the cosmic censorship conjecture is true in this context. The original proof is by contradiction and sharp estimates are obtained strictly depending on spherical symmetry. In this paper, appropriate a priori estimates for the solution are obtained. These estimates are more relaxed but sufficient for giving another robust argument in proving the instability, in particular not by contradiction. In another related paper, we are able to prove instability theorems of the spherical symmetric naked singularities under certain isotropic gravitational perturbations without symmetries. The argument given in this paper plays a central role.
- Published in 1999, Christodoulou proved both the weak and strong cosmic censorship conjectures in the context of spherically symmetric solutions of the Einstein equations coupled with a massless scalar field, by proving certain instability properties of the naked singularities. In order to gain insights to attack the problem beyond spherical symmetry, we study in this paper a characteristic initial value problem of the Einstein equations coupled with a massless scalar field with initial data given on two intersection null cones, the incoming one of which is assumed to be spherically symmetric and singular at its vertex, and the outgoing one of which has no symmetries. We are able to find a subset of the space of the initial data sets, containing rough initial data, such that, in a certain sense, the maximal future development of the initial data in this subset has a sequence of closed trapped surfaces approaching the singularity. Moreover, fixed arbitrary initial lapse and scalar field function on the outgoing null cone, the complement of this subset is of codimension at least $1$ in the space of the initial conformal metrics on the outgoing null cone satisfying a certain isotropic condition. We may therefore say that, the spherical naked singularities of a self-gravitating scalar field are not stable under isotropic gravitational perturbations.
- Oct 09 2017 gr-qc astro-ph.HE arXiv:1710.02327v2Spinning neutron stars asymmetric with respect to their rotation axis are potential sources of continuous gravitational waves for ground-based interferometric detectors. In the case of known pulsars a fully coherent search, based on matched filtering, which uses the position and rotational parameters obtained from electromagnetic observations, can be carried out. Matched filtering maximizes the signal-to-noise (SNR) ratio, but a large sensitivity loss is expected in case of even a very small mismatch between the assumed and the true signal parameters. For this reason, \it narrow-band analyses methods have been developed, allowing a fully coherent search for gravitational waves from known pulsars over a fraction of a hertz and several spin-down values. In this paper we describe a narrow-band search of eleven pulsars using data from Advanced LIGO's first observing run. Although we have found several initial outliers, further studies show no significant evidence for the presence of a gravitational wave signal. Finally, we have placed upper limits on the signal strain amplitude lower than the spin-down limit for 5 of the 11 targets over the bands searched: in the case of J1813-1749 the spin-down limit has been beaten for the first time. For an additional 3 targets, the median upper limit across the search bands is below the spin-down limit. This is the most sensitive narrow-band search for continuous gravitational waves carried out so far.
- Sep 28 2017 gr-qc arXiv:1709.09203v1We present results from the first directed search for nontensorial gravitational waves. While general relativity allows for tensorial (plus and cross) modes only, a generic metric theory may, in principle, predict waves with up to six different polarizations. This analysis is sensitive to continuous signals of scalar, vector or tensor polarizations, and does not rely on any specific theory of gravity. After searching data from the first observation run of the advanced LIGO detectors for signals at twice the rotational frequency of 200 known pulsars, we find no evidence of gravitational waves of any polarization. We report the first upper limits for scalar and vector strains, finding values comparable in magnitude to previously-published limits for tensor strain. Our results may be translated into constraints on specific alternative theories of gravity.
- Sep 28 2017 gr-qc astro-ph.HE arXiv:1709.09660v3On August 14, 2017 at 10:30:43 UTC, the Advanced Virgo detector and the two Advanced LIGO detectors coherently observed a transient gravitational-wave signal produced by the coalescence of two stellar mass black holes, with a false-alarm-rate of $\lesssim$ 1 in 27000 years. The signal was observed with a three-detector network matched-filter signal-to-noise ratio of 18. The inferred masses of the initial black holes are $30.5_{-3.0}^{+5.7}$ Msun and $25.3_{-4.2}^{+2.8}$ Msun (at the 90% credible level). The luminosity distance of the source is $540_{-210}^{+130}~\mathrm{Mpc}$, corresponding to a redshift of $z=0.11_{-0.04}^{+0.03}$. A network of three detectors improves the sky localization of the source, reducing the area of the 90% credible region from 1160 deg$^2$ using only the two LIGO detectors to 60 deg$^2$ using all three detectors. For the first time, we can test the nature of gravitational wave polarizations from the antenna response of the LIGO-Virgo network, thus enabling a new class of phenomenological tests of gravity.
- We study the production of gravitational waves during oscillations of the inflaton around the minimum of a cuspy potential after inflation. We find that a cusp in the potential can trigger copious oscillon formation, which sources a characteristic energy spectrum of gravitational waves with double peaks. The discovery of such a double-peak spectrum could test the underlying inflationary physics.
- In this paper we propose that artificial neural network, the basis of machine learning, is useful to generate the inflationary landscape from a cosmological point of view. Traditional numerical simulations of a global cosmic landscape typically need an exponential complexity when the number of fields is large. However, a basic application of artificial neural network could solve the problem based on the universal approximation theorem of the multilayer perceptron. A toy model in inflation with multiple light fields is investigated numerically as an example of such an application.
- Jul 11 2017 gr-qc astro-ph.IM arXiv:1707.02667v2We report on an all-sky search for periodic gravitational waves in the frequency band 20-475 Hz and with a frequency time derivative in the range of [-1.0, +0.1]e-8 Hz/s. Such a signal could be produced by a nearby spinning and slightly non-axisymmetric isolated neutron star in our galaxy. This search uses the data from Advanced LIGO's first observational run, O1. No periodic gravitational wave signals were observed, and upper limits were placed on their strengths. The lowest upper limits on worst-case (linearly polarized) strain amplitude h0 are 4e-25 near 170 Hz. For a circularly polarized source (most favorable orientation), the smallest upper limits obtained are 1.5e-25. These upper limits refer to all sky locations and the entire range of frequency derivative values. For a population-averaged ensemble of sky locations and stellar orientations, the lowest upper limits obtained for the strain amplitude are 2.5e-25.
- Jul 11 2017 gr-qc arXiv:1707.02669v2We report results of a deep all-sky search for periodic gravitational waves from isolated neutron stars in data from the first Advanced LIGO observing run. This search investigates the low frequency range of Advanced LIGO data, between 20 and 100 Hz, much of which was not explored in initial LIGO. The search was made possible by the computing power provided by the volunteers of the Einstein@Home project. We find no significant signal candidate and set the most stringent upper limits to date on the amplitude of gravitational wave signals from the target population, corresponding to a sensitivity depth of 48.7 [1/$\sqrt{{\textrm{Hz}}}$]. At the frequency of best strain sensitivity, near 100 Hz, we set 90% confidence upper limits of $1.8 \times 10^{-25}$. At the low end of our frequency range, 20 Hz, we achieve upper limits of $3.9 \times 10^{-24}$. At 55 Hz we can exclude sources with ellipticities greater than $10^{-5}$ within 100 pc of Earth with fiducial value of the principal moment of inertia of $10^{38} \textrm{kg m}^2$.
- Jun 13 2017 astro-ph.HE gr-qc arXiv:1706.03119v3We present the results of a semicoherent search for continuous gravitational waves from the low-mass X-ray binary Scorpius X-1, using data from the first Advanced LIGO observing run. The search method uses details of the modelled, parametrized continuous signal to combine coherently data separated by less than a specified coherence time, which can be adjusted to trade off sensitivity against computational cost. A search was conducted over the frequency range from 25 Hz to 2000 Hz, spanning the current observationally-constrained range of the binary orbital parameters. No significant detection candidates were found, and frequency-dependent upper limits were set using a combination of sensitivity estimates and simulated signal injections. The most stringent upper limit was set at 175 Hz, with comparable limits set across the most sensitive frequency range from 100 Hz to 200 Hz. At this frequency, the 95 pct upper limit on signal amplitude h0 is 2.3e-25 marginalized over the unknown inclination angle of the neutron star's spin, and 8.03e-26 assuming the best orientation (which results in circularly polarized gravitational waves). These limits are a factor of 3-4 stronger than those set by other analyses of the same data, and a factor of about 7 stronger than the best upper limits set using initial LIGO data. In the vicinity of 100 Hz, the limits are a factor of between 1.2 and 3.5 above the predictions of the torque balance model, depending on inclination angle, if the most likely inclination angle of 44 degrees is assumed, they are within a factor of 1.7.
- Jun 07 2017 gr-qc astro-ph.HE arXiv:1706.01812v1We describe the observation of GW170104, a gravitational-wave signal produced by the coalescence of a pair of stellar-mass black holes. The signal was measured on January 4, 2017 at 10:11:58.6 UTC by the twin advanced detectors of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory during their second observing run, with a network signal-to-noise ratio of 13 and a false alarm rate less than 1 in 70,000 years. The inferred component black hole masses are $31.2^{+8.4}_{-6.0}\,M_\odot$ and $19.4^{+5.3}_{-5.9}\,M_\odot$ (at the 90% credible level). The black hole spins are best constrained through measurement of the effective inspiral spin parameter, a mass-weighted combination of the spin components perpendicular to the orbital plane, $\chi_\mathrm{eff} = -0.12^{+0.21}_{-0.30}.$ This result implies that spin configurations with both component spins positively aligned with the orbital angular momentum are disfavored. The source luminosity distance is $880^{+450}_{-390}~\mathrm{Mpc}$ corresponding to a redshift of $z = 0.18^{+0.08}_{-0.07}$. We constrain the magnitude of modifications to the gravitational-wave dispersion relation and perform null tests of general relativity. Assuming that gravitons are dispersed in vacuum like massive particles, we bound the graviton mass to $m_g \le 7.7 \times 10^{-23}~\mathrm{eV}/c^2$. In all cases, we find that GW170104 is consistent with general relativity.
- Apr 18 2017 gr-qc arXiv:1704.04628v4During their first observational run, the two Advanced LIGO detectors attained an unprecedented sensitivity, resulting in the first direct detections of gravitational-wave signals and GW151226, produced by stellar-mass binary black hole systems. This paper reports on an all-sky search for gravitational waves (GWs) from merging intermediate mass black hole binaries (IMBHBs). The combined results from two independent search techniques were used in this study: the first employs a matched-filter algorithm that uses a bank of filters covering the GW signal parameter space, while the second is a generic search for GW transients (bursts). No GWs from IMBHBs were detected, therefore, we constrain the rate of several classes of IMBHB mergers. The most stringent limit is obtained for black holes of individual mass $100\,M_\odot$, with spins aligned with the binary orbital angular momentum. For such systems, the merger rate is constrained to be less than $0.93~\mathrm{Gpc^{-3}\,yr}^{-1}$ in comoving units at the $90\%$ confidence level, an improvement of nearly 2 orders of magnitude over previous upper limits.
- Apr 13 2017 gr-qc arXiv:1704.03719v3Results are presented from a semi-coherent search for continuous gravitational waves from the brightest low-mass X-ray binary, Scorpius X-1, using data collected during the first Advanced LIGO observing run (O1). The search combines a frequency domain matched filter (Bessel-weighted $\mathcal{F}$-statistic) with a hidden Markov model to track wandering of the neutron star spin frequency. No evidence of gravitational waves is found in the frequency range 60-650 Hz. Frequentist 95% confidence strain upper limits, $h_0^{95\%} = 4.0\times10^{-25}$, $8.3\times10^{-25}$, and $3.0\times10^{-25}$ for electromagnetically restricted source orientation, unknown polarization, and circular polarization, respectively, are reported at 106 Hz. They are $\leq 10$ times higher than the theoretical torque-balance limit at 106 Hz.
- Feb 21 2017 gr-qc arXiv:1702.05889v3The existence and stability of circular orbits (CO) in static and spherically symmetric (SSS) spacetime are important because of their practical and potential usefulness. In this paper, using the fixed point method, we first prove a necessary and sufficient condition on the metric function for the existence of timelike COs in SSS spacetimes. After analyzing the asymptotic behavior of the metric, we then show that asymptotic flat SSS spacetime that corresponds to a negative Newtonian potential at large $r$ will always allow the existence of CO. The stability of the CO in a general SSS spacetime is then studied using the Lyapunov exponent method. Two sufficient conditions on the (in)stability of the COs are obtained. For null geodesics, a sufficient condition on the metric function for the (in)stability of null CO is also obtained. We then illustrate one powerful application of these results by showing that an SU(2) Yang-Mills-Einstein SSS spacetime whose metric function is not known, will allow the existence of timelike COs. We also used our results to assert the existence and (in)stabilities of a number of known SSS metrics.
- Jan 27 2017 astro-ph.HE gr-qc arXiv:1701.07709v5We present the result of searches for gravitational waves from 200 pulsars using data from the first observing run of the Advanced LIGO detectors. We find no significant evidence for a gravitational-wave signal from any of these pulsars, but we are able to set the most constraining upper limits yet on their gravitational-wave amplitudes and ellipticities. For eight of these pulsars, our upper limits give bounds that are improvements over the indirect spin-down limit values. For another 32, we are within a factor of 10 of the spin-down limit, and it is likely that some of these will be reachable in future runs of the advanced detector. Taken as a whole, these new results improve on previous limits by more than a factor of two.
- In the holographic description of cosmic preheating proposed in an accompanied Letter [1], the energy transfer between the inflaton and matter field at strong coupling is suggested to be mimicked by superfluid and normal components of a superconductor on Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) boundary in an asymptotically Anti-de Sitter (AdS) spacetime. In this paper we investigated two aspects of the scenario of holographic preheating that are not included in the accompanied work. Firstly, we study in detail the evolution of the quasi-normal modes (QNMs) surrounding a metastable hairy black hole. This analysis can quantitatively describe the preheating process of the matter field that is produced continuously in the case of strong coupling. Secondly, we present a detailed analysis of the holographic renormalization for the AdS-FRW background, which allows us to extract operator expectation values for studying cosmological implications.
- We propose a holographic description of cosmic preheating at strong coupling. In this scenario the energy transfer between the inflaton and matter field is mimicked by a model of holographic superconductor. An exponential amplification of the matter field during preheating can be described by the quasi-normal modes of a metastable "black hole" in the bulk spacetime with an expanding boundary. Our results reveal that the matter field can be produced continuously at strong coupling in contrast to the case of weak coupling with a discontinuous matter growth as inflaton oscillates. Furthermore, the amplification of matter field has an enhanced dependence on the vacuum expectation value of the inflaton at strong coupling. By virtue of the proposed mechanism, physics of the very early universe at an extremely high temperature right after inflation may become accessible.
- We employ gravitational-wave radiometry to map the gravitational waves stochastic background expected from a variety of contributing mechanisms and test the assumption of isotropy using data from Advanced LIGO's first observing run. We also search for persistent gravitational waves from point sources with only minimal assumptions over the 20 - 1726 Hz frequency band. Finding no evidence of gravitational waves from either point sources or a stochastic background, we set limits at 90% confidence. For broadband point sources, we report upper limits on the gravitational wave energy flux per unit frequency in the range $F_{\alpha,\Theta}(f) < (0.1 - 56) \times 10^{-8}$ erg cm$^{-2}$ s$^{-1}$ Hz$^{-1}$ (f/25 Hz)$^{\alpha-1}$ depending on the sky location $\Theta$ and the spectral power index $\alpha$. For extended sources, we report upper limits on the fractional gravitational wave energy density required to close the Universe of $\Omega(f,\Theta) < (0.39-7.6) \times 10^{-8}$ sr$^{-1}$ (f/25 Hz)$^\alpha$ depending on $\Theta$ and $\alpha$. Directed searches for narrowband gravitational waves from astrophysically interesting objects (Scorpius X-1, Supernova 1987 A, and the Galactic Center) yield median frequency-dependent limits on strain amplitude of $h_0 <$ (6.7, 5.5, and 7.0) $\times 10^{-25}$ respectively, at the most sensitive detector frequencies between 130 - 175 Hz. This represents a mean improvement of a factor of 2 across the band compared to previous searches of this kind for these sky locations, considering the different quantities of strain constrained in each case.
- A wide variety of astrophysical and cosmological sources are expected to contribute to a stochastic gravitational-wave background. Following the observations of GW150914 and GW151226, the rate and mass of coalescing binary black holes appear to be greater than many previous expectations. As a result, the stochastic background from unresolved compact binary coalescences is expected to be particularly loud. We perform a search for the isotropic stochastic gravitational-wave background using data from Advanced LIGO's first observing run. The data display no evidence of a stochastic gravitational-wave signal. We constrain the dimensionless energy density of gravitational waves to be $\Omega_0<1.7\times 10^{-7}$ with 95% confidence, assuming a flat energy density spectrum in the most sensitive part of the LIGO band (20-86 Hz). This is a factor of ~33 times more sensitive than previous measurements. We also constrain arbitrary power-law spectra. Finally, we investigate the implications of this search for the background of binary black holes using an astrophysical model for the background.
- Nov 24 2016 gr-qc astro-ph.HE arXiv:1611.07531v2Parameter estimates of GW150914 were obtained using Bayesian inference, based on three semi-analytic waveform models for binary black hole coalescences. These waveform models differ from each other in their treatment of black hole spins, and all three models make some simplifying assumptions, notably to neglect sub-dominant waveform harmonic modes and orbital eccentricity. Furthermore, while the models are calibrated to agree with waveforms obtained by full numerical solutions of Einstein's equations, any such calibration is accurate only to some non-zero tolerance and is limited by the accuracy of the underlying phenomenology, availability, quality, and parameter-space coverage of numerical simulations. This paper complements the original analyses of GW150914 with an investigation of the effects of possible systematic errors in the waveform models on estimates of its source parameters. To test for systematic errors we repeat the original Bayesian analyses on mock signals from numerical simulations of a series of binary configurations with parameters similar to those found for GW150914. Overall, we find no evidence for a systematic bias relative to the statistical error of the original parameter recovery of GW150914 due to modeling approximations or modeling inaccuracies. However, parameter biases are found to occur for some configurations disfavored by the data of GW150914: for binaries inclined edge-on to the detector over a small range of choices of polarization angles, and also for eccentricities greater than $\sim$0.05. For signals with higher signal-to-noise ratio than GW150914, or in other regions of the binary parameter space (lower masses, larger mass ratios, or higher spins), we expect that systematic errors in current waveform models may impact gravitational-wave measurements, making more accurate models desirable for future observations.
- Nov 24 2016 astro-ph.HE gr-qc arXiv:1611.07947v3We present the results of the search for gravitational waves (GWs) associated with $\gamma$-ray bursts detected during the first observing run of the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO). We find no evidence of a GW signal for any of the 41 $\gamma$-ray bursts for which LIGO data are available with sufficient duration. For all $\gamma$-ray bursts, we place lower bounds on the distance to the source using the optimistic assumption that GWs with an energy of $10^{-2}M_\odot c^2$ were emitted within the $16$-$500\,$Hz band, and we find a median 90% confidence limit of 71$\,$Mpc at 150$\,$Hz. For the subset of 19 short/hard $\gamma$-ray bursts, we place lower bounds on distance with a median 90% confidence limit of 90$\,$Mpc for binary neutron star (BNS) coalescences, and 150 and 139$\,$Mpc for neutron star-black hole coalescences with spins aligned to the orbital angular momentum and in a generic configuration, respectively. These are the highest distance limits ever achieved by GW searches. We also discuss in detail the results of the search for GWs associated with GRB 150906B, an event that was localized by the InterPlanetary Network near the local galaxy NGC 3313, which is at a luminosity distance of 54$\,$Mpc ($z=0.0124$). Assuming the $\gamma$-ray emission is beamed with a jet half-opening angle $\leq 30^{\circ}$, we exclude a BNS and a neutron star-black hole in NGC 3313 as the progenitor of this event with confidence $>99$%. Further, we exclude such progenitors up to a distance of 102$\,$Mpc and 170$\,$Mpc, respectively.
- Nov 10 2016 gr-qc astro-ph.HE arXiv:1611.02972v1We present the results from an all-sky search for short-duration gravitational waves in the data of the first run of the Advanced LIGO detectors between September 2015 and January 2016. The search algorithms use minimal assumptions on the signal morphology, so they are sensitive to a wide range of sources emitting gravitational waves. The analyses target transient signals with duration ranging from milliseconds to seconds over the frequency band of 32 to 4096 Hz. The first observed gravitational-wave event, GW150914, has been detected with high confidence in this search; other known gravitational-wave events fall below the search's sensitivity. Besides GW150914, all of the search results are consistent with the expected rate of accidental noise coincidences. Finally, we estimate rate-density limits for a broad range of non-BBH transient gravitational-wave sources as a function of their gravitational radiation emission energy and their characteristic frequency. These rate-density upper-limits are stricter than those previously published by an order-of-magnitude.
- We in this paper investigate the formation and evolution of primordial black holes (PBHs) in nonsingular bouncing cosmologies. We discuss the formation of PBH in the contracting phase and calculate the PBH abundance as a function of the sound speed and Hubble parameter. Afterwards, by taking into account the subsequent PBH evolution during the bouncing phase, we derive the density of PBHs and their Hawking radiation. Our analysis shows that nonsingular bounce models can be constrained from the backreaction of PBHs.
- We study the decoherence of massive fields during inflation based on the Zurek's density matrix approach. With the cubic interaction between inflaton and massive fields, the reduced density matrix for the massive fields can be calculated in the Schrödinger picture which is related to the variance of the non-Gaussian exponent in the wave functional. The decoherence rate is computed in the one-loop form from functional integration. For heavy fields with $m\gtrsim \mathcal{O}(H)$, quantum fluctuations will easily stay in the quantum state and decoherence is unlikely. While for light fields with mass smaller than $\mathcal{O}(H)$, quantum fluctuations are easily decohered within $5\sim10$ e-folds after Hubble crossing. Thus heavy fields can play a key role in studying problems involving inflationary quantum information.
- Apr 20 2016 gr-qc arXiv:1604.05548v1The Hamiltonian for dynamic geometry generates the evolution of a spatial region along a vector field. It includes a boundary term which determines both the value of the Hamiltonian and the boundary conditions. The value gives the quasi-local quantities: energy-momentum, angular-momentum and center-of-mass. The boundary term depends not only on the dynamical variables but also on their reference values; the latter determine the ground state (having vanishing quasi-local quantities). For our preferred boundary term for Einstein's GR we propose 4D isometric matching and extremizing the energy to determine the reference metric and connection values.
- Jan 19 2016 gr-qc arXiv:1601.04395v2In this work we study the quasilocal energy as in [11] for a constant radius surface in Kerr spacetime in Boyer-Lindquist coordinates. We show that under suitable conditions for isometric embedding, for a stationary observer the quasilocal energy defined in [11] for constant radius in a Kerr like spacetime is exactly equal to the Brown-York quasilocal energy [2]. By some careful estimations, we show that for a constant radius surface in the Kerr spacetime which is outside the ergosphere the embedding conditions for the previous result are satisfied. We discuss extremal solutions as described in [14]. We prove a uniqueness result. We find all extremal solutions in the Minkowski spacetime. Finally, we show that near the horizon of the Kerr spacetime for the small rotation case the extremal solutions are trivial.
- Oct 13 2015 gr-qc astro-ph.CO arXiv:1510.03138v2A $\delta N$ formalism is used to study the non-Gaussianity of the primordial curvature perturbation on an uniform density hypersurfaces generated by the warm inflation for the first time. After introducing the framework of the warm inflation and the $\delta N$ formalism, we obtain an analytic expression for the nonlinear parameter $f_{NL}$ that describes the non-Gaussianity in slow roll approximation, and find that the $\delta N$ formalism gives a very good result. We analyse the magnitude of $f_{NL}$ and compare our result with those of the standard inflation. Then we discuss two concrete examples: the quartic chaotic model and the hilltop model. The quartic potential model can again be in very good agreement with the Planck results in the warm inflationary scenario, and we give out the concrete results of how the nonlinear parameter depends on the dissipation strength of the warm inflation and the amounts of expansion. We find that the range of the nonlinear parameters in these two cases are both well inside of the allowed region of Planck.
- Black holes are found to exist in gravitational theories with the presence of quadratic curvature terms and behave differently from the Schwarzschild solution. We present an exhaustive analysis for determining the quasinormal modes of a test scalar field propagating in a new class of black hole backgrounds in the case of pure Einstein-Weyl gravity. Our result shows that the field decay of quasinormal modes in such a non-Schwarzschild black hole behaves similarly to the Schwarzschild one, but the decay slope becomes much smoother due to the appearance of the Weyl tensor square in the background theory. We also analyze the frequencies of the quasinormal modes in order to characterize the properties of new back holes, and thus, if these modes can be the source of gravitational waves, the underlying theories may be testable in future gravitational wave experiments. We briefly comment on the issue of quantum (in)stability in this theory at linear order.
- We investigate the coupling between the inflaton and massive vector fields. All renormalizable couplings with shift symmetry of the inflaton are considered. The massive vector can be decomposed into a scalar mode and a divergence-free vector mode. We show that the former naturally interacts with the inflaton and the latter decouples at tree level. The model in general predicts $f_{NL}^\mathrm{equil} = \mathcal{O}(1)$, while in some regions of the parameter space large non-Gaussianity can arise.
- Motivated by the string landscape, inflation may happen on a high dimensional complicated potential. We propose a new way to construct some high dimensional random potentials, and study inflation on top of that, for up to 50-dimensions in field space. Especially, random bifurcations of classical inflationary trajectory are studied. It is shown that the bifurcation probability increases as a function of number of dimensions. Those random bifurcations are not consistent with observations, and dramatically limit the parameter space of inflation on a complicated landscape. For example, in 10 dimensions, only $10^{-3} \sim 10^{-6}$ of the parameter space volume leads to unique classical trajectories. The rest is ruled out by random bifurcations.
- Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are among the most powerful sources in the universe. In the recent years, GRBs have been proposed as a complementary probe to type Ia supernovae (SNIa). However, as is well known, there is a circularity problem in the use of GRBs to study cosmology. In this work, based on the Padé approximant, we propose a new cosmology-independent method to calibrate GRBs. We consider a sample consisting of 138 long Swift GRBs and obtain 79 calibrated long GRBs at high-redshift $z>1.4$ (named Mayflower sample) which can be used to constrain cosmological models without the circularity problem. Then, we consider the constraints on several cosmological models with these 79 calibrated GRBs and other observational data. We show that GRBs are competent to be a complementary probe to the other well-established cosmological observations.
- Nov 29 2013 astro-ph.CO gr-qc arXiv:1311.7192v1In the non-standard model of relic gravitational waves (RGWs) generated in the early universe, the theoretical spectrum of is mainly described by an amplitude $r$ and a spectral index $\beta$, the latter usually being determined by the slope of the inflation potential. Pulsar timing arrays (PTAs) data have imposed constraints on the amplitude of strain spectrum for a power-law form as a phenomenological model. Applying these constraints to a generic, theoretical spectrum with $r$ and $\beta$ as independent parameters, we convert the PTAs constraint into an upper bound on the index $\beta$, which turns out to be less stringent than those upper bounds from BBN, CMB, and LIGO/VIRGO, respectively. Moreover, it is found that PTAs constrain the non-standard RGWs more stringent than the standard RGWs. If the condition of the quantum normalization is imposed upon a theoretical spectrum of RGWs, $r$ and $\beta$ become related. With this condition, a minimum requirement of the horizon size during inflation is greater than the Planck length results in an upper bound on $\beta$, which is comparable in magnitude to that by PTAs. When both PTAs and the quantum normalization are applied to a theoretical spectrum of RGWs, constraints can be obtained for other cosmic processes of the early universe, such as the reheating, a process less understood observationally so far. The resulting constraint is consistent with the slow-roll, massive scalar inflation model. The future SKA will be able to constrain RGWs further and might even detect RGWs, rendering an important probe to the very early universe.
- Nov 05 2013 gr-qc arXiv:1311.0692v1For an asymptotically flat initial data, the Penrose inequality gives a lower bound of the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner total mass of a spacetime in terms of the area of certain surfaces representing black holes. This is a deep and beautiful refinement of the famous positive mass theorem and it plays an important role in the study of gravitational collapse. Gravitational collapse can also happen if sufficient mass is concentrated into a finite region. This motivates us to seek a localized version of the Penrose inequality. In this Letter, we successfully make a precise statement of this form for the Liu-Yau quasi-local mass in spherical symmetry.
- Jul 08 2013 gr-qc arXiv:1307.1510v1The Hamiltonian for physical systems and dynamic geometry generates the evolution of a spatial region along a vector field. It includes a boundary term which not only determines the value of the Hamiltonian, but also, via the boundary term in the variation of the Hamiltonian, the boundary conditions. The value of the Hamiltonian comes from its boundary term; it gives the quasi-local quantities: energy-momentum and angular-momentum/center-of-mass. This boundary term depends not only on the dynamical variables but also on their reference values; these reference values determine the ground state---the state having vanishing quasi-local quantities. Here our concern is how to select on the two-boundary the reference values. To determine the "best matched" reference metric and connection values for our preferred boundary term for Einstein's general relativity, we propose on the boundary two-surface (i) \emphfour dimensional isometric matching, and (ii) extremizing the value of the energy.
- Jul 04 2013 gr-qc arXiv:1307.1039v1The boundary term of the gravitational Hamiltonian can be used to give the values of the quasi-local quantities as long as one can provide a suitable evolution vector field and an appropriate reference. On the two-surface boundary of a region we have proposed using \em four dimensional isometric matching between the dynamic spacetime and the reference geometry along with energy extremization to find both the optimal reference matching and the appropriate quasi-Killing vectors. Here we consider the axisymmetric spacetime case. For the Kerr metric in particular we can explicitly solve the equations to find the best matched reference and quasi-Killing vectors. This leads to the exact expression for the quasi-local boundary term and the values of our optimal quasi-local energy and angular momentum.
- The current accelerated expansion of our universe could be due to an unknown energy component with negative pressure (dark energy) or a modification to general relativity (modified gravity). On the other hand, recently warm dark matter (WDM) remarkably rose as an alternative of cold dark matter (CDM). Obviously, it is of interest to distinguish these different types of models. In fact, many attempts have been made in the literature. However, in the present work, we show that WDM, modified gravity and coupled CDM form a trinity, namely, they are indistinguishable by using the cosmological observations of both cosmic expansion history and growth history. Therefore, to break this degeneracy, the other complementary probes beyond the ones of cosmic expansion history and growth history are required.
- Apr 03 2013 gr-qc astro-ph.HE arXiv:1304.0670v4We present possible observing scenarios for the Advanced LIGO, Advanced Virgo and KAGRA gravitational-wave detectors over the next decade, with the intention of providing information to the astronomy community to facilitate planning for multi-messenger astronomy with gravitational waves. We estimate the sensitivity of the network to transient gravitational-wave signals, and study the capability of the network to determine the sky location of the source. We report our findings for gravitational-wave transients, with particular focus on gravitational-wave signals from the inspiral of binary neutron star systems, which are considered the most promising for multi-messenger astronomy. The ability to localize the sources of the detected signals depends on the geographical distribution of the detectors and their relative sensitivity, and 90% credible regions can be as large as thousands of square degrees when only two sensitive detectors are operational. Determining the sky position of a significant fraction of detected signals to areas of 5 square degrees to 20 square degees requires at least three detectors of sensitivity within a factor of ~2 of each other and with a broad frequency bandwidth. When all detectors, including KAGRA and the third LIGO detector in India, reach design sensitivity, a significant fraction of gravitational-wave signals will be localized to a few square degrees by gravitational-wave observations alone.
- Feb 05 2013 astro-ph.CO gr-qc arXiv:1302.0643v3Although $\Lambda$CDM model is very successful in many aspects, it has been seriously challenged. Recently, warm dark matter (WDM) remarkably rose as an alternative of cold dark matter (CDM). In the literature, many attempts have been made to determine the equation-of-state parameter (EoS) of WDM. However, in most of the previous works, it is usually assumed that the EoS of dark matter (DM) is constant (and usually the EoS of dark energy is also constant). Obviously, this assumption is fairly restrictive. It is more natural to assume a variable EoS for WDM (and dark energy). In the present work, we try to constrain the EoS of variable WDM with the current cosmological observations. We find that the best fits indicate WDM, while CDM is still consistent with the current observational data. However, $\Lambda$CDM is still better than WDM models from the viewpoint of goodness-of-fit. So, in order to distinguish WDM and CDM, the further observations on the small/galactic scale are required. On the other hand, in this work we also consider WDM whose EoS is constant, while the role of dark energy is played by various models. We find that the cosmological constraint on the constant EoS of WDM is fairly robust.
- Nov 28 2012 physics.optics gr-qc arXiv:1211.6317v1In this Letter, we investigate the group delay of optical pulses through multilayer dielectric mirrors (MDM) combined with gravitational wave (GW). We find that the delay increases linearly with MDM length for the transmitted wave packet, whereas the Hartman effect disappears. Our study provides insight into the nature of both quantum tunnelling and GW.
- Oct 24 2012 gr-qc arXiv:1210.6148v1The Hamiltonian for dynamic geometry generates the evolution of a spatial region along a vector field. It includes a boundary term which determines both the value of the Hamiltonian and the boundary conditions. The value gives the quasi-local quantities: energy-momentum, angular-momentum/center-of-mass. The boundary term depends not only on the dynamical variables but also on their reference values; the latter determine the ground state (having vanishing quasi-local quantities). For our preferred boundary term for Einstein's GR we propose 4D isometric matching and extremizing the energy to determine the reference metric and connection values.
- We numerically construct charged boson stars in asymptotically AdS spacetime. We find an intricate phase diagram dominated by solutions whose main matter contribution are alternately provided by the scalar field or by the gauge field.
- Aug 31 2012 gr-qc arXiv:1208.6312v3We study a possibility of the fate of universe, in which there is neither the rip singularity, which results in the disintegration of bound systems, nor the endless expansion, instead the universe will be quasi static. We discuss the parameterization of the corresponding evolution and the reconstruction of the scalar field model. We find, with the parameterization consistent with the current observation, that the current universe might arrive at a quasi static phase after less than 20Gyr.
- Jun 05 2012 gr-qc arXiv:1206.0506v1We present two complementary approaches for determining the reference for the covariant Hamiltonian boundary term quasi-local energy and test them on spherically symmetric spacetimes. On the one hand, we isometrically match the 2-surface and extremize the energy. This can be done in two ways, which we call programs I (without constraint) and II (with additional constraints). On the other hand, we match the orthonormal 4-frames of the dynamic and the reference spacetimes. Then, if we further specify the observer by requiring the reference displacement to be the timelike Killing vector of the reference, the result is the same as program I, and the energy can be positive, zero, or even negative. If, instead, we require that the Lie derivatives of the two-area along the displacement vector in both the dynamic and reference spacetimes to be the same, the result is the same as program II, and it satisfies the usual criteria: the energies are non-negative and vanish only for Minkowski (or anti-de Sitter) spacetime.
- Sep 23 2011 gr-qc arXiv:1109.4738v1For a given timelike displacement vector the covariant Hamiltonian quasi-local energy expression requires a proper choice of reference spacetime. We propose a program for determining the reference by embedding a neighborhood of the two-sphere boundary in the dynamic spacetime into a Minkowski reference, so that the two sphere is embedded isometrically, and then extremizing the energy to determine the embedding variables. Applying this idea to Schwarzschild spacetime, we found that for each given future timelike displacement vector our program gives a unique energy value. The static observer measures the maximal energy. Applied to the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker spacetime, we find that the maximum energy value is nonnegative; the associated displacement vector is the unit dual mean curvature vector, and the expansion of the two-sphere boundary matches that of its reference image. For these spherically symmetric cases the reference determined by our program is equivalent to isometrically matching the geometry at the two-sphere boundary and taking the displacement vector to be orthogonal to the spacelike constant coordinate time hypersurface, like the timelike Killing vector of the Minkowski reference.
- We show that if the inflaton effective potential has multiple discontinuous points in its first derivative, the spectrum of primordial perturbation will be multiple step-like. We give a general analysis by applying a simple model. In principle, as long as the height of step is low enough, the result of spectrum will be consistent with observations.
- May 04 2011 gr-qc arXiv:1105.0502v2A quasi-local energy for Einstein's general relativity is defined by the value of the preferred boundary term in the covariant Hamiltonian formalism. The boundary term depends upon a choice of reference and a time-like displacement vector field (which can be associated with an observer) on the boundary of the region. Here we analyze the spherical symmetric cases. For the obvious analytic choice of reference based on the metric components, we find that this technique gives the same quasi-local energy values using several standard coordinate systems and yet can give different values in some other coordinate systems. For the homogeneous-isotropic cosmologies, the energy can be non-positive, and one case which is actually flat space has a negative energy. As an alternative, we introduce a way to determine the choice of both the reference and displacement by extremizing the energy. This procedure gives the same value for the energy in different coordinate systems for the Schwarzschild space, and a non-negative value for the cosmological models, with zero energy for the dynamic cosmology which is actually Minkowski space. The timelike displacement vector comes out to be the dual mean curvature vector of the two-boundary.
- In this paper we present the constraints on cold dark matter (CDM) isocurvature contributions to the cosmological perturbations. By employing Markov Chain Monte Carlo method (MCMC), we perform a global analysis for cosmological parameters using the latest astronomical data, such as 7-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP7) observations, matter power spectrum from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) luminous red galaxies (LRG), and "Union2" type Ia Supernovae (SNIa) sample. We find that the correlated mixture of adiabatic and isocurvature modes are mildly better fitting to the current data than the pure adiabatic ones, with the minimal $\chi^2$ given by the likelihood analysis being reduced by 3.5. We also obtain a tight limit on the fraction of the CDM isocurvature contributions, which should be less than 14.6% at 95% confidence level. With the presence of the isocurvature modes, the adiabatic spectral index becomes slightly bigger, n_s^\rm adi=0.972\pm0.014~(1\,\sigma), and the tilt for isocurvature spectrum could be large, namely, the best fit value is n_s^\rm iso=3.020. Finally, we discuss the effect on WMAP normalization priors, shift parameter R, acoustic scale l_A and z_*, from the CDM isocurvaure perturbation. By fitting the mixed initial condition to the combined data, we find the mean values of R, l_A and z_* can be changed about 2.9\sigma, 2.8\sigma and 1.5\sigma respectively, comparing with those obtained in the pure adiabatic condition.
- Holography is expected as one of the promising descriptions of quantum general relativity. We present a model for a cosmological system involving two holographic screens and find that their equilibrium exactly yields a standard Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe. We discuss its cosmological implications by taking into account higher order quantum corrections and quantum nature of horizon evaporation. We will show that this model could give rise to a holographic inflation at high energy scales and realize a late-time acceleration in a unified approach. We test our model from the SN Ia observations and find it can give a nice fit to the data.
- The extended holographic dark energy model with the Hubble horizon as the infrared cutoff avoids the problem of the circular reasoning of the holographic dark energy model. Unfortunately, it is hit with the no-go theorem. In this paper, we consider the extended holographic dark energy model with a potential, $V(\phi)$, for the Brans-Dicke scalar field. With the addition of a potential for the Brans-Dicke scalar field, the extended holographic dark energy model using the Hubble horizon as the infrared cutoff is a viable dark energy model, and the model has the dark energy dominated attractor solution.
- We carry out the holographic renormalization of Einstein-Maxwell theory with curvature-squared corrections. In particular, we demonstrate how to construct the generalized Gibbons-Hawking surface term needed to ensure a perturbatively well-defined variational principle. This treatment ensures the absence of ghost degrees of freedom at the linearized perturbative order in the higher-derivative corrections. We use the holographically renormalized action to study the thermodynamics of R-charged black holes with higher derivatives and to investigate their mass to charge ratio in the extremal limit. In five dimensions, there seems to be a connection between the sign of the higher derivative couplings required to satisfy the weak gravity conjecture and that violating the shear viscosity to entropy bound. This is in turn related to possible constraints on the central charges of the dual CFT, in particular to the sign of c-a.
- Sep 16 2009 gr-qc arXiv:0909.2754v1We have proposed a program for determining the reference for the quasi-local energy defined in the covariant Hamiltonian formalism. Our program has been tested by applying it to the spherically symmetric spacetimes. With respect to different observers we found that the quasi-local energy can be positive, zero, or even negative. The observer measuring the maximum energy was identified; the associated energy is positive for both the Schwarzschild and the Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker spacetimes.
- The extended holographic dark energy model with the Hubble horizon as the infrared cutoff avoids the problem of the circular reasoning of the holographic dark energy model. We show that the infrared cutoff of the extended holographic dark energy model cannot be the Hubble horizon provided that the Brans-Dicke parameter $\omega$ satisfies the experimental constraint $\omega> 10^4$, and this is proved as a no-go theorem. The no-go theorem also applies to the case in which the dark matter interacts with the dark energy.
- Jun 17 2008 gr-qc arXiv:0806.2415v1We study the constraints on the dark energy model with constant equation of state parameter $w=p/\rho$ and the holographic dark energy model by using the weak gravity conjecture. The combination of weak gravity conjecture and the observational data gives $w<-0.7$ at the $3\sigma$ confidence level. The holographic dark energy model realized by a scalar field is in swampland.
- May 09 2007 gr-qc arXiv:0705.1080v2First we briefly review our covariant Hamiltonian approach to quasi-local energy, noting that the Hamiltonian-boundary-term quasi-local energy expressions depend on the chosen boundary conditions and reference configuration. Then we present the quasi-local energy values resulting from the formalism applied to homogeneous Bianchi cosmologies. Finally we consider the quasi-local energies of the FRW cosmologies. Our results do not agree with certain widely accepted quasi-local criteria.
- Most general relativity textbooks devote considerable space to the simplest example of a black hole containing a singularity, the Schwarzschild geometry. However only a few discuss the dynamical process of gravitational collapse, by which black holes and singularities form. We present here two types of analytic models for this process, which we believe are the simplest available; the first involves collapsing spherical shells of light, analyzed mainly in Eddington-Finkelstein coordinates; the second involves collapsing spheres filled with a perfect fluid, analyzed mainly in Painleve-Gullstrand coordinates. Our main goal is pedagogical simplicity and algebraic completeness, but we also present some results that we believe are new, such as the collapse of a light shell in Kruskal-Szekeres coordinates.
- May 11 2004 gr-qc cond-mat.stat-mech arXiv:gr-qc/0405048v1Based on Einstein's theory of gravitation, we discuss the influence of a spherically symmetric gravitational field on Maxwell's law of velocity distribution. We derive the equilibrium velocity distribution of low-energy particles in the spherically symmetric gravitational field and calculate the escape rate of low-energy particles in a container with a leak placed in the spherically symmetric gravitational field. They can serve as the tests of Einstein's theory of gravitation.
- Contents of Part 2: 11. Supersymmetric Grandunification and Fermion Masses (B. Bajc) 12. General Principles of Brane Kinematics and Dynamics (M. Pavsic) 13. Cosmological Neutrinos (G. Mangano) 14. The Problem of Mass (C.D. Froggatt) 15. How to Approach Quantum Gravity ... (D. Grumiller and W. Kummer) 16. Hidden Spacetime Symmetries and Generalized Holonomy in M-theory (M.J. Duff and J.T. Liu) 17. On the Resolution of Space-Time Singularities II (M. Maceda and J. Madore) 18. The Multiple Point Principle (D.L. Bennett and H.B. Nielsen) 19. Dynamics of Glue-Balls in N = 1 SYM Theory (L. Bergamin) 20. Quantization of Systems with Continuous Symmetries ... (M.V. Chichikina) 21. Singular Compactifications and Cosmology (L. Jaerv, T. Mohaupt and F. Saueressig) 22. Fundamental Physics and Lorentz Violation (R. Lehnert) 23. Functional Approach to Squeezed States ...(L. Musongela) 24. Constraining the Curvaton Scenario (M. Postma) 25. D-Branes and Unitarity of Noncommutative Field Theories (A. Torrielli) 26. Spinorial Cohomology and Supersymmetry (D. Tsimpis) (Contents of Part 1: 1. Status of the Standard Model(P.H. Frampton), 2. Cosmological Constraints from MBA and Polarization (A. Melchiorri), 3. AdS/CFT Correspondence and Unification at About 4 TeV (P.H. Frampton), 4. New Solutions in String Field Theory (L. Bonora), 5. The Approach Unifying Spins and Charges (A. Borstnik Bracic and N. Mankoc Borstnik) 6. An Example ... (N. Mankoc Borstnik and H.B. Nielsen) 7. Hierarchy Problem and a New Bound State(C.D. Froggatt and H.B. Nielsen) 8. What Comes Next? (Q. Shafi)9. Loops Versus Strings (E. Alvarez) 10. Fuzzy Two-dimensional Spaces(F. Lizzi))
- In a braneworld context, the radion is a massless mode coupling to the trace of the matter stress tensor. Since the radion also governs the separation between branes, it is expected to decouple from the physical spectrum in single brane scenarios, such as the one-brane Randall-Sundrum model. However, contrary to expectations, we demonstrate that the Karch-Randall radion always remains as a physical excitation, even in the single brane case. Here, the radion measures the distance not between branes, but rather between the brane and the anti-de Sitter boundary on the other side of the bulk.
- In M-theory vacua with vanishing 4-form F, one can invoke the ordinary Riemannian holonomy H ⊂SO(1,10) to account for unbroken supersymmetries n=1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 16, 32. However, the generalized holonomy conjecture, valid for non-zero F, can account for more exotic fractions of supersymmetry, in particular 16<n<32. The conjectured holonomies are given by H ⊂G where G are the generalized structure groups G=SO(d-1,1) x G(spacelike), G=ISO(d-1) x G(null) and G=SO(d) x G(timelike) with 1<=d<11. For example, G(spacelike)=SO(16), G(null)=[SU(8) x U(1)] ⋉R^56 and G(timelike)=SO*(16) when d=3. Although extending spacetime symmetries, there is no conflict with the Coleman-Mandula theorem. The holonomy conjecture rules out certain vacua which are otherwise permitted by the supersymmetry algebra.
- Jun 18 2002 gr-qc arXiv:gr-qc/0206047v1We propose a new test of Einstein's theory of gravitation. It concerns the velocity distribution of low-energy particles in a spherically symmetric gravitational field.
- The gravitational-wave and accretion driven evolution of neutron stars in low mass X-ray binaries and similar systems is analyzed, while the amplitude of the radiating perturbation (here assumed to be an r-mode) remains small. If most of the star is superfluid, with (temperature independent) mutual friction dominating the ordinary (temperature dependent) shear viscosity, the amplitude of the mode and the angular velocity of the star oscillate about their equilibrium values with a period of at least a few hundred years. The resulting oscillation of the neutron star temperature is also computed. For temperature dependent viscosity, the general conditions for the equilibrium to be stable are found.
- In a previous paper we showed that the absence of the van Dam-Veltman-Zakharov discontinuity as M^2 -> 0 for massive spin-2 with a Lambda term is an artifact of the tree approximation, and that the discontinuity reappears at one loop, as a result of going from five degrees of freedom to two. In this paper we show that a similar classical continuity but quantum discontinuity arises in the "partially massless" limit M^2 -> 2Lambda/3, as a result of going from five degrees of freedom to four.