results for au:Lin_D in:cs

- May 09 2017 cs.CV arXiv:1705.02953v1Deep convolutional networks have achieved great success for image recognition. However, for action recognition in videos, their advantage over traditional methods is not so evident. We present a general and flexible video-level framework for learning action models in videos. This method, called temporal segment network (TSN), aims to model long-range temporal structures with a new segment-based sampling and aggregation module. This unique design enables our TSN to efficiently learn action models by using the whole action videos. The learned models could be easily adapted for action recognition in both trimmed and untrimmed videos with simple average pooling and multi-scale temporal window integration, respectively. We also study a series of good practices for the instantiation of TSN framework given limited training samples. Our approach obtains the state-the-of-art performance on four challenging action recognition benchmarks: HMDB51 (71.0%), UCF101 (94.9%), THUMOS14 (80.1%), and ActivityNet v1.2 (89.6%). Using the proposed RGB difference for motion models, our method can still achieve competitive accuracy on UCF101 (91.0%) while running at 340 FPS. Furthermore, based on the temporal segment networks, we won the video classification track at the ActivityNet challenge 2016 among 24 teams, which demonstrates the effectiveness of TSN and the proposed good practices.
- Apr 21 2017 cs.CV arXiv:1704.06228v1Detecting activities in untrimmed videos is an important yet challenging task. In this paper, we tackle the difficulties of effectively locating the start and the end of a long complex action, which are often met by existing methods. Our key contribution is the structured segment network, a novel framework for temporal action detection, which models the temporal structure of each activity instance via a structured temporal pyramid. On top of the pyramid, we further introduce a decomposed discriminative model, which comprises two classifiers, respectively for classifying activities and determining completeness. This allows the framework to effectively distinguish positive proposals from background or incomplete ones, thus leading to both accurate recognition and localization. These components are integrated into a unified network that can be efficiently trained in an end-to-end fashion. We also propose a simple yet effective temporal action proposal scheme that can generate proposals of considerably higher qualities. On two challenging benchmarks, THUMOS14 and ActivityNet, our method remarkably outperforms existing state-of-the-art methods by over $ 10\% $ absolute average mAP, demonstrating superior accuracy and strong adaptivity in handling activities with various temporal structures.
- Apr 12 2017 cs.CV arXiv:1704.03114v2Relationships among objects play a crucial role in image understanding. Despite the great success of deep learning techniques in recognizing individual objects, reasoning about the relationships among objects remains a challenging task. Previous methods often treat this as a classification problem, considering each type of relationship (e.g. "ride") or each distinct visual phrase (e.g. "person-ride-horse") as a category. Such approaches are faced with significant difficulties caused by the high diversity of visual appearance for each kind of relationships or the large number of distinct visual phrases. We propose an integrated framework to tackle this problem. At the heart of this framework is the Deep Relational Network, a novel formulation designed specifically for exploiting the statistical dependencies between objects and their relationships. On two large datasets, the proposed method achieves substantial improvement over state-of-the-art.
- The millimeter-wave (mmWave) communication is envisioned to provide orders of magnitude capacity improvement. However, it is challenging to realize a sufficient link margin due to high path loss and blockages. To address this difficulty, in this paper, we explore the potential gain of ultra-densification for enhancing mmWave communications from a network-level perspective. By deploying the mmWave base stations (BSs) in an extremely dense and amorphous fashion, the access distance is reduced and the choice of serving BSs is enriched for each user, which are intuitively effective for mitigating the propagation loss and blockages. Nevertheless, co-channel interference under this model will become a performance-limiting factor. To solve this problem, we propose a large-scale channel state information (CSI) based interference coordination approach. Note that the large-scale CSI is highly location-dependent, and can be obtained with a quite low cost. Thus, the scalability of the proposed coordination framework can be guaranteed. Particularly, using only the large-scale CSI of interference links, a coordinated frequency resource block allocation problem is formulated for maximizing the minimum achievable rate of the users, which is uncovered to be a NP-hard integer programming problem. To circumvent this difficulty, a greedy scheme with polynomial-time complexity is proposed by adopting the bisection method and linear integer programming tools. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed coordination scheme based on large-scale CSI only can still offer substantial gains over the existing methods. Moreover, although the proposed scheme is only guaranteed to converge to a local optimum, it performs well in terms of both user fairness and system efficiency.
- Mar 20 2017 cs.CV arXiv:1703.06029v1Despite the substantial progress in recent years, the image captioning techniques are still far from being perfect.Sentences produced by existing methods, e.g. those based on RNNs, are often overly rigid and lacking in variability. This issue is related to a learning principle widely used in practice, that is, to maximize the likelihood of training samples. This principle encourages high resemblance to the "ground-truth" captions while suppressing other reasonable descriptions. Conventional evaluation metrics, e.g. BLEU and METEOR, also favor such restrictive methods. In this paper, we explore an alternative approach, with the aim to improve the naturalness and diversity -- two essential properties of human expression. Specifically, we propose a new framework based on Conditional Generative Adversarial Networks (CGAN), which jointly learns a generator to produce descriptions conditioned on images and an evaluator to assess how well a description fits the visual content. It is noteworthy that training a sequence generator is nontrivial. We overcome the difficulty by Policy Gradient, a strategy stemming from Reinforcement Learning, which allows the generator to receive early feedback along the way. We tested our method on two large datasets, where it performed competitively against real people in our user study and outperformed other methods on various tasks.
- Mar 10 2017 cs.CV arXiv:1703.03329v2Current action recognition methods heavily rely on trimmed videos for model training. However, it is expensive and time-consuming to acquire a large-scale trimmed video dataset. This paper presents a new weakly supervised architecture, called UntrimmedNet, which is able to directly learn action recognition models from untrimmed videos without the requirement of temporal annotations of action instances. Our UntrimmedNet couples two important components, the classification module and the selection module, to learn the action models and reason about the temporal duration of action instances, respectively. These two components are implemented with feed-forward networks, and UntrimmedNet is therefore an end-to-end trainable architecture. We exploit the learned models for action recognition (WSR) and detection (WSD) on the untrimmed video datasets of THUMOS14 and ActivityNet. Although our UntrimmedNet only employs weak supervision, our method achieves performance superior or comparable to that of those strongly supervised approaches on these two datasets.
- Mar 09 2017 cs.CV arXiv:1703.02716v1Detecting activities in untrimmed videos is an important but challenging task. The performance of existing methods remains unsatisfactory, e.g., they often meet difficulties in locating the beginning and end of a long complex action. In this paper, we propose a generic framework that can accurately detect a wide variety of activities from untrimmed videos. Our first contribution is a novel proposal scheme that can efficiently generate candidates with accurate temporal boundaries. The other contribution is a cascaded classification pipeline that explicitly distinguishes between relevance and completeness of a candidate instance. On two challenging temporal activity detection datasets, THUMOS14 and ActivityNet, the proposed framework significantly outperforms the existing state-of-the-art methods, demonstrating superior accuracy and strong adaptivity in handling activities with various temporal structures.
- For binary $[n,k,d]$ linear locally repairable codes (LRCs), two new upper bounds on $k$ are derived. The first one applies to LRCs with disjoint local repair groups, for general values of $n,d$ and locality $r$, containing some previously known bounds as special cases. The second one is based on solving an optimization problem and applies to LRCs with arbitrary structure of local repair groups. Particularly, an explicit bound is derived from the second bound when $d\geq 5$. A specific comparison shows this explicit bound outperforms the Cadambe-Mazumdar bound for $5\leq d\leq 8$ and large values of $n$. Moreover, a construction of binary linear LRCs with $d\geq6$ attaining our second bound is provided.
- Dec 30 2016 cs.CV arXiv:1612.08879v1Scene classification plays a key role in interpreting the remotely sensed high-resolution images. With the development of deep learning, supervised learning in classification of Remote Sensing with convolutional networks (CNNs) has been frequently adopted. However, researchers paid less attention to unsupervised learning in remote sensing with CNNs. In order to filling the gap, this paper proposes a set of CNNs called \textbfMultiple l\textbfAye\textbfR fea\textbfTure m\textbfAtching(MARTA) generative adversarial networks (GANs) to learn representation using only unlabeled data. There will be two models of MARTA GANs involved: (1) a generative model $G$ that captures the data distribution and provides more training data; (2) a discriminative model $D$ that estimates the possibility that a sample came from the training data rather than $G$ and in this way a well-formed representation of dataset can be learned. Therefore, MARTA GANs obtain the state-of-the-art results which outperform the results got from UC-Merced Land-use dataset and Brazilian Coffee Scenes dataset.
- Collaborative Filtering (CF) is widely used in large-scale recommendation engines because of its efficiency, accuracy and scalability. However, in practice, the fact that recommendation engines based on CF require interactions between users and items before making recommendations, make it inappropriate for new items which haven't been exposed to the end users to interact with. This is known as the cold-start problem. In this paper we introduce a novel approach which employs deep learning to tackle this problem in any CF based recommendation engine. One of the most important features of the proposed technique is the fact that it can be applied on top of any existing CF based recommendation engine without changing the CF core. We successfully applied this technique to overcome the item cold-start problem in Careerbuilder's CF based recommendation engine. Our experiments show that the proposed technique is very efficient to resolve the cold-start problem while maintaining high accuracy of the CF recommendations.
- Nov 18 2016 cs.CV arXiv:1611.05725v1A number of studies have shown that increasing the depth or width of convolutional networks is a rewarding approach to improve the performance of image recognition. In our study, however, we observed difficulties along both directions. On one hand, the pursuit for very deep networks are met with diminishing return and increased training difficulty; on the other hand, widening a network would result in a quadratic growth in both computational cost and memory demand. These difficulties motivate us to explore structural diversity in designing deep networks, a new dimension beyond just depth and width. Specifically, we present a new family of modules, namely the PolyInception, which can be flexibly inserted in isolation or in a composition as replacements of different parts of a network. Choosing PolyInception modules with the guidance of architectural efficiency can improve the expressive power while preserving comparable computational cost. A benchmark on the ILSVRC 2012 validation set demonstrates substantial improvements over the state-of-the-art. Compared to Inception-ResNet-v2, it reduces the top-5 error on single crops from 4.9% to 4.25%, and that on multi-crops from 3.7% to 3.45%.
- Markov Random Fields (MRFs), a formulation widely used in generative image modeling, have long been plagued by the lack of expressive power. This issue is primarily due to the fact that conventional MRFs formulations tend to use simplistic factors to capture local patterns. In this paper, we move beyond such limitations, and propose a novel MRF model that uses fully-connected neurons to express the complex interactions among pixels. Through theoretical analysis, we reveal an inherent connection between this model and recurrent neural networks, and thereon derive an approximated feed-forward network that couples multiple RNNs along opposite directions. This formulation combines the expressive power of deep neural networks and the cyclic dependency structure of MRF in a unified model, bringing the modeling capability to a new level. The feed-forward approximation also allows it to be efficiently learned from data. Experimental results on a variety of low-level vision tasks show notable improvement over state-of-the-arts.
- Aug 03 2016 cs.CV arXiv:1608.00859v1Deep convolutional networks have achieved great success for visual recognition in still images. However, for action recognition in videos, the advantage over traditional methods is not so evident. This paper aims to discover the principles to design effective ConvNet architectures for action recognition in videos and learn these models given limited training samples. Our first contribution is temporal segment network (TSN), a novel framework for video-based action recognition. which is based on the idea of long-range temporal structure modeling. It combines a sparse temporal sampling strategy and video-level supervision to enable efficient and effective learning using the whole action video. The other contribution is our study on a series of good practices in learning ConvNets on video data with the help of temporal segment network. Our approach obtains the state-the-of-art performance on the datasets of HMDB51 ( $ 69.4\% $) and UCF101 ($ 94.2\% $). We also visualize the learned ConvNet models, which qualitatively demonstrates the effectiveness of temporal segment network and the proposed good practices.
- Aug 03 2016 cs.CV arXiv:1608.00797v1This paper presents the method that underlies our submission to the untrimmed video classification task of ActivityNet Challenge 2016. We follow the basic pipeline of temporal segment networks and further raise the performance via a number of other techniques. Specifically, we use the latest deep model architecture, e.g., ResNet and Inception V3, and introduce new aggregation schemes (top-k and attention-weighted pooling). Additionally, we incorporate the audio as a complementary channel, extracting relevant information via a CNN applied to the spectrograms. With these techniques, we derive an ensemble of deep models, which, together, attains a high classification accuracy (mAP $93.23\%$) on the testing set and secured the first place in the challenge.
- It is known that training deep neural networks, in particular, deep convolutional networks, with aggressively reduced numerical precision is challenging. The stochastic gradient descent algorithm becomes unstable in the presence of noisy gradient updates resulting from arithmetic with limited numeric precision. One of the well-accepted solutions facilitating the training of low precision fixed point networks is stochastic rounding. However, to the best of our knowledge, the source of the instability in training neural networks with noisy gradient updates has not been well investigated. This work is an attempt to draw a theoretical connection between low numerical precision and training algorithm stability. In doing so, we will also propose and verify through experiments methods that are able to improve the training performance of deep convolutional networks in fixed point.
- Jul 07 2016 cs.CR arXiv:1607.01642v1Position scrambling (permutation) is widely used in multimedia encryption schemes and some international encryption standards, like DES and AES. This paper re-evaluated security of a typical image scrambling encryption algorithm (ISEA). Using the internal correlation remaining in the cipher-image, we can disclose some important visual information of the corresponding plain-image under the scenario of ciphertext-only attack. Furthermore, we found the real \textitscrambling domain, position scrambling scope of the scrambled elements, of ISEA, which can be used to support the most efficient known/chosen-plaintext attack on it. Detailed experimental results verified the contribution points and demonstrated some advanced multimedia processing techniques can facilitate the cryptanalysis of multimedia encryption algorithms.
- Jun 21 2016 cs.CL arXiv:1606.06274v1Semantic roles play an important role in extracting knowledge from text. Current unsupervised approaches utilize features from grammar structures, to induce semantic roles. The dependence on these grammars, however, makes it difficult to adapt to noisy and new languages. In this paper we develop a data-driven approach to identifying semantic roles, the approach is entirely unsupervised up to the point where rules need to be learned to identify the position the semantic role occurs. Specifically we develop a modified-ADIOS algorithm based on ADIOS Solan et al. (2005) to learn grammar structures, and use these grammar structures to learn the rules for identifying the semantic roles based on the context in which the grammar structures appeared. The results obtained are comparable with the current state-of-art models that are inherently dependent on human annotated data.
- Apr 19 2016 cs.CV arXiv:1604.05144v1Large-scale data is of crucial importance for learning semantic segmentation models, but annotating per-pixel masks is a tedious and inefficient procedure. We note that for the topic of interactive image segmentation, scribbles are very widely used in academic research and commercial software, and are recognized as one of the most user-friendly ways of interacting. In this paper, we propose to use scribbles to annotate images, and develop an algorithm to train convolutional networks for semantic segmentation supervised by scribbles. Our algorithm is based on a graphical model that jointly propagates information from scribbles to unmarked pixels and learns network parameters. We present competitive object semantic segmentation results on the PASCAL VOC dataset by using scribbles as annotations. Scribbles are also favored for annotating stuff (e.g., water, sky, grass) that has no well-defined shape, and our method shows excellent results on the PASCAL-CONTEXT dataset thanks to extra inexpensive scribble annotations. Our scribble annotations on PASCAL VOC are available at http://research.microsoft.com/en-us/um/people/jifdai/downloads/scribble_sup
- Recently, linear codes with few weights have been constructed and extensively studied. In this paper, for an odd prime p, we determined the complete weight enumerator of two classes of p-ary linear codes constructed from defining set. Results show that the codes are at almost seven-weight linear codes and they may have applications in secret sharing schemes.
- Linear codes have been an interesting subject of study for many years. Recently, linear codes with few weights have been constructed and extensively studied. In this paper, for an odd prime p, a class of three-weight linear codes over Fp are constructed. The weight distributions of the linear codes are settled. These codes have applications in authentication codes, association schemes and data storage systems.
- Nov 23 2015 cs.LG arXiv:1511.06393v3In recent years increasingly complex architectures for deep convolution networks (DCNs) have been proposed to boost the performance on image recognition tasks. However, the gains in performance have come at a cost of substantial increase in computation and model storage resources. Fixed point implementation of DCNs has the potential to alleviate some of these complexities and facilitate potential deployment on embedded hardware. In this paper, we propose a quantizer design for fixed point implementation of DCNs. We formulate and solve an optimization problem to identify optimal fixed point bit-width allocation across DCN layers. Our experiments show that in comparison to equal bit-width settings, the fixed point DCNs with optimized bit width allocation offer >20% reduction in the model size without any loss in accuracy on CIFAR-10 benchmark. We also demonstrate that fine-tuning can further enhance the accuracy of fixed point DCNs beyond that of the original floating point model. In doing so, we report a new state-of-the-art fixed point performance of 6.78% error-rate on CIFAR-10 benchmark.
- Binary representation is desirable for its memory efficiency, computation speed and robustness. In this paper, we propose adjustable bounded rectifiers to learn binary representations for deep neural networks. While hard constraining representations across layers to be binary makes training unreasonably difficult, we softly encourage activations to diverge from real values to binary by approximating step functions. Our final representation is completely binary. We test our approach on MNIST, CIFAR10, and ILSVRC2012 dataset, and systematically study the training dynamics of the binarization process. Our approach can binarize the last layer representation without loss of performance and binarize all the layers with reasonably small degradations. The memory space that it saves may allow more sophisticated models to be deployed, thus compensating the loss. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first work to report results on current deep network architectures using complete binary middle representations. Given the learned representations, we find that the firing or inhibition of a binary neuron is usually associated with a meaningful interpretation across different classes. This suggests that the semantic structure of a neural network may be manifested through a guided binarization process.
- Recently, linear codes with few weights have been widely studied, since they have applications in data storage systems, communication systems and consumer electronics. In this paper, we present a class of three-weight and five-weight linear codes over Fp, where p is an odd prime and Fp denotes a finite field with p elements. The weight distributions of the linear codes constructed in this paper are also settled. Moreover, the linear codes illustrated in the paper may have applications in secret sharing schemes.
- This paper proposes a novel framework for generating lingual descriptions of indoor scenes. Whereas substantial efforts have been made to tackle this problem, previous approaches focusing primarily on generating a single sentence for each image, which is not sufficient for describing complex scenes. We attempt to go beyond this, by generating coherent descriptions with multiple sentences. Our approach is distinguished from conventional ones in several aspects: (1) a 3D visual parsing system that jointly infers objects, attributes, and relations; (2) a generative grammar learned automatically from training text; and (3) a text generation algorithm that takes into account the coherence among sentences. Experiments on the augmented NYU-v2 dataset show that our framework can generate natural descriptions with substantially higher ROGUE scores compared to those produced by the baseline.
- The generalized Hamming weight (GHW) $d_r(C)$ of linear codes $C$ is a natural generalization of the minimum Hamming distance $d(C)(=d_1(C))$ and has become one of important research objects in coding theory since Wei's originary work [23] in 1991. In this paper two general formulas on $d_r(C)$ for irreducible cyclic codes are presented by using Gauss sums and the weight hierarchy $\{d_1(C), d_2(C), \ldots, d_k(C)\}$ $(k=\dim C)$ are completely determined for several cases.
- Oct 02 2014 cs.SC arXiv:1410.0105v1The GVW algorithm, presented by Gao et al., is a signature-based algorithm for computing Gröbner bases. In this paper, a variant of GVW is presented. This new algorithm is called a monomial-oriented GVW algorithm or mo-GVW algorithm for short. The mo-GVW algorithm presents a new frame of GVW and regards \em labeled monomials instead of \em labeled polynomials as basic elements of the algorithm. Being different from the original GVW algorithm, for each labeled monomial, the mo-GVW makes efforts to find the smallest signature that can generate this monomial. The mo-GVW algorithm also avoids generating J-pairs, and uses efficient methods of searching reducers and checking criteria. Thus, the mo-GVW algorithm has a better performance during practical implementations.
- May 20 2014 cs.SC arXiv:1405.4596v3An improved characteristic set algorithm for solving Boolean polynomial systems is pro- posed. This algorithm is based on the idea of converting all the polynomials into monic ones by zero decomposition, and using additions to obtain pseudo-remainders. Three important techniques are applied in the algorithm. The first one is eliminating variables by new gener- ated linear polynomials. The second one is optimizing the strategy of choosing polynomial for zero decomposition. The third one is to compute add-remainders to eliminate the leading variable of new generated monic polynomials. By analyzing the depth of the zero decompo- sition tree, we present some complexity bounds of this algorithm, which are lower than the complexity bounds of previous characteristic set algorithms. Extensive experimental results show that this new algorithm is more efficient than previous characteristic set algorithms for solving Boolean polynomial systems.
- Apr 08 2014 cs.SC arXiv:1404.1428v2The GVW algorithm is a signature-based algorithm for computing Gröbner bases. If the input system is not homogeneous, some J-pairs with higher signatures but lower degrees are rejected by GVW's Syzygy Criterion, instead, GVW have to compute some J-pairs with lower signatures but higher degrees. Consequently, degrees of polynomials appearing during the computations may unnecessarily grow up higher and the computation become more expensive. In this paper, a variant of the GVW algorithm, called M-GVW, is proposed and mutant pairs are introduced to overcome inconveniences brought by inhomogeneous input polynomials. Some techniques from linear algebra are used to improve the efficiency. Both GVW and M-GVW have been implemented in C++ and tested by many examples from boolean polynomial rings. The timings show M-GVW usually performs much better than the original GVW algorithm when mutant pairs are found. Besides, M-GVW is also compared with intrinsic Gröbner bases functions on Maple, Singular and Magma. Due to the efficient routines from the M4RI library, the experimental results show that M-GVW is very efficient.
- Let $p$ be an odd prime with $2$-adic expansion $\sum_{i=0}^kp_i\cdot2^i$. For a sequence $\underline{a}=(a(t))_{t\ge 0}$ over $\mathbb{F}_{p}$, each $a(t)$ belongs to $\{0,1,\ldots, p-1\}$ and has a unique $2$-adic expansion $$a(t)=a_0(t)+a_1(t)⋅2+⋯+a_k(t)\cdot2^k,$$ with $a_i(t)\in\{0, 1\}$. Let $\underline{a_i}$ denote the binary sequence $(a_i(t))_{t\ge 0}$ for $0\le i\le k$. Assume $i_0$ is the smallest index $i$ such that $p_{i}=0$ and $\underline{a}$ and $\underline{b}$ are two different m-sequences generated by a same primitive characteristic polynomial over $\mathbb{F}_p$. We prove that for $i\neq i_0$ and $0\le i\le k$, $\underline{a_i}=\underline{b_i}$ if and only if $\underline{a}=\underline{b}$, and for $i=i_0$, $\underline{a_{i_0}}=\underline{b_{i_0}}$ if and only if $\underline{a}=\underline{b}$ or $\underline{a}=-\underline{b}$. Then the period of $\underline{a_i}$ is equal to the period of $\underline{a}$ if $i\ne i_0$ and half of the period of $\underline{a}$ if $i=i_0$. We also discuss a possible application of the binary sequences $\underline{a_i}$.
- Jan 28 2014 cs.CR arXiv:1401.6604v1We propose a general approach to construct cryptographic significant Boolean functions of $(r+1)m$ variables based on the additive decomposition $\mathbb{F}_{2^{rm}}\times\mathbb{F}_{2^m}$ of the finite field $\mathbb{F}_{2^{(r+1)m}}$, where $r$ is odd and $m\geq3$. A class of unbalanced functions are constructed first via this approach, which coincides with a variant of the unbalanced class of generalized Tu-Deng functions in the case $r=1$. This class of functions have high algebraic degree, but their algebraic immunity does not exceeds $m$, which is impossible to be optimal when $r>1$. By modifying these unbalanced functions, we obtain a class of balanced functions which have optimal algebraic degree and high nonlinearity (shown by a lower bound we prove). These functions have optimal algebraic immunity provided a combinatorial conjecture on binary strings which generalizes the Tu-Deng conjecture is true. Computer investigations show that, at least for small values of number of variables, functions from this class also behave well against fast algebraic attacks.
- Let $\underline{a}$ and $\underline{b}$ be primitive sequences over $\mathbb{Z}/(p^e)$ with odd prime $p$ and $e\ge 2$. For certain compressing maps, we consider the distribution properties of compressing sequences of $\underline{a}$ and $\underline{b}$, and prove that $\underline{a}=\underline{b}$ if the compressing sequences are equal at the times $t$ such that $\alpha(t)=k$, where $\underline{\alpha}$ is a sequence related to $\underline{a}$. We also discuss the $s$-uniform distribution property of compressing sequences. For some compressing maps, we have that there exist different primitive sequences such that the compressing sequences are $s$-uniform. We also discuss that compressing sequences can be $s$-uniform for how many elements $s$.
- An \emphs-graph is a graph with two kinds of edges: \emphsubdivisible edges and \emphreal edges. A \emphrealisation of an s-graph $B$ is any graph obtained by subdividing subdivisible edges of $B$ into paths of arbitrary length (at least one). Given an s-graph $B$, we study the decision problem $\Pi_B$ whose instance is a graph $G$ and question is "Does $G$ contain a realisation of $B$ as an induced subgraph?". For several $B$'s, the complexity of $\Pi_B$ is known and here we give the complexity for several more. Our NP-completeness proofs for $\Pi_B$'s rely on the NP-completeness proof of the following problem. Let $\cal S$ be a set of graphs and $d$ be an integer. Let $\Gamma_{\cal S}^d$ be the problem whose instance is $(G, x, y)$ where $G$ is a graph whose maximum degree is at most d, with no induced subgraph in $\cal S$ and $x, y \in V(G)$ are two non-adjacent vertices of degree 2. The question is "Does $G$ contain an induced cycle passing through $x, y$?". Among several results, we prove that $\Gamma^3_{\emptyset}$ is NP-complete. We give a simple criterion on a connected graph $H$ to decide whether $\Gamma^{+\infty}_{\{H\}}$ is polynomial or NP-complete. The polynomial cases rely on the algorithm three-in-a-tree, due to Chudnovsky and Seymour.
- In this paper, a new construction of quaternary bent functions from quaternary quadratic forms over Galois rings of characteristic 4 is proposed. Based on this construction, several new classes of quaternary bent functions are obtained, and as a consequence, several new classes of quadratic binary bent and semi-bent functions in polynomial forms are derived. This work generalizes the recent work of N. Li, X. Tang and T. Helleseth.
- Mar 28 2013 cs.AI arXiv:1304.1086v1We propose an abductive diagnosis theory that integrates probabilistic, causal and taxonomic knowledge. Probabilistic knowledge allows us to select the most likely explanation; causal knowledge allows us to make reasonable independence assumptions; taxonomic knowledge allows causation to be modeled at different levels of detail, and allows observations be described in different levels of precision. Unlike most other approaches where a causal explanation is a hypothesis that one or more causative events occurred, we define an explanation of a set of observations to be an occurrence of a chain of causation events. These causation events constitute a scenario where all the observations are true. We show that the probabilities of the scenarios can be computed from the conditional probabilities of the causation events. Abductive reasoning is inherently complex even if only modest expressive power is allowed. However, our abduction algorithm is exponential only in the number of observations to be explained, and is polynomial in the size of the knowledge base. This contrasts with many other abduction procedures that are exponential in the size of the knowledge base.
- In distributed storage systems reliability is achieved through redundancy stored at different nodes in the network. Then a data collector can reconstruct source information even though some nodes fail. To maintain reliability, an autonomous and efficient protocol should be used to repair the failed node. The repair process causes traffic and consequently transmission cost in the network. Recent results found the optimal trafficstorage tradeoff, and proposed regenerating codes to achieve the optimality. We aim at minimizing the transmission cost in the repair process. We consider the network topology in the repair, and accordingly modify information flow graphs. Then we analyze the cut requirement and based on the results, we formulate the minimum-cost as a linear programming problem for linear costs. We show that the solution of the linear problem establishes a fundamental lower bound of the repair-cost. We also show that this bound is achievable for minimum storage regenerating, which uses the optimal-cost minimum-storage regenerating (OCMSR) code. We propose surviving node cooperation which can efficiently reduce the repair cost. Further, the field size for the construction of OCMSR codes is discussed. We show the gain of optimal-cost repair in tandem, star, grid and fully connected networks.
- Mar 14 2013 cs.AI arXiv:1303.5415v1Bayesian networks are directed acyclic graphs representing independence relationships among a set of random variables. A random variable can be regarded as a set of exhaustive and mutually exclusive propositions. We argue that there are several drawbacks resulting from the propositional nature and acyclic structure of Bayesian networks. To remedy these shortcomings, we propose a probabilistic network where nodes represent unary predicates and which may contain directed cycles. The proposed representation allows us to represent domain knowledge in a single static network even though we cannot determine the instantiations of the predicates before hand. The ability to deal with cycles also enables us to handle cyclic causal tendencies and to recognize recursive plans.
- Nov 22 2011 cs.CR arXiv:1111.4635v1We find linear (as well as quadratic) relations in a very large class of T-functions. The relations may be used in analysis of T-function-based stream ciphers.
- Oct 03 2011 cs.DB arXiv:1109.6883v1With the growing use of location-based services, location privacy attracts increasing attention from users, industry, and the research community. While considerable effort has been devoted to inventing techniques that prevent service providers from knowing a user's exact location, relatively little attention has been paid to enabling so-called peer-wise privacy--the protection of a user's location from unauthorized peer users. This paper identifies an important efficiency problem in existing peer-privacy approaches that simply apply a filtering step to identify users that are located in a query range, but that do not want to disclose their location to the querying peer. To solve this problem, we propose a novel, privacy-policy enabled index called the PEB-tree that seamlessly integrates location proximity and policy compatibility. We propose efficient algorithms that use the PEB-tree for processing privacy-aware range and kNN queries. Extensive experiments suggest that the PEB-tree enables efficient query processing.
- Ensemble methods, such as stacking, are designed to boost predictive accuracy by blending the predictions of multiple machine learning models. Recent work has shown that the use of meta-features, additional inputs describing each example in a dataset, can boost the performance of ensemble methods, but the greatest reported gains have come from nonlinear procedures requiring significant tuning and training time. Here, we present a linear technique, Feature-Weighted Linear Stacking (FWLS), that incorporates meta-features for improved accuracy while retaining the well-known virtues of linear regression regarding speed, stability, and interpretability. FWLS combines model predictions linearly using coefficients that are themselves linear functions of meta-features. This technique was a key facet of the solution of the second place team in the recently concluded Netflix Prize competition. Significant increases in accuracy over standard linear stacking are demonstrated on the Netflix Prize collaborative filtering dataset.
- Algebraic and fast algebraic attacks are power tools to analyze stream ciphers. A class of symmetric Boolean functions with maximum algebraic immunity were found vulnerable to fast algebraic attacks at EUROCRYPT'06. Recently, the notion of AAR (algebraic attack resistant) functions was introduced as a unified measure of protection against both classical algebraic and fast algebraic attacks. In this correspondence, we first give a decomposition of symmetric Boolean functions, then we show that almost all symmetric Boolean functions, including these functions with good algebraic immunity, behave badly against fast algebraic attacks, and we also prove that no symmetric Boolean functions are AAR functions. Besides, we improve the relations between algebraic degree and algebraic immunity of symmetric Boolean functions.
- We propose a unified framework for deriving and studying soft-in-soft-out (SISO) detection in interference channels using the concept of variational inference. The proposed framework may be used in multiple-access interference (MAI), inter-symbol interference (ISI), and multiple-input multiple-outpu (MIMO) channels. Without loss of generality, we will focus our attention on turbo multiuser detection, to facilitate a more concrete discussion. It is shown that, with some loss of optimality, variational inference avoids the exponential complexity of a posteriori probability (APP) detection by optimizing a closely-related, but much more manageable, objective function called variational free energy. In addition to its systematic appeal, there are several other advantages to this viewpoint. First of all, it provides unified and rigorous justifications for numerous detectors that were proposed on radically different grounds, and facilitates convenient joint detection and decoding (utilizing the turbo principle) when error-control codes are incorporated. Secondly, efficient joint parameter estimation and data detection is possible via the variational expectation maximization (EM) algorithm, such that the detrimental effect of inaccurate channel knowledge at the receiver may be dealt with systematically. We are also able to extend BPSK-based SISO detection schemes to arbitrary square QAM constellations in a rigorous manner using a variational argument.
- Sep 13 2006 cs.CR arXiv:cs/0609057v1We consider a type of zero-knowledge protocols that are of interest for their practical applications within networks like the Internet: efficient zero-knowledge arguments of knowledge that remain secure against concurrent man-in-the-middle attacks. In an effort to reduce the setup assumptions required for efficient zero-knowledge arguments of knowledge that remain secure against concurrent man-in-the-middle attacks, we consider a model, which we call the Authenticated Public-Key (APK) model. The APK model seems to significantly reduce the setup assumptions made by the CRS model (as no trusted party or honest execution of a centralized algorithm are required), and can be seen as a slightly stronger variation of the Bare Public-Key (BPK) model from \citeCGGM,MR, and a weaker variation of the registered public-key model used in \citeBCNP. We then define and study man-in-the-middle attacks in the APK model. Our main result is a constant-round concurrent non-malleable zero-knowledge argument of knowledge for any polynomial-time relation (associated to a language in $\mathcal{NP}$), under the (minimal) assumption of the existence of a one-way function family. Furthermore,We show time-efficient instantiations of our protocol based on known number-theoretic assumptions. We also note a negative result with respect to further reducing the setup assumptions of our protocol to those in the (unauthenticated) BPK model, by showing that concurrently non-malleable zero-knowledge arguments of knowledge in the BPK model are only possible for trivial languages.
- Jul 11 2006 cs.CR arXiv:cs/0607035v3In this paper we resolve an open problem regarding resettable zero knowledge in the bare public-key (BPK for short) model: Does there exist constant round resettable zero knowledge argument with concurrent soundness for $\mathcal{NP}$ in BPK model without assuming \emphsub-exponential hardness? We give a positive answer to this question by presenting such a protocol for any language in $\mathcal{NP}$ in the bare public-key model assuming only collision-resistant hash functions against \emphpolynomial-time adversaries.
- We present an efficient, broad-coverage, principle-based parser for English. The parser has been implemented in C++ and runs on SUN Sparcstations with X-windows. It contains a lexicon with over 90,000 entries, constructed automatically by applying a set of extraction and conversion rules to entries from machine readable dictionaries.