results for au:Li_Y in:quant-ph

- Mar 22 2018 quant-ph physics.optics arXiv:1803.07735v1Improving the phase resolution of interferometry is crucial for high-precision measurements of various physical quantities. Systematic phase errors dominate the phase uncertainties in most realistic optical interferometers. Here we propose and experimentally demonstrate a weak measurement scheme to considerably suppress the phase uncertainties by the direct amplification of phase shift in optical interferometry. Given an initial ultra-small phase shift between orthogonal polarization states, we observe the phase amplification effect with a factor of 388. Our weak measurement scheme provides a practical approach to significantly improve the interferometric phase resolution, which is favorable for precision measurement applications.
- Traditional form of the second law of thermodynamics is strongly restricted by three conditions: One is the initial joint state of the system and surroundings should be a product state, so that there exists no initial correlations. The second is the initial states of surroundings are in equilibrium thermodynamics. And the end is weak couplings between the system and surroundings. This formulation of the second law should be reexamined in order to understand the relations of thermodynamics and information theory, especially, when existing initial correlations. In this work, using the techniques of quantum statistical mechanics for thermodynamics and quantum information science, we recast fundamental laws of thermodynamics from theoretical information point of view. Initial correlations between the system and surroundings are considered, which evolves thermodynamically and result in modifications of the traditional formulations. We obtained improved forms of the entropy increase, Landauer's principle, and the second law of thermodynamics, which are exhibited as equalities rather than inequalities, and through which physical nature of information can be demonstrated precisely. Further, using the language totally belongs to quantum information theory, we give the direction of natural evolution process a new statement: the evolution of an isolated quantum system, where no correlations exist between subsystems, initially, always towards to directions of the correlation information never be decreased. Such result indicates that the traditional principle of entropy increase can be redescribed using information theory, identically.
- Mar 15 2018 quant-ph arXiv:1803.05147v1We investigate the dynamics of an optomechanical system where a cavity with a movable mirror involves a degenerate optical parametric amplifier and is driven by a periodically modulated laser field. Our results show that the cooperation between the parametric driving and periodically modulated cavity driving results in a two-fold squeezing on the movable cavity mirror that acts as a mechanical oscillator. This allows the fluctuation of the mechanical oscillator in one quadrature (momentum or position) to be reduced to a level that cannot be reached by solely applying either of these two drivings. In addition to the fundamental interests, e.g., study of quantum effects at the macroscopic level and exploration of the quantum-to-classical transition, our results have potential applications in ultrasensitive sensing of force and motion.
- Mar 07 2018 quant-ph physics.optics arXiv:1803.02003v1Optical communication systems are able to send the information from one user to another in light beams that travel through the free space or optical fibers, therefore how to send larger amounts of information in smaller periods of time is a long term concern, one promising way is to use multiplexing of photon's different degrees of freedoms to parallel handle the large amounts of information in multiple channels independently. In this work, by combining the wavelength and time division multiplexing technologies, we prepare a multifrequency mode time bin entangled photon pair source at different time slots by using four wave mixing in a silicon nanowire waveguide, and distribute entangled photons into 3 time by 14 wavelength channels independently, which can significantly increase the bit rate compared with the single channel systems in quantum communication. Our work paves a new and promising way to achieve a high capacity quantum communication and to generate a multiple photon nonclassical state.
- Mar 02 2018 quant-ph arXiv:1803.00207v1The interferometer is one of the most important devices for study of the basic properties of light and for high-precision optical metrology. We observe quantum beating versus temperature in a birefringent crystal in a modified self-stable Mach-Zehnder interferometer for both single-photon and two-photon inputs. The beating intensity can be tuned by rotating the crystal and the two-photon interference fringes beat two times faster than the single-photon interference fringes. This beating effect is used to determine the thermal dispersion coefficients of the two principal refractive axes with a single measurement, while the two-photon input case shows super-resolution and high sensitivity, which cannot be achieved using other implementations. A quantum optical model is constructed to describe the phenomenon and agrees well with experimental observations. Our findings will be important for accurate measurement of the optical properties of birefringent materials and for high-precision optical sensing with quantum enhancement.
- Mar 02 2018 quant-ph physics.optics arXiv:1803.00206v1Dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) is one of the most successful methods for enhancing data transmission rates in both classical and quantum communication networks. Although signal multiplexing and demultiplexing are equally important, traditional multiplexing and demultiplexing methods are based on passive devices such as arrayed waveguides and fiber Bragg cascade filters, which, although widely used in commercial devices, lack any active tuning ability. In this work, we propose a signal demultiplexing method based on sum frequency generation (SFG) with two significant features: first, any signal from the common communication channel can be demultiplexed to a single user by switching the pump wavelength; second, a cheap high-performance detector can be used for signal detection. These two features were demonstrated by demultiplexing multi-channel energy-time entanglement generated by a micro-cavity silicon chip. High interference visibilities over three channels after demultiplexing showed that entanglement was preserved and verified the high performance of the demultiplexer, which will find wide application in high-capacity quantum communication networks.
- Feb 23 2018 quant-ph arXiv:1802.07828v1It is NP-complete to find non-negative factors $W$ and $H$ with fixed rank $r$ from a non-negative matrix $X$ by minimizing $\|X-WH^\top\|_F^2$. Although the separability assumption (all data points are in the conical hull of the extreme rows) enables polynomial-time algorithms, the computational cost is not affordable for big data. This paper investigates how the power of quantum computation can be capitalized to solve the non-negative matrix factorization with the separability assumption (SNMF) by devising a quantum algorithm based on the divide-and-conquer anchoring (DCA) scheme. The design of quantum DCA (QDCA) is challenging. In the divide step, the random projections in DCA is completed by a quantum algorithm for linear operations, which achieves the exponential speedup. We then devise a heuristic post-selection procedure which extracts the information of anchors stored in the quantum states efficiently. Under a plausible assumption, QDCA performs efficiently, achieves the quantum speedup, and is beneficial for high dimensional problems.
- Feb 07 2018 quant-ph arXiv:1802.01917v1The controlled generation and identification of quantum correlations, usually encoded in either qubits or continuous degrees of freedom, builds the foundation of quantum information science. Recently, more sophisticated approaches, involving a combination of two distinct degrees of freedom have been proposed to improve on the traditional strategies. Hyperentanglement describes simultaneous entanglement in more than one distinct degree of freedom, whereas hybrid entanglement refers to entanglement shared between a discrete and a continuous degree of freedom. In this work we propose a scheme that allows to combine the two approaches, and to extend them to the strongest form of quantum correlations. Specifically, we show how two identical, initially separated particles can be manipulated to produce Bell nonlocality among their spins, among their momenta, as well as across their spins and momenta. We discuss possible experimental realizations with atomic and photonic systems.
- Feb 05 2018 quant-ph arXiv:1802.00576v4Single-loop cyclic three-level ($\Delta$-type) configuration of chiral molecules was used for enantio- separation in many theoretical works based on the electric-dipole coupling with three microwave fields. Considering the molecular rotation, this simple single-loop model is generally replaced by a complicated multiple-loop one containing multi degenerated magnetic sub-levels and the ability of the enantio-separation methods is suppressed. For chiral molecules of asymmetric top, we propose a real single-loop $\Delta$-type configuration by applying three microwave fields with appropriate polar- izations and frequencies to resonantly couple respectively with the transitions among three single rotational levels, where each of the levels does not involve multi degenerated magnetic sub-levels. With our scheme, the previous theoretical proposals for enantio-separation based on single-loop $\Delta$-type configuration can be experimentally realized when the molecular rotation is considered.
- It was recently found that the Lee-Huang-Yang (LHY) correction to the mean-field Hamiltonian suppresses the collapse and creates stable localized modes (two-component "quantum droplets", QDs) in two and three dimensions. We construct two-dimensional\ self-trapped modes in the form of QDs with vorticity $S$ embedded into each component. The QDs feature a flat-top shape, which expands with the increase of $S$ and norm $N$. An essential finding, produced by a systematic numerical analysis and analytical estimates, is that the vortical QDs are \emphstable (which is a critical issue for vortex solitons in nonlinear models) up to $S=5$, for $N$ exceeding a certain threshold value. In the condensate of $^{39}$K atoms, in which QDs with $S=0$ and a quasi-2D shape were created recently, the vortical droplets may have radial size $\lesssim 30$ $\mathrm{\mu }$m, with the number of atoms in the range of $10^{4}-10^{5}$. It is worthy to note that \textithidden-vorticity states in QDs with topological charges $% S_{+}=-S_{-}=1$ in its components, which are prone to strong instability in other settings, have their stability region too, although it may be located beyond applicability limits of the underlying model. Dynamics of elliptically deformed QDs, which form rotating elongated patterns or ones with strong oscillations of the eccentricity, as well as collisions of QDs, are also addressed.
- Jan 26 2018 quant-ph arXiv:1801.08282v1Boson sampling is a well-defined task that is strongly believed to be intractable for classical computers, but can be efficiently solved by a specific quantum simulator. However, an outstanding problem for large-scale experimental boson sampling is the scalability. Here we report an experiment on boson sampling with photon loss, and demonstrate that boson sampling with a few photons lost can increase the sampling rate. Our experiment uses a quantum-dot-micropillar single-photon source demultiplexed into up to seven input ports of a 16*16 mode ultra-low-loss photonic circuit, and we detect three-, four- and five-fold coincidence counts. We implement and validate lossy boson sampling with one and two photons lost, and obtain sampling rates of 187 kHz, 13.6 kHz, and 0.78 kHz for five-, six- and seven-photon boson sampling with two photons lost, which is 9.4, 13.9, and 18.0 times faster than the standard boson sampling, respectively. Our experiment shows an approach to significantly enhance the sampling rate of multiphoton boson sampling.
- Jan 18 2018 quant-ph arXiv:1801.05666v1We study an optomechanical transistor, where an input field can be transferred and amplified unidirectionally in a cyclic three-mode optomechanical system. In this system, the mechanical resonator is coupled simultaneously to two cavity modes. We show that it only requires a finite mechanical gain to achieve the nonreciprocal amplification. Here the nonreciprocity is caused by the phase difference between the linearized optomechanical couplings that breaks the time-reversal symmetry of this system. The amplification arises from the mechanical gain, which provides an effective phonon bath that pumps the mechanical mode coherently. This effect is analogous to the stimulated emission of atoms, where the probe field can be amplified when its frequency is in resonance with that of the anti-Stokes transition. We show that by choosing optimal parameters, this optomechanical transistor can reach perfect unidirectionality accompanied with strong amplification. In addition, the presence of the mechanical gain can result in ultra-long delay in the phase of the probe field, which provides an alternative to controlling light transport in optomechanical systems.
- Jan 16 2018 quant-ph arXiv:1801.04418v1We perform decoy-state quantum key distribution between a low-Earth-orbit satellite and multiple ground stations located in Xinglong, Nanshan, and Graz, which establish satellite-to-ground secure keys with ~kHz rate per passage of the satellite Micius over a ground station. The satellite thus establishes a secure key between itself and, say, Xinglong, and another key between itself and, say, Graz. Then, upon request from the ground command, Micius acts as a trusted relay. It performs bitwise exclusive OR operations between the two keys and relays the result to one of the ground stations. That way, a secret key is created between China and Europe at locations separated by 7600 km on Earth. These keys are then used for intercontinental quantum-secured communication. This was on the one hand the transmission of images in a one-time pad configuration from China to Austria as well as from Austria to China. Also, a videoconference was performed between the Austrian Academy of Sciences and the Chinese Academy of Sciences, which also included a 280 km optical ground connection between Xinglong and Beijing. Our work points towards an efficient solution for an ultralong-distance global quantum network, laying the groundwork for a future quantum internet.
- Jan 12 2018 quant-ph arXiv:1801.03782v2Entanglement is an important evidence that a quantum device can potentially solve problems intractable for classical computers. In this paper, we report on full entanglement of up to 16 qubits on \it ibmqx5, a 16-qubit superconducting quantum processor accessible via IBM cloud. Connected graph states involving 8 to 16 qubits are prepared on \it ibmqx5 using low-depth circuits. We demonstrate that the prepared state is fully entangled, i.e. the state is inseparable with respect to any fixed partition. Our results set a new record for the number of fully entangled qubits for superconducting quantum processors.
- Jan 01 2018 quant-ph arXiv:1712.10093v1We show that both single-component and two-component Bose-Einstein condensates' (BECs) ground states can be simulated by deep convolutional neural networks of the same structure. We trained the neural network via inputting the coupling strength in the dimensionless Gross-Pitaevskii equation (GPE) and outputting the ground state wave-function. After training, the neural network generates ground states faster than the method of imaginary time evolution, while the relative mean-square-error between predicted states and original states is in the magnitude between $10^{-5}$ and $10^{-4}$. We compared the eigen-energies based on predicted states and original states, it is shown that the neural network can predict eigen-energies in high precisions. Therefore, the BEC ground states, which are continuous wave-functions, can be represented by deep convolution neural networks.
- Dec 27 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1712.09271v1It is vital to minimise the impact of errors for near-future quantum devices that will lack the resources for full fault tolerance. Two quantum error mitigation (QEM) techniques have been introduced recently, namely error extrapolation [Li 2017,Temme 2017] and quasi-probability decomposition [Temme 2017]. To enable practical implementation of these ideas, here we account for the inevitable imperfections in the experimentalist's knowledge of the error model itself. We describe a protocol for systematically measuring the effect of errors so as to design efficient QEM circuits. We find that the effect of localised Markovian errors can be fully eliminated by inserting or replacing some gates with certain single-qubit Clifford gates and measurements. Finally, having introduced an exponential variant of the extrapolation method we contrast the QEM techniques using exact numerical simulation of up to 19 qubits in the context of a 'SWAP test' circuit. Our optimised methods dramatically reduce the circuit's output error without increasing the qubit count or time requirements.
- We experimentally simulate the spin networks -- a fundamental description of quantum spacetime at the Planck level. We achieve this by simulating quantum tetrahedra and their interactions. The tensor product of these quantum tetrahedra comprises spin networks. In this initial attempt to study quantum spacetime by quantum information processing, on a four-qubit nuclear magnetic resonance quantum simulator, we simulate the basic module -- comprising five quantum tetrahedra -- of the interactions of quantum spacetime. By measuring the geometric properties on the corresponding quantum tetrahedra and simulate their interactions, our experiment serves as the basic module that represents the Feynman diagram vertex in the spin-network formulation of quantum spacetime.
- Dec 11 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1712.03204v1Quantum entanglement was termed "spooky action at a distance" in the well-known paper by Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen. Entanglement is expected to be distributed over longer and longer distances in both practical applications and fundamental research into the principles of nature. Here, we present a proposal for distributing entangled photon pairs between the Earth and Moon using a Lagrangian point at a distance of 1.28 light seconds. One of the most fascinating features in this long-distance distribution of entanglement is that we can perform Bell test with human supply the random measurement settings and record the results while still maintaining space-like intervals. To realize a proof-of-principle experiment, we develop an entangled photon source with 1 GHz generation rate, about 2 orders of magnitude higher than previous results. Violation of the Bell's inequality was observed under a total simulated loss of 103 dB with measurement settings chosen by two experimenters. This demonstrates the feasibility of such long-distance Bell test over extremely high-loss channels, paving the way for the ultimate test of the foundations of quantum mechanics.
- We elaborate a method for the creation of two- and one-dimensional (2D and 1D) self-trapped modes in binary spin-orbit (SO)-coupled Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) with the contact repulsive interaction, whose local strength grows fast enough from the center to periphery. In particular, an exact semi-vortex (SV) solution is found for the anti-Gaussian radial-modulation profile. The exact modes are included in the numerically produced family of SV solitons. Other families, in the form of mixed modes(MMs), as well as excited state of SVs and MMs, are produced too. While the excited states are unstable in all previously studied models, they are partially stable in the present one. In the 1D version of the system, exact solutions for the counterpart of the SVs, namely, \textitsemi-dipole solitons, are found too. Families of semi-dipoles, as well as the 1D version of MMs, are produced numerically.
- We report the first experimental two-dimensional infrared (2D IR) spectra of novel molecular photonic excitations - vibrational-polaritons. The application of advanced 2D IR spectroscopy onto novel vibrational-polariton challenges and advances our understanding in both fields. From spectroscopy aspect, 2D IR spectra of polaritons differ drastically from free uncoupled molecules; from vibrational-polariton aspects, 2D IR uniquely resolves hybrid light-matter polariton excitations and unexpected dark states in a state-selective manner and revealed hidden interactions between them. Moreover, 2D IR signals highlight the role of vibrational anharmonicities in generating non-linear signals. To further advance our knowledge on 2D IR of vibrational polaritons, we develop a new quantum-mechanical model incorporating the effects of both nuclear and electrical anharmonicities on vibrational-polaritons and their 2D IR signals. This work reveals polariton physics that is difficult or impossible to probe with traditional linear spectroscopy and lays the foundation for investigating new non-linear optics and chemistry of molecular vibrational-polaritons.
- Nov 30 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1711.10878v3We show that a generic $N$-qudit pure quantum state is uniquely determined by only $2$ of its $\lceil\frac{N+1}{2}\rceil$-particle reduced density matrices. Therefore we give a method to uniquely determine a generic $N$-qudit pure state of dimension $D=d^N$ with $O(D)$ local measurements, which is an improvement comparing with the previous known approach using $O(D\log^2 D)$ or $O(D\log D)$ measurements.
- Nov 17 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1711.05943v1Using a formulation of quantum mechanics based on the theory of orthogonal polynomials, we introduce a four-parameter system associated with the Hahn and continuous Hahn polynomials. The continuum energy scattering states are written in terms of the continuous Hahn polynomial whose asymptotics give the scattering amplitude and phase shift. On the other hand, the finite number of discrete bound states are associated with the Hahn polynomial.
- Oct 30 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1710.10207v1We propose a method to manipulate, possibly faster than adiabatically, four-level systems with time-dependent couplings and constant energy shifts (detunings in quantum-optical realizations). We inversely engineer the Hamiltonian, in ladder, tripod, or diamond configurations, to prepare arbitrary states using the geometry of four-dimensional rotations to set the state populations, specifically we use Cayley's factorization of a general rotation into right- and left-isoclinic rotations.
- This paper describes a quantum programming environment, named $Q|SI\rangle$. It is a platform embedded in the .Net language that supports quantum programming using a quantum extension of the $\mathbf{while}$-language. The framework of the platform includes a compiler of the quantum $\mathbf{while}$-language and a suite of tools for simulating quantum computation, optimizing quantum circuits, and analyzing and verifying quantum programs. Throughout the paper, using $Q|SI\rangle$ to simulate quantum behaviors on classical platforms with a combination of components is demonstrated. The scalable framework allows the user to program customized functions on the platform. The compiler works as the core of $Q|SI\rangle$ bridging the gap from quantum hardware to quantum software. The built-in decomposition algorithms enable the universal quantum computation on the present quantum hardware.
- Oct 16 2017 physics.optics quant-ph arXiv:1710.04776v1This paper reports the results of a study into highly efficient sum frequency generation from 792 and 1556 nm wavelength light to 525 nm wavelength light using either a single or double resonant ring cavity based on a periodically poled potassium titanyl phosphate crystal (PPKTP). By optimizing the cavity$'$s parameters, the maximum power achieved for the resultant 525 nm laser was 263 and 373 mW for the single and double resonant cavity, respectively. The corresponding quantum conversion efficiencies were 8 and 77\% for converting 1556 nm photons to 525 nm photons with the single and double resonant cavity, respectively. The measured intra-cavity single pass conversion efficiency for both configurations was about 5\%. The performances of the sum frequency generation in these two configurations were studied and compared in detail. This work will provide guidelines for optimizing the generation of sum frequency generated laser light for a variety of configurations. The high conversion efficiency achieved in this work will help pave the way for frequency up-conversion of non-classical quantum states, such as the squeezed vacuum and single photon states. The proposed green laser source will be used in our future experiments, which includes a plan to generate two-colour entangled photon pairs and achieve the frequency down-conversion of single photons carrying orbital angular momentum.
- Oct 11 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1710.03636v1Quantum error correction is important to quantum information processing, which allows us to reliably process information encoded in quantum error correction codes. Efficient quantum error correction benefits from the knowledge of error rates. We propose a protocol for monitoring error rates in real time without interrupting the quantum error correction. Any adaptation of the quantum error correction code or its implementation circuit is not required. The protocol can be directly applied to the most advanced quantum error correction techniques, e.g. surface code. A Gaussian processes algorithm is used to estimate and predict error rates based on error correction data in the past. We find that using these estimated error rates, the probability of error correction failures can be significantly reduced by a factor increasing with the code distance.
- Oct 03 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1710.00584v1Tunable beam splitter (TBS) is a fundamental component which has been widely used in optical experiments. We realize a polarization-independent orbital-angular-momentum-preserving TBS based on the combination of modified polarization beam splitters and half-wave plates. Greater than 30 dB of the extinction ratio of tunableness, lower than $6\%$ of polarization dependence and more than 20 dB of the extinction ratio of OAM preservation show the relatively good performance of the TBS. In addition, the TBS can save about 3/4 of the optical elements compared with the existing scheme to implement the same function\citeyang2016experimental, which makes it have great advantages in scalable applications. Using this TBS, we experimentally built a Sagnac interferometer with the mean visibility of more than $99\%$, which demonstrates its potential applications in quantum information process, such as quantum cryptography.
- Invariant tensors are states in the (local) SU(2) tensor product representation but invariant under global SU(2) action. They are of importance in the study of loop quantum gravity. A random tensor is an ensemble of tensor states. An average over the ensemble is carried out when computing any physical quantities. The random tensor exhibits a phenomenon of `concentration of measure', saying that for any bipartition, the expected value of entanglement entropy of its reduced density matrix is asymptotically the maximal possible as the local dimension goes to infinity. This is also true even when the average is over the invariant subspace instead of the whole space for $4-$valent tensors, although its entropy deficit is divergent. One might expect that for $n\geq 5$, $n-$valent random invariant tensor would behavior similarly. However, we show that, the expected entropy deficit of reduced density matrix of such $n-$valent random invariant tensor from maximum, is not divergent but a finite number. Under some special situation, the number could be even smaller than half a bit, which is the deficit of random pure state over the whole Hilbert space from maximum.
- Sep 21 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1709.06779v1Quantum mechanics provides means of generating genuine randomness that is impossible with deterministic classical processes. Remarkably, the unpredictability of randomness can be certified in a self-testing manner that is independent of implementation devices. Here, we present an experimental demonstration of self-testing quantum random number generation based on an detection-loophole free Bell test with entangled photons. In the randomness analysis, without the assumption of independent identical distribution, we consider the worst case scenario that the adversary launches the most powerful attacks against quantum adversary. After considering statistical fluctuations and applying an 80 Gb $\times$ 45.6 Mb Toeplitz matrix hashing, we achieve a final random bit rate of 114 bits/s, with a failure probability less than $10^{-5}$. Such self-testing random number generators mark a critical step towards realistic applications in cryptography and fundamental physics tests.
- Sep 20 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1709.06245v2An important approach to the fault-tolerant quantum computation is protecting the logical information using the quantum error correction. Usually, the logical information is in the form of logical qubits, which are encoded in physical qubits using quantum error correction codes. Compared with the qubit quantum computation, the fermionic quantum computation has advantages in quantum simulations of fermionic systems, e.g. molecules. In this paper, we show that the fermionic quantum computation can be universal and fault-tolerant if we encode logical Majorana fermions in physical Majorana fermions. We take a color code as an example to demonstrate the universal set of fault-tolerant operations on logical Majorana fermions, and we numerically find that the fault-tolerance threshold is about 0.8%.
- Sep 13 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1709.03770v1Quantum protocols require access to large-scale entangled quantum states, due to the requirement of channel capacity. As a promising candidate, the high-dimensional orbital angular momentum (OAM) entangled states have been implemented, but only one of four OAM Bell states in each individual subspace can be distinguished. Here we demonstrate the first realization of complete OAM Bell-state measurement (OAM-BSM) in an individual subspace, by seeking the suitable unitary matrix performable using only linear optics and breaking the degeneracy of four OAM Bell states in ancillary polarization dimension. We further realize the superdense coding via our complete OAMBSM with the average success probability of ~82% and the channel capacity of ~1.1(4) bits. This work opens the window for increasing the channel capacity and extending the applications of OAM quantum states in quantum information in future.
- The ground state energy of a many-electron system can be approximated by an variational approach in which the total energy of the system is minimized with respect to one and two-body reduced density matrices (RDM) instead of many-electron wavefunctions. This problem can be formulated as a semidefinite programming problem. Due the large size of the problem, the well-known interior point method can only be used to tackle problems with a few atoms. First-order methods such as the the alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) have much lower computational cost per iteration. However, their convergence can be slow, especially for obtaining highly accurate approximations. In this paper, we present a practical and efficient second-order semi-smooth Newton type method for solving the SDP formulation of the energy minimization problem. We discuss a number of techniques that can be used to improve the computational efficiency of the method and achieve global convergence. Extensive numerical experiments show that our approach is competitive to the state-of-the-art methods in terms of both accuracy and speed.
- We propose to construct a nonreciprocal single-photon frequency converter via multiple semi-infinite coupled-resonator waveguides (CRWs). We first demonstrate that the frequency of a single photon can be converted nonreciprocally through two CRWs, which are coupled indirectly by optomechanical interactions with two nondegenerate mechanical modes. Based on such nonreciprocity, two different single-photon circulators are proposed in the T-shaped waveguides consisting of three semi-infinite CRWs, which are coupled in pairwise by optomechanical interactions. One circulator is proposed by using two nondegenerate mechanical modes and the other one is proposed by using three nondegenerate mechanical modes. Nonreciprocal single-photon frequency conversion is induced by breaking the time-reversal symmetry, and the optimal conditions for nonreciprocal frequency conversion are obtained. These proposals can be used to realize nonreciprocal frequency conversion of single photons in any two distinctive waveguides with different frequencies and they can allow for dynamic control of the direction of frequency conversion by tuning the phases of external driving lasers, which may have versatile applications in hybrid quantum networks.
- Multiphoton interference in quantum Fourier transform circuits and applications to quantum metrologyAug 02 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1708.00296v1Quantum Fourier transforms (QFT) have gained increased attention with the rise of quantum walks, boson sampling, and quantum metrology. Here we present and demonstrate a general technique that simplifies the construction of QFT interferometers using both path and polarization modes. On that basis, we first observed the generalized Hong-Ou-Mandel effect with up to four photons. Furthermore, we directly exploited number-path entanglement generated in these QFT interferometers and demonstrated optical phase supersensitivities deterministically.
- In this paper we continue our program of computing Casimir self-entropies of idealized electrical bodies. Here we consider an electromagnetic $\delta$-function sphere ("semitransparent sphere") whose electric susceptibility has a transverse polarization with arbitrary strength. Dispersion is incorporated by a plasma-like model. In the strong coupling limit, a perfectly conducting spherical shell is realized. We compute the entropy for both low and high temperatures. The TE self-entropy is negative as expected, but the TM self-entropy requires ultraviolet and infrared subtractions, and, surprisingly, is only positive for sufficiently strong coupling. Results are robust under different regularization schemes.
- Jul 28 2017 physics.optics quant-ph arXiv:1707.08787v2In quantum communications, vortex photons can encode higher-dimensional quantum states and build high-dimensional communication networks (HDCNs). The interfaces that connect different wavelengths are significant in HDCNs. We construct a coherent orbital angular momentum (OAM) frequency bridge via difference frequency conversion in a nonlinear bulk crystal for HDCNs. Using a single resonant cavity, maximum quantum conversion efficiencies from visible to infrared are 36\%, 15\%, and 7.8\% for topological charges of 0,1, and 2, respectively. The average fidelity obtained using quantum state tomography for the down-converted infrared OAM-state of topological charge 1 is 96.51\%. We also prove that the OAM is conserved in this process by measuring visible and infrared interference patterns. This coherent OAM frequency-down conversion bridge represents a basis for an interface between two high-dimensional quantum systems operating with different spectra.
- Multiphoton pair production is investigated by focusing on the momentum structures of produced pairs in the polarization plane for the two circularly polarized fields. Upon the momentum spectra, different from the concentric rings with the familiar Ramsey interference fringes for the same handedness, however, the obvious vortex structures are found constituted by the Archimedean spirals for two opposite handedness fields. The underlying physical reasons are analyzed and discussed. It is also found that the vortex patterns are sensitive to the relative carrier envelope phase, the time delay, and the handedness of two fields, which can be used to detect the applied laser field characteristics as a probe way.
- Long-distance entanglement distribution is essential both for foundational tests of quantum physics and scalable quantum networks. Owing to channel loss, however, the previously achieved distance was limited to ~100 km. Here, we demonstrate satellite-based distribution of entangled photon pairs to two locations separated by 1203 km on the Earth, through satellite-to-ground two-downlink with a sum of length varies from 1600 km to 2400 km. We observe a survival of two-photon entanglement and a violation of Bell inequality by 2.37+/-0.09 under strict Einstein locality conditions. The obtained effective link efficiency at 1200 km in this work is over 12 orders of magnitude higher than the direct bidirectional transmission of the two photons through the best commercial telecommunication fibers with a loss of 0.16 dB/km.
- Results of a search for a long-range monopole-dipole coupling between the mass of the Earth and rubidium (Rb) nuclear spins are reported. The experiment simultaneously measures the spin precession frequencies of overlapping ensembles of $^{85}$Rb and $^{87}$Rb atoms contained within an evacuated, antirelaxation-coated vapor cell. The nuclear structure of the Rb isotopes makes the experiment particularly sensitive to spin-dependent interactions of the proton. The spin-dependent component of the gravitational energy of the proton in the Earth's field is found to be smaller than $3 \times 10^{-18}~{\rm eV}$, improving laboratory constraints on long-range monopole-dipole interactions by over three orders of magnitude.
- Quantum key distribution (QKD) uses individual light quanta in quantum superposition states to guarantee unconditional communication security between distant parties. In practice, the achievable distance for QKD has been limited to a few hundred kilometers, due to the channel loss of fibers or terrestrial free space that exponentially reduced the photon rate. Satellite-based QKD promises to establish a global-scale quantum network by exploiting the negligible photon loss and decoherence in the empty out space. Here, we develop and launch a low-Earth-orbit satellite to implement decoy-state QKD with over kHz key rate from the satellite to ground over a distance up to 1200 km, which is up to 20 orders of magnitudes more efficient than that expected using an optical fiber (with 0.2 dB/km loss) of the same length. The establishment of a reliable and efficient space-to-ground link for faithful quantum state transmission constitutes a key milestone for global-scale quantum networks.
- We study two-dimensional (2D) matter-wave solitons in spinor Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) under the action of the spin-orbit coupling (SOC) and opposite signs of the self- and cross-interactions. Stable 2D two-component solitons of the mixed-mode (MM) type are found if the cross-interaction between the components is attractive, while the self-interaction is repulsive in each component. Stable solitons of the semi-vortex type are formed in the opposite case, under the action of competing self-attraction and cross-repulsion. The solitons exist with the total norm taking values below a collapse threshold. Further, in the case of the repulsive self-interaction and inter-component attraction, stable 2D self-trapped modes, which may be considered as quantum droplets (QDs), are created if the beyond-mean-field Lee-Huang-Yang (LHY) terms are added to the self-repulsion in the underlying system of coupled Gross-Pitaevskii equations. Stable QDs of the MM type, of a large size with an anisotropic density profile, exist with arbitrarily large values of the norm, as the LHY terms eliminate the collapse. The effect of the SOC term on characteristics of the QDs is systematically studied. We also address the existence and stability of QDs in the case of SOC with mixed Rashba and Dresselhaus terms, which makes the density profile of the QD more isotropic. Thus, QDs in the spin-orbit-coupled binary BEC are for the first time studied in the present work.
- Jun 14 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1706.03937v2The degree of freedom of orbital angular momentum (OAM) is an important resource in high-dimensional quantum information processing, as the quantum number of OAM can be infinite. The Dove prism (DP) is a most common tool to manipulate the OAM light, such as in interferometers. However, the Dove prism does not preserve the polarization of the photon states and decreases the sorting fidelity of the interferometer. In this work, we analyze the polarization-dependent effect of the DP on single-path Sagnac interferometers. The results are instructive to quantum information processing with OAM light. We also proposed a modified single-path beam splitter Sagnac interferometer (BSSI), of which the sorting fidelity is independent on input polarization and can be 100\% in principle. The single-path BSSI is stable for free running. These merits are crucial in quantum information processing, such as quantum cryptography.
- May 25 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1705.08635v2We study the directional amplification of an optical probe field in a three-mode optomechanical system, where the mechanical resonator interacts with two linearly-coupled optical cavities and the cavities are driven by strong optical pump fields. The optical probe field is injected into one of the cavity modes, and at the same time, the mechanical resonator is subject to a mechanical drive with the driving frequency equal to the frequency difference between the optical probe and pump fields. We show that the transmission of the probe field can be amplified in one direction and de-amplified in the opposite direction. This directional amplification or de-amplification results from the constructive or destruction interference between different transmission paths in this three-mode optomechanical system.
- May 08 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1705.02213v1It is commonly believed that the fidelity of quantum teleportation in the gravitational field would be degraded due to the heat up by the Hawking radiation. In this paper, we point out that the Hawking effect could be eliminated by the combined action of pre- and post-weak measurements, and thus the teleportation fidelity is almost completely protected. It is intriguing to notice that the enhancement of fidelity could not be attributed to the improvement of entanglement, but rather to the probabilistic nature of weak measurements. Our work extends the ability of weak measurements as a quantum technique to battle against gravitational decoherence in relativistic quantum information.
- Let $V=\bigotimes_{k=1}^{N} V_{k}$ be the $N$ spin-$j$ Hilbert space with $d=2j+1$-dimensional single particle space. We fix an orthonormal basis $\{|m_i\rangle\}$ for each $V_{k}$, with weight $m_i\in \{-j,\ldots j\}$. Let $V_{(w)}$ be the subspace of $V$ with a constant weight $w$, with an orthonormal basis $\{|m_1,\ldots,m_N\rangle\}$ subject to $\sum_k m_k=w$. We show that the combinatorial properties of the constant weight condition imposes strong constraints on the reduced density matrices for any vector $|\psi\rangle$ in the constant weight subspace, which limits the possible entanglement structures of $|\psi\rangle$. Our results find applications in the overlapping quantum marginal problems, quantum error-correcting codes, and the spin-network structures in quantum gravity.
- Apr 10 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1704.02244v1In this paper, we study coherence-induced state ordering with Tsallis relative entropy of coherence, relative entropy of coherence and $l_{1}$ norm of coherence. Firstly, we show that these measures give the same ordering for single-qubit states with a fixed mixedness or a fixed length along the direction $\sigma_{z}$. Secondly, we consider some special cases of high dimensional states, we show that these measures generate the same ordering for the set of high dimensional pure states if any two states of the set satisfy majorization relation. Moreover, these three measures generate the same ordering for all $X$ states with a fixed mixedness. Finally, we discuss dynamics of coherence-induced state ordering under Markovian channels. We find phase damping channel don't change the coherence-induced state ordering for some single-qubit states with fixed mixedness, instead amplitude damping channel change the coherence-induced ordering even though for single-qubit states with fixed mixedness.
- We study the transport of a single photon in two coupled one-dimensional semi-infinite coupled-resonator waveguides (CRWs), in which both end sides are coupled to a dissipative cavity. We demonstrate that a single photon can transfer from one semi-infinite CRW to the other nonreciprocally. Based on such nonreciprocity, we further construct a three-port single-photon circulator by a T-shaped waveguide, in which three semi-infinite CRWs are pairwise mutually coupled to each other. The single-photon nonreciprocal transport is induced by the breaking of the time-reversal symmetry and the optimal conditions for these phenomena are obtained analytically. The CRWs with broken time-reversal symmetry will open up a kind of quantum devices with versatile applications in quantum networks.
- Mar 14 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1703.04094v1The Fano effect or Fano resonance with a characteristically asymmetric line shape originates from quantum interference between direct and indirect transition pathways in continuum-bound coupled systems, and is a ubiquitous phenomenon in atomic, molecular, nuclear and solid-state physics. In optical nanoscale structures, the Fano effect has wide-ranging applications that include optical filtering, sensing, all-optical switching, quantum interferometry and nonlinear optics, and this opens new avenues for photonic devices. The emergent area of ultracold atomic and molecular gases presents an ideal platform for studying Fano resonances, since the physical parameters of these gases can be extensively tuned with high precision using external fields. However, an experimental demonstration of the Fano effect in hybridized atom-molecular coupled systems has remained elusive. Here, we report on observations of the Fano effect in molecular spectra obtained by photoassociation near a d-wave Feshbach resonance. This effect occurs due to quantum interference in PA transitions involving the continuum of atom-atom scattering states, the underlying Feshbach and photoassociated excited bound molecular states. We measure the variation in atom loss rate with an external magnetic field close to the Feshbach resonance in the presence of PA laser, and thereby clearly demonstrate the Fano effect. Our results further reveal that the Fano effect has significant influence on spectral shifts. Based on Fano's method, we develop a theory that explains the observed experimental results relatively well. Our theoretical formulation takes into account quantum interference between or among multiple transition pathways and between inelastic channels. Our results present a novel method for tuning the collisional interaction strength with laser light using Fano resonance.
- Mar 14 2017 quant-ph physics.optics arXiv:1703.04253v1Precise measurements are the key to advances in all fields of science. Quantum entanglement shows higher sensitivity than achievable by classical methods. Most physical quantities including position, displacement, distance, angle, and optical path length can be obtained by optical phase measurements. Reducing the photon wavelength of the interferometry can further enhance the optical path length sensitivity and imaging resolution. By quantum frequency up conversion, we realized a short wavelength two photon number entangled state. Nearly perfect Hong Ou Mandel interference is achieved after both 1547-nm photons are up converted to 525 nm. Optical phase measurement of two photon entanglement state yields a visibility greater than the threshold to surpass the standard quantum limit. These results offer new ways for high precision quantum metrology using short wavelength quantum entanglement number state.
- This work takes inspiration from chemistry where the spectral characteristics of the molecules are determined by hybridization of electronic states evolving from the individual atomic orbitals. Based on analogy between quantum mechanics and the classical electrodynamics, we sorted dielectric microspheres with almost identical positions of their whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonances. Using these microspheres as classical photonic atoms, we assembled them in a wide range of structures including linear chains and planar photonic molecules. We studied WGM hybridization effects in such structures using side coupling by tapered microfibers as well as finite difference time domain modeling. We demonstrated that the patterns of WGM spectral splitting are representative of the symmetry, number of constituting atoms and topology of the photonic molecules which in principle can be viewed as "spectral signatures" of various molecules. We also show new ways of controlling WGM coupling constants in such molecules. Excellent agreement was found between measured transmission spectra and spectral signatures of photonic molecules predicted by simulation.
- Feb 21 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1702.05657v1In principle a 1D array of nearest-neighbour linked qubits is compatible with fault tolerant quantum computing. However such a restricted topology necessitates a large overhead for shuffling qubits and consequently the fault tolerance threshold is far lower than in 2D architectures. Here we identify a middle ground: a 1D segmented chain which is a linear array of segments, each of which is a well-connected zone with all-to-all connectivity. The architecture is relevant to both ion trap and solid-state systems. We establish that fault tolerance can be achieved either by a surface code alone, or via an additional concatenated four-qubit gauge code. We find that the fault tolerance threshold is 0.12% for 15-qubit segments, while larger segments are superior. For 35 or more qubits per segment one can achieve computation on a meaningful scale with today's state-of-the-art fidelities without the use of the upper concatenation layer, thus minimising the overall device size.
- Feb 14 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1702.03508v2The initial entanglement shared between inertial and accelerated observers degrades due to the influence of the Unruh effect. Here, we show that the Unruh effect can be completely eliminated by the technique of partial measurement. The lost entanglement could be entirely retrieved or even amplified, which is dependent on whether the optimal strength of reversed measurement is \emphstate-independent or \emphstate-dependent. Our work provides a novel and unexpected method to recover the lost entanglement under Unruh decoherence and exhibits the ability of partial measurement as an important technique in relativistic quantum information.
- Feb 02 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1702.00231v2A bipartite subspace $S$ is called strongly positive-partial-transpose-unextendible (PPT-unextendible) if for every positive integer $k$, there is no PPT operator supporting on the orthogonal complement of $S^{\otimes k}$. We show that a subspace is strongly PPT-unextendible if it contains a PPT-definite operator (a positive semidefinite operator whose partial transpose is positive definite). Based on these, we are able to propose a simple criterion for verifying whether a set of bipartite orthogonal quantum states is indistinguishable by PPT operations in the many copy scenario. Utilizing this criterion, we further point out that any entangled pure state and its orthogonal complement cannot be distinguished by PPT operations in the many copy scenario. On the other hand, we investigate that the minimum dimension of strongly PPT-unextendible subspaces in an $m\otimes n$ system is $m+n-1$, which involves a generalization of the result that non-positive-partial-transpose (NPT) subspaces can be as large as any entangled subspace [N. Johnston, Phys. Rev. A 87: 064302 (2013)].
- Jan 17 2017 quant-ph physics.optics arXiv:1701.04081v3Are quantum states real? This most fundamental question in quantum mechanics has not yet been satisfactorily resolved, although its realistic interpretation seems to have been rejected by various delayed-choice experiments. Here, to address this long-standing issue, we present a quantum twisted double-slit experiment. By exploiting the subluminal feature of twisted photons, the real nature of a photon during its time in flight is revealed for the first time. We found that photons' arrival times were inconsistent with the states obtained in measurements but agreed with the states during propagation. Our results demonstrate that wavefunctions describe the realistic existence and evolution of quantum entities rather than a pure mathematical abstraction providing a probability list of measurement outcomes. This finding clarifies the long-held misunderstanding of the role of wavefunctions and their collapse in the evolution of quantum entities.
- Jan 10 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1701.01951v2In this paper we define a kind of decomposition for a quantum access structure. We propose a conception of minimal maximal quantum access structure and obtain a sufficient and necessary condition for minimal maximal quantum access structure, which shows the relationship between the number of minimal authorized sets and that of the players. Moreover, we investigate the construction of efficient quantum secret schemes by using these techniques, a decomposition and minimal maximal quantum access structure. A major advantage of these techniques is that it allows us to construct a method to realize a general quantum access structure. For these quantum access structures, we present two quantum secret schemes via the idea of concatenation or a decomposition of a quantum access structure. As a consequence, the application of these techniques allow us to save more quantum shares and reduce more cost than the existing scheme.
- Dec 22 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1612.06956v2Boson sampling is considered as a strong candidate to demonstrate the quantum computational supremacy over classical computers. However, previous proof-of-principle experiments suffered from small photon number and low sampling rates owing to the inefficiencies of the single-photon sources and multi-port optical interferometers. Here, we develop two central components for high-performance boson sampling: robust multi-photon interferometers with 0.99 transmission rate, and actively demultiplexed single-photon sources from a quantum-dot-micropillar with simultaneously high efficiency, purity and indistinguishability. We implement and validate 3-, 4-, and 5-photon boson sampling, and achieve sampling rates of 4.96 kHz, 151 Hz, and 4 Hz, respectively, which are over 24,000 times faster than the previous experiments, and over 220 times faster than obtaining one sample through calculating the matrices permanent using the first electronic computer (ENIAC) and transistorized computer (TRADIC) in the human history. Our architecture is feasible to be scaled up to larger number of photons and with higher rate to race against classical computers, and might provide experimental evidence against the Extended Church-Turing Thesis.
- Dec 21 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1612.06491v2We study the problem of transforming a tripartite pure state to a bipartite one using stochastic local operations and classical communication (SLOCC). It is known that the tripartite-to-bipartite SLOCC convertibility is characterized by the maximal Schmidt rank of the given tripartite state, i.e. the largest Schmidt rank over those bipartite states lying in the support of the reduced density operator. In this paper, we further study this problem and exhibit novel results in both multi-copy and asymptotic settings. In the multi-copy regime, we observe that the maximal Schmidt rank is strictly super-multiplicative, i.e. the maximal Schmidt rank of the tensor product of two tripartite pure states can be strictly larger than the product of their maximal Schmidt ranks. We then provide a full characterization of those tripartite states whose maximal Schmidt rank is strictly super-multiplicative when taking tensor product with itself. In the asymptotic setting, we focus on determining the tripartite-to-bipartite SLOCC entanglement transformation rate, which turns out to be equivalent to computing the asymptotic maximal Schmidt rank of the tripartite state, defined as the regularization of its maximal Schmidt rank. Despite the difficulty caused by the super-multiplicative property, we provide explicit formulas for evaluating the asymptotic maximal Schmidt ranks of two important families of tripartite pure states, by resorting to certain results of the structure of matrix spaces, including the study of matrix semi-invariants. These formulas give a sufficient and necessary condition to determine whether a given tripartite pure state can be transformed to the bipartite maximally entangled state under SLOCC, in the asymptotic setting. Applying the recent progress on the non-commutative rank problem, we can verify this condition in deterministic polynomial time.
- Dec 19 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1612.05355v1In this paper, we investigate the cohering and decohering power for the one-qubit Markovian channels with respect to coherence in terms of the $l_{1}$-norm, the R$\acute{e}$nyi $\alpha$-relative entropy and the Tsallis $\alpha$-relative entropy. In the case of $\alpha=2$, the cohering and decohering power of the amplitude damping channel, the phase damping channel, the depolarizing channel, and the flip channels under the three measures of coherence are calculated analytically. The decohering power on the $x, y, z$ basis referring to the amplitude damping channel, the phase damping channel, the flip channel for every measure we investigated is equal. This property also happens in the cohering power of the phase damping channel, the depolarizing channel, and the flip channels. However, the decohering power of the depolarizing channel is independent to the reference basis, and the cohering power of the amplitude damping channel on the $x, y$ basis is different to that on the $z$ basis.
- Invariant tensors are states in the SU(2) tensor product representation that are invariant under the SU(2) action. They play an important role in the study of loop quantum gravity. On the other hand, perfect tensors are highly entangled many-body quantum states with local density matrices maximally mixed. Recently, the notion of perfect tensors recently has attracted a lot of attention in the fields of quantum information theory, condensed matter theory, and quantum gravity. In this work, we introduce the concept of an invariant perfect tensor (IPT), which is a $n$-valent tensor that is both invariant and perfect. We discuss the existence and construction of IPT. For bivalent tensors, the invariant perfect tensor is the unique singlet state for each local dimension. The trivalent invariant perfect tensor also exists and is uniquely given by Wigner's $3j$ symbol. However, we show that, surprisingly, there does not exist four-valent invariant perfect tensors for any dimension. On the contrary, when the dimension is large, almost all invariant tensors are perfect asymptotically, which is a consequence of the phenomenon of concentration of measure for multipartite quantum states.
- Dec 12 2016 quant-ph physics.optics arXiv:1612.02915v3Silicon-on-chip (SOI) photonic circuit is the most promising platform for scalable quantum information technology for its low loss, small footprint, CMOS-compatible and telecom communications techniques compatible. Multiple multiplexed entanglement sources include: energy-time, time-bin and polarization entangled sources based on 1-cm length single silicon nanowire, all these sources are compatible with (100GHz) dense-wave-division-multiplexing (DWDM) system. Different methods such as two photon interference pattern, Bell-Inequality and quantum state tomography are used to characterize the quality of these entangled sources. Multiple entanglements are generated over more than 5 channel pairs with high raw (net) visibilities around 97% (100%). The emission spectral brightness of these entangled sources reaches 4.2*105 /(s.nm.mW). The quality of the photon pair generated in continuous and pulse pump regimes are compared. High qualities of these multiplexed entanglement sources make them very promising to be used in future minimized quantum communication and computation systems.
- Quantum entanglement is the characteristic quantum correlation. Here we use this concept to analyze the quantum entanglement generated by Schwinger production of particle-antiparticle pairs in an electric field, as well as the change of mode entanglement as a consequence of the electric field effect on an entangled pair of particles. The system is partitioned by using momentum modes. Various kinds of pairwise mode entanglement are calculated as functions of the electric field. Both constant and pulsed electric fields are considered. The use of entanglement exposes information beyond that in particle number distributions.
- Dec 01 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1611.09982v1Satellite based quantum communication has been proven as a feasible way to achieve global scale quantum communication network. Very recently, a low-Earth-orbit (LEO) satellite has been launched for this purpose. However, with a single satellite, it takes an inefficient 3-day period to provide the worldwide connectivity. On the other hand, similar to how the Iridium system functions in classic communication, satellite constellation (SC) composed of many quantum satellites, could provide global real-time quantum communication. In such a SC, most of the satellites will work in sunlight. Unfortunately, none of previous ground testing experiments could be implemented at daytime. During daytime, the bright sunlight background prohibits quantum communication in transmission over long distances. In this letter, by choosing a working wavelength of 1550 nm and developing free-space single-mode fibre coupling technology and ultralow noise up-conversion single photon detectors, we overcome the noise due to sunlight and demonstrate a 53-km free space quantum key distribution (QKD) in the daytime through a 48-dB loss channel. Our system not only shows the feasibility of satellite based quantum communication in daylight, but also has the ability to naturally adapt to ground fibre optics, representing an essential step towards a SC-based global quantum network.
- Nov 29 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1611.09301v5One of the key applications for quantum computers will be the simulation of other quantum systems that arise in chemistry, materials science, etc, in order to accelerate the process of discovery. It is important to ask: Can this be achieved using near future quantum processors, of modest size and under imperfect control, or must it await the more distant era of large-scale fault-tolerant quantum computing? Here we propose a variational method involving closely integrated classical and quantum coprocessors. We presume that all operations in the quantum coprocessor are prone to error. The impact of such errors is minimised by boosting them artificially and then extrapolating to the zero-error case. In comparison to a more conventional optimised Trotterisation technique, we find that our protocol is efficient and appears to be fundamentally more robust against error accumulation.
- Nov 15 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1611.04375v1Shortcut to adiabaticity in various quantum systems has attracted much attention with the wide applications in quantum information processing and quantum control. In this paper, we concentrate on stimulated Raman shortcut-to-adiabatic passage in quantum three-level systems. To implement counter-diabatic driving but without additional coupling, we first reduce the quantum three-level systems to effective two-level problems at large intermediate-level detuning, or on resonance, apply counter-diabatic driving along with the unitary transformation, and eventually modify the pump and Stokes pulses for achieving fast and high-fidelity population transfer. The required laser intensity and stability against parameter variation are further discussed, to demonstrate the advantage of shortcuts to adiabaticity.
- Oct 21 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1610.06260v1The rigorous resource framework of quantum coherence has been set up recently and excited a wide variety of interests. Here we show that a quantum cavity optomechanical system, as an emerging platform, can behave with a certain value of quantum coherence at a macroscopic scale. We also find that the difference between the total optomechanical coherence and the sum of the optical and the mechanical coherence just equals their mutual information. Motivated by the detection of the optomechanical entanglement, an experimentally feasible scheme to probe the optomechanical coherence is proposed.
- Oct 21 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1610.06257v1We develop a potentially practical proposal for robust quantum state transfer (QST) between two superconducting qubits coupled by a coplanar waveguide (CPW) resonator. We show that the partial measurement could drastically enhance the fidelity even when the dissipation of qubits and CPW is considered. Unlike many other schemes for QST, our proposal does not require the couplings between the qubits and the CPW resonator to be strong. In fact, our method works much more efficiently in the weak coupling regime. The underlying mechanism is attributed to the probabilistic nature of partial measurement.
- Oct 14 2016 quant-ph cond-mat.mes-hall arXiv:1610.03978v1Color centers in silicon carbide have increasingly attracted attention in recent years owing to their excellent properties such as single photon emission, good photostability, and long spin coherence time even at room temperature. As compared to diamond which is widely used for holding Nitrogen-vacancy centers, SiC has the advantage in terms of large-scale, high-quality and low cost growth, as well as advanced fabrication technique in optoelectronics, leading to the prospects for large scale quantum engineering. In this paper, we report experimental demonstration of the generation of nanoscale $V_{Si}$ single defect array through ion implantation without the need of annealing. $V_{Si}$ defects are generated in pre-determined locations with resolution of tens of nanometers. This can help in integrating $V_{Si}$ defects with the photonic structures which, in turn, can improve the emission and collection efficiency of $V_{Si}$ defects when it is used in spin photonic quantum network. On the other hand, the defects are shallow and they are generated $\sim 40nm$ below the surface which can serve as critical resources in quantum sensing application.
- Sep 29 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1609.08759v2The resource theories of quantum coherence attract a lot of attention in recent years. Especially, the monotonicity property plays a crucial role here. In this paper we investigate the monotonicity property for the coherence measures induced by the Rényi $\alpha$-relative entropy which present in [Phys. Rev. A 94, 052336, 2016]. We show that the Rényi $\alpha$-relative entropy of coherence does not in general satisfy the monotonicity requirement under the subselection of measurements condition and it also does not satisfy the extension of monotonicity requirement which presents in [Phys. Rev. A 93, 032136, 2016]. Due to the Rényi $\alpha$-relative entropy of coherence can act as a coherence monotone quantifier, we examine the trade-off relations between coherence and mixedness. Finally, some properties for the single qubit of Rényi $2$-relative entropy of coherence are derived.
- Aug 03 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1608.00691v1We study the tunable photonic distribution in an optical molecule consisting of two linearly coupled single-mode cavities. With the inter-cavity coupling and two driving fields, the energy levels of the optical-molecule system form a closed cyclic energy-level diagram, and the phase difference between the driving fields serves as a sensitive controller on the dynamics of the system. Due to the quantum interference effect, we can realize a partially dark optical molecule, where the steady-state mean photon number in one of the cavities achieves zero even under the external driving. And the dark cavity can be changed from one of the cavities to the other by only adjusting the phase difference. Furthermore, we show that when one of the cavities couples with an atomic ensemble, it will be dark under the same condition as that without atoms, but the condition for the other cavity to be dark is modified.
- Aug 02 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1608.00366v2Calibration of the polarization basis between the transmitter and receiver is an important task in quantum key distribution (QKD). An effective polarization-basis tracking scheme will decrease the quantum bit error rate (QBER) and improve the efficiency of a polarization encoding QKD system. In this paper, we proposed a polarization-basis tracking scheme using only unveiled sifted key bits while performing error correction by legitimate users, rather than introducing additional reference light or interrupting the transmission of quantum signals. A polarization-encoding fiber BB84 QKD prototype was developed to examine the validity of this scheme. An average QBER of 2.32% and a standard derivation of 0.87% have been obtained during 24 hours of continuous operation.