results for au:Li_L in:quant-ph

- Mar 22 2018 quant-ph physics.optics arXiv:1803.07735v1Improving the phase resolution of interferometry is crucial for high-precision measurements of various physical quantities. Systematic phase errors dominate the phase uncertainties in most realistic optical interferometers. Here we propose and experimentally demonstrate a weak measurement scheme to considerably suppress the phase uncertainties by the direct amplification of phase shift in optical interferometry. Given an initial ultra-small phase shift between orthogonal polarization states, we observe the phase amplification effect with a factor of 388. Our weak measurement scheme provides a practical approach to significantly improve the interferometric phase resolution, which is favorable for precision measurement applications.
- Feb 21 2018 quant-ph arXiv:1802.07194v1Recently, an efficient quantum algorithm for linear systems of equations introduced by Harrow, Hassidim, and Lloyd, has received great concern from the academic community. However, the error and complexity analysis for this algorithm seems so complicated that it may not be applicable to other filter functions for other tasks. In this note, a concise proof is proposed. We hope that it may inspire some novel HHL-based algorithms that can compute $F(A)|b\rangle$ for any computable $F$.
- Feb 14 2018 quant-ph arXiv:1802.04583v1We investigate the heat transport between two nonthermal reservoirs based on a microscopic collision model. We consider a bipartite system consisting of two identical subsystems, and each subsystem interacts with its own local reservoir, which consists of a large collection of initially uncorrelated ancillas. Then a heat transport is formed between two reservoirs by a sequence of pairwise collisions (inter-subsystem and subsystem-local reservoir). In this paper we consider two kinds of reservoir's initial states, the thermal state, and the state with coherence whose diagonal elements are the same as that of the thermal state and the off-diaganal elements are nonzero. In this way, we define the effective temperature of the reservoir with coherence according to its diagonal elements. We find that for two reservoirs having coherence the direction of the steady current of heat is different for different phase differences between the two initial states of two reservoirs, especially the heat can transfer from the "cold reservoir" to the "hot reservoir" in the steady regime for particular phase difference. And in the limit of the effective temperature difference between the two reservoirs $\Delta T\rightarrow0$, for most of the phase differences, the steady heat current increases with the increase of effective temperature until to the high effective temperature limit; while for the thermal state or particular phase difference the steady heat current decreases with the increase of temperature at high temperatures, and in this case the conductance can be obtained.
- Feb 13 2018 quant-ph arXiv:1802.03678v1Understanding decoherence processes is crucial in the study of open quantum systems. In this paper, we discuss the mechanism of pure-dephasing process with a newly proposed boson-boson model, namely, a bosonic field coupled to another bosonic bath in thermal equilibrium. Our model is fully solvable and can reproduce the pure-dephasing process which is usually described by the well-known spin-boson model, therefore offering a new perspective to understanding decoherence processes in open quantum systems of high dimension. We also show that this model admits a generically non-Markovian dynamics with respect to various different non-Markovian measures.
- Feb 08 2018 quant-ph arXiv:1802.02337v1We propose a quantum interference cooling scheme for a nano-mechanical resonator (NAMR) in a hybrid optomechanical system, where the atoms are trapped in an optomechanical cavity, coupling to an additional optical cavity. The absorption of the optomechanical resonator can be modified by quantum interference effects induced by the atom-cavity and cavity-cavity couplings independently. With the employment of the quantum interference, the desired transition for cooling is enhanced, along with the heating suppression due to the undesired transition. As a result, the NAMR vibration can be cooled down to its ground state. Particularly, with the assistance of the atoms, our scheme is experimentally feasible even for lower qualities cavities, which much reduces the experimental difficulty.
- Jan 23 2018 quant-ph arXiv:1801.06706v2We show that quantum Reed-Solomon codes constructed from classical Reed-Solomon codes can approach the capacity on the quantum erasure channel of $d$-level systems for large dimension $d$. We study the performance of one-way quantum repeaters with these codes and obtain a significant improvement in key generation rate compared to previously investigated encoding schemes with quantum parity codes and quantum polynomial codes. We also compare the three generation of quantum repeaters using quantum Reed-Solomon codes and identify parameter regimes where each generation performs the best.
- Topological data analysis offers a robust way to extract useful information from noisy, unstructured data by identifying its underlying structure. Recently, an efficient quantum algorithm was proposed [Lloyd, Garnerone, Zanardi, Nat. Commun. 7, 10138 (2016)] for calculating Betti numbers of data points -- topological features that count the number of topological holes of various dimensions in a scatterplot. Here, we implement a proof-of-principle demonstration of this quantum algorithm by employing a six-photon quantum processor to successfully analyze the topological features of Betti numbers of a network including three data points, providing new insights into data analysis in the era of quantum computing.
- Jan 16 2018 quant-ph arXiv:1801.04418v1We perform decoy-state quantum key distribution between a low-Earth-orbit satellite and multiple ground stations located in Xinglong, Nanshan, and Graz, which establish satellite-to-ground secure keys with ~kHz rate per passage of the satellite Micius over a ground station. The satellite thus establishes a secure key between itself and, say, Xinglong, and another key between itself and, say, Graz. Then, upon request from the ground command, Micius acts as a trusted relay. It performs bitwise exclusive OR operations between the two keys and relays the result to one of the ground stations. That way, a secret key is created between China and Europe at locations separated by 7600 km on Earth. These keys are then used for intercontinental quantum-secured communication. This was on the one hand the transmission of images in a one-time pad configuration from China to Austria as well as from Austria to China. Also, a videoconference was performed between the Austrian Academy of Sciences and the Chinese Academy of Sciences, which also included a 280 km optical ground connection between Xinglong and Beijing. Our work points towards an efficient solution for an ultralong-distance global quantum network, laying the groundwork for a future quantum internet.
- Jan 15 2018 quant-ph arXiv:1801.04043v1A central theme in quantum information science is to coherently control an increasing number of quantum particles as well as their internal and external degrees of freedom (DoFs), meanwhile maintaining a high level of coherence. The ability to create and verify multiparticle entanglement with individual control and measurement of each qubit serves as an important benchmark for quantum technologies. To this end, genuine multipartite entanglement have been reported up to 14 trapped ions, 10 photons, and 10 superconducting qubits. Here, we experimentally demonstrate an 18-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) entanglement by simultaneous exploiting three different DoFs of six photons, including their paths, polarization, and orbital angular momentum (OAM). We develop high-stability interferometers for reversible quantum logic operations between the photon's different DoFs with precision and efficiencies close to unity, enabling simultaneous readout of 262,144 outcome combinations of the 18-qubit state. A state fidelity of 0.708(16) is measured, confirming the genuine entanglement of all the 18 qubits.
- Dec 27 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1712.08879v2Markovian approximation is a widely-employed idea in descriptions of the dynamics of open quantum systems (OQSs). Although it is usually claimed to be a concept inspired by classical Markovianity, the term quantum Markovianity is used inconsistently and often unrigorously in the literature. In this report we compare the descriptions of classical stochastic processes and quantum stochastic processes (as arising in OQSs), and show that there are inherent differences that lead to the non-trivial problem of characterizing quantum non-Markovianity. Rather than proposing a single definition of quantum Markovianity, we study a host of Markov-related concepts in the quantum regime. Some of these concepts have long been used in quantum theory, such as quantum white noise, factorization approximation, divisibility, Lindblad master equation, etc.. Others are first proposed in this report, including those we call past-future independence, no (quantum) information backflow, and composability. All of these concepts are defined under a unified framework, which allows us to rigorously build hierarchy relations among them. With various examples, we argue that the current most often used definitions of quantum Markovianity in the literature do not fully capture the memoryless property of OQSs. In fact, quantum non-Markovianity is highly context-dependent. The results in this report, summarized as a hierarchy figure, bring clarity to the nature of quantum non-Markovianity.
- The distribution of quantum coherence in multipartite systems is one of the basic problems in the resource theory of coherence. While the usual coherence measures are defined on a single system and cannot capture the nonlocal correlation between subsystems, in order to deal with the distribution of coherence it is crucial to quantify the coherence in bipartite systems properly. Here, we introduce incoherent-quantum (IQ) coherence measures on bipartite systems, which can characterize the correlations between systems. According to the IQ coherence measures on bipartite systems, we find the distribution of coherence of formation and assistance in bipartite systems: the total coherence of formation is lower bounded by the sum of coherence of formation in each subsystem and the entanglement of formation between the subsystems, while the total coherence of assistance is upper bounded by the sum of coherence of assistance in each subsystem and the entanglement of assistance between subsystems. Besides, we also obtain the tradeoff relation between the coherence cost and entanglement cost, distillable coherence and distillable entanglement in bipartite systems. Thus, the IQ coherence measures introduced here truly capture the nonlocal correlation between subsystems and reveal the distribution of coherence in bipartite systems.
- Nov 13 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1711.03865v2The problem behind this paper is, if the number of queries to unitary operations is fixed, say $k$, then when do local operations and classical communication (LOCC) suffice for optimally distinguishing bipartite unitary operations? We consider the above problem for two-qubit unitary operations in the case of $k=1$, showing that for two two-qubit entangling unitary operations without local parties, LOCC achieves the same distinguishability as the global operations. Specifically, we obtain: (i) if such two unitary operations are perfectly distinguishable by global operations, then they are perfectly distinguishable by LOCC too, and (ii) if they are not perfectly distinguishable by global operations, then LOCC can achieve the same optimal discrimination probability as the global operations.
- Nov 08 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1711.02323v5We define two ways of quantifying the quantum correlations based on quantum Fisher information (QFI) in order to study the quantum correlations as a resource in quantum metrology. By investigating the hierarchy of measurement-induced Fisher information introduced in Lu et al. [X. M. Lu, S. Luo, and C. H. Oh, Phys Rev. A 86, 022342 (2012)], we show that the presence of quantum correlation can be confirmed by the difference of the Fisher information induced by the measurements of two hierarchies. In particular, the quantitative quantum correlations based on QFI coincide with the geometric discord for pure quantum states.
- Nov 07 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1711.01784v1Creating large-scale entanglement lies at the heart of many quantum information processing protocols and the investigation of fundamental physics. Due to unavoidable interactions with the environment and current technological limitations, the generated many-body quantum state may not contain genuine multipartite entanglement but rather only a mixture of fewer-body entanglements. Still, identifying the precise structure of such many-body, but lower-order entanglement is of paramount importance. On the one hand, it provides hints on the whereabouts of imperfection in the setup, whereas on the other, it allows one to benchmark our technological progress towards the ultimate goal of demonstrating quantum supremacy. Here, we propose two complementary families of witnesses for the identification of such structures, each applicable to an arbitrary number of subsystems and whose evaluation requires only the implementation of solely two local measurements. As a proof of principle, we experimentally generate-via a reconfigurable photonic interferometer-five different eight-photon entangled states and demonstrate how their entanglement structure can be precisely and systematically inferred from the experimental measurement of these witnesses.
- The distribution of coherence in multipartite systems is one of the fundamental problems in the resource theory of coherence. To quantify the coherence in multipartite systems more precisely, we introduce new coherence measures, incoherent-quantum (IQ) coherence measures, on bipartite systems by the max- and min- relative entropies and provide the operational interpretation in certain subchannel discrimination problem. By introducing the smooth max- and min- relative entropies of incoherent-quantum (IQ) coherence on bipartite systems, we exhibit the distribution of coherence in multipartite systems: the total coherence is lower bounded by the sum of local coherence and genuine multipartite entanglement. Besides, we find the monogamy relationship for coherence on multipartite systems by incoherent-quantum (IQ) coherence measures. Thus, the IQ coherence measures introduced here truly capture the non-sharability of quantumness of coherence in multipartite context.
- Oct 10 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1710.02805v1Quantum entanglement is an indispensable resource for many significant quantum information processing tasks. However, because of the noise in quantum channels, it is difficult to distribute quantum entanglement over a long distance in practice. A solution for this challenge is the quantum repeater which can extend the distance of entanglement distribution. In this scheme, the time consumption of classical communication and local operations takes an important place in perspective of time efficiency. Motivated by this observation, we exploit the basic quantum repeater scheme in perspectives of not only the optimal rate of entanglement concentration but also the complexity of local operations and classical communication. Firstly, we consider the case where two two-qubit pure states are prepared. We construct a protocol with the optimal entanglement concentration rate and less consumption of local operations and classical communication. We also find a criteria for the projective measurements to achieve the optimal probability. Secondly, we exploit the case where two general pure states are prepared and general measurements are considered. We get an upper bound on the probability for a successful measurement operation to produce a maximally entangled state without any further local operations.
- Aug 21 2017 quant-ph cond-mat.mes-hall physics.app-ph physics.atom-ph physics.optics arXiv:1708.05630v1We propose a strategy to measure weak static magnetic fields with nitrogen-vacancy color center in diamond. Inspired by avian magnetoreception models, we consider the feasibility of utilizing quantum coherence phenomena to measure weak static magnetic fields. Nitrogen-vacancy (NV) color centers are regarded as the ideal platform to study quantum sciences as a result of its long coherence time up to a millisecond timescale. In high-purity diamond, hyperfine interaction with 13C nuclear spins dominates the decoherence process. In this paper, we numerically simulate the decoherence process between 0 and +1 of the individual NV color center spin in 13C nuclear baths with various of magnitudes of external magnetic fields. By applying Hahn echo into the system, we obtain the coherence of NV color center spin as a function of total evolution time and magnetic field. Furthermore we obtain the high-accuracy relationship between the three decoherence-characteristic timescales, i.e. T_W, T_R, T_2, and magnetic field B. And we draw a conclusion that T_R has the highest sensitivity about magnetic field among the three time-scales. Thus, for a certain NV color center, T_R can be the scale for the magnitude of magnetic field, or rather, the component along the NV electronic spin axis. When measuring an unknown magnetic field, we adjust the NV axis to three mutually orthogonal directions respectively. By this means, we obtain the three components of the magnetic field and thus the magnitude and direction of the actual magnetic field. The accuracy could reach 60 nT/Hz^1/2,and could be greatly improved by using an ensemble of NV color centers or diamond crystals purified with 12C atoms.
- Aug 18 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1708.05010v3The early Gottesman, Kitaev, and Preskill (GKP) proposal for encoding a qubit in an oscillator has recently been followed by cat- and binomial-code proposals. Numerically optimized codes have also been proposed, and we introduce new codes of this type here. These codes have yet to be compared using the same error model; we provide such a comparison by determining the entanglement fidelity of all codes with respect to the bosonic pure-loss channel (i.e., photon loss) after the optimal recovery operation. We then compare achievable communication rates of the combined encoding-error-recovery channel by calculating the channel's hashing bound for each code. Cat and binomial codes perform similarly, with binomial codes outperforming cat codes at small loss rates. Despite not being designed to protect against the pure-loss channel, GKP codes significantly outperform all other codes for most values of the loss rate. We show that the performance of GKP and some binomial codes increases monotonically with increasing average photon number of the codes. In order to corroborate our numerical evidence of the cat/binomial/GKP order of performance occurring at small loss rates, we analytically evaluate the quantum error-correction conditions of those codes. For GKP codes, we find an essential singularity in the entanglement fidelity in the limit of vanishing loss rate. In addition to comparing the codes, we draw parallels between binomial codes and discrete-variable systems. First, we characterize one- and two-mode binomial as well as multi-qubit permutation-invariant codes in terms of spin-coherent states. Such a characterization allows us to introduce check operators and error-correction procedures for binomial codes. Second, we introduce a generalization of spin-coherent states, extending our characterization to qudit binomial codes and yielding a new multi-qudit code.
- Aug 04 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1708.00971v1Local distinguishability of bipartite unitary operations has recently received much attention. A nontrivial and interesting question concerning this subject is whether there is a sequential scheme for locally discriminating between two bipartite unitary operations, because a sequential scheme usually represents the most economic strategy for discrimination. An affirmative answer to this question was given in the literature, however with two limitations: (i) the unitary operations to be discriminated were limited to act on $d\otimes d$, i.e., a two-qudit system, and (ii) the inverses of the unitary operations were assumed to be accessible, although this assumption may be unrealizable in experiment. In this paper, we improve the result by removing the two limitations. Specifically, we show that any two bipartite unitary operations acting on $d_A\otimes d_B$ can be locally discriminated by a sequential scheme, without using the inverses of the unitary operations. Therefore, this paper enhances the applicability and feasibility of the sequential scheme for locally discriminating unitary operations.
- Multiphoton interference in quantum Fourier transform circuits and applications to quantum metrologyAug 02 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1708.00296v1Quantum Fourier transforms (QFT) have gained increased attention with the rise of quantum walks, boson sampling, and quantum metrology. Here we present and demonstrate a general technique that simplifies the construction of QFT interferometers using both path and polarization modes. On that basis, we first observed the generalized Hong-Ou-Mandel effect with up to four photons. Furthermore, we directly exploited number-path entanglement generated in these QFT interferometers and demonstrated optical phase supersensitivities deterministically.
- Jul 11 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1707.02681v1The wave-particle duality demonstrates a competition relation between wave and particle behavior for a particle going through an interferometer. This duality can be formulated as an inequality, which upper bounds the sum of interference visibility and path information. However, if the particle is entangled with a quantum memory, then the bound may decrease. Here, we find the duality relation between coherence and path information for a particle going through a multipath interferometer in the presence of a quantum memory, offering an upper bound on the duality relation which is directly connected with the amount of entanglement between the particle and the quantum memory.
- An arbitrary unknown quantum state cannot be precisely measured or perfectly replicated. However, quantum teleportation allows faithful transfer of unknown quantum states from one object to another over long distance, without physical travelling of the object itself. Long-distance teleportation has been recognized as a fundamental element in protocols such as large-scale quantum networks and distributed quantum computation. However, the previous teleportation experiments between distant locations were limited to a distance on the order of 100 kilometers, due to photon loss in optical fibres or terrestrial free-space channels. An outstanding open challenge for a global-scale "quantum internet" is to significantly extend the range for teleportation. A promising solution to this problem is exploiting satellite platform and space-based link, which can conveniently connect two remote points on the Earth with greatly reduced channel loss because most of the photons' propagation path is in empty space. Here, we report the first quantum teleportation of independent single-photon qubits from a ground observatory to a low Earth orbit satellite - through an up-link channel - with a distance up to 1400 km. To optimize the link efficiency and overcome the atmospheric turbulence in the up-link, a series of techniques are developed, including a compact ultra-bright source of multi-photon entanglement, narrow beam divergence, high-bandwidth and high-accuracy acquiring, pointing, and tracking (APT). We demonstrate successful quantum teleportation for six input states in mutually unbiased bases with an average fidelity of 0.80+/-0.01, well above the classical limit. This work establishes the first ground-to-satellite up-link for faithful and ultra-long-distance quantum teleportation, an essential step toward global-scale quantum internet.
- Jul 04 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1707.00400v1To date, blind quantum computing demonstrations require clients to have weak quantum devices. Here we implement a proof-of-principle experiment for completely classical clients. Via classically interacting with two quantum servers that share entanglement, the client accomplishes the task of having the number 15 factorized by servers who are denied information about the computation itself. This concealment is accompanied by a verification protocol that tests servers' honesty and correctness. Our demonstration shows the feasibility of completely classical clients and thus is a key milestone towards secure cloud quantum computing.
- Apr 17 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1704.04371v3Measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) protocol was proposed to remove all the detector side channel attacks, while its security relies on the trusted encoding systems. Here we propose a one-sided MDI-QKD (1SMDI-QKD) protocol, which enjoys detection loophole-free advantage, and at the same time weakens the state preparation assumption in MDI-QKD. The 1SMDI-QKD can be regarded as a modified MDI-QKD, in which Bob's encoding system is trusted, while Alice's is uncharacterized. For the practical implementation, we also provide a scheme by utilizing coherent light source with an analytical two decoy state estimation method. Simulation with realistic experimental parameters shows that the protocol has a promising performance, and thus can be applied to practical QKD applications.
- Mar 29 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1703.09363v1We propose a simple method of combined synchronous modulations to generate the analytically exact solutions for a parity-time symmetric two-level system. Such exact solutions are expressible in terms of simple elementary functions and helpful for illuminating some generalizations of appealing concepts originating in the Hermitian system. Some intriguing physical phenomena, such as stabilization of a non-Hermitian system by periodic driving, non-Hermitian analogs of coherent destruction of tunneling (CDT) and complete population inversion (CPI), are demonstrated analytically and confirmed numerically. In addition, by using these exact solutions we derive a pulse area theorem for such non-Hermitian CPI in the parity-time symmetric two-level system. Our results may provide an additional possibility for pulse manipulation and coherent control of the parity-time symmetric two-level system.
- Mar 14 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1703.04348v1We demonstrate a compressive normalized ghost imaging system with entangled photons employing complementary compressive imaging (CCI) technique. The quantum ghost image reconstruction was achieved at only 19.53% sampling ratio of raster scanning. With the special +1/-1 type sensing matrix and appropriate optimal algorithm, the photon utilization efficiency and robustness of the imaging system is enhanced significantly. Our results reveal the great potential of CCI technique applied in quantum imaging and other quantum optics field such as quantum charactering and quantum state tomography to use the information loaded in each photon with high efficiency.
- Jan 06 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1701.01292v3The spin-boson model describes a qubit coupled to a bosonic bath in thermal equilibrium, and is applicable to a wide range of physical contexts. We show that two weak conditions for the qubit evolution to be Markovian (decreasing system distinguishability and divisibility) are violated at all times t>0, except for a measure-zero set of model parameters. Thus, the recently identified phenomenon of `eternal non-Markovianity' is generic for the spin-boson model. Moreover, there can never be more than one strictly positive decoherence rate, even in the Markovian regime. The main result relies on a recent derivation of the exact form of the master equation. We also show that approximations of the spin-boson model in the literature need not exhibit generic eternal non-Markovianity, indicating the presence of corresponding inherent `Markovian' assumptions.
- Dec 01 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1611.09990v1Bell's theorem shows a profound contradiction between local realism and quantum mechanics on the level of statistical predictions. It does not involve directly Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) correlations. The paradox of Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) disproves directly the concept of EPR elements of reality, based on the EPR correlations, in an all-versus-nothing way. A three-qubit experimental demonstration of the GHZ paradox was achieved nearly twenty years ago, and followed by demonstrations for more qubits. Still, the GHZ contradictions underlying the tests can be reduced to three-qubit one. We show an irreducible four-qubit GHZ paradox, and report its experimental demonstration. The reducibility loophole is closed. The bound of a three-setting per party Bell-GHZ inequality is violated by $7\sigma$. The fidelity of the GHZ state was around $81\%$, and an entanglement witness reveals a violation of the separability threshold by $19\sigma$.
- The controlled creation of defect center---nanocavity systems is one of the outstanding challenges for efficiently interfacing spin quantum memories with photons for photon-based entanglement operations in a quantum network. Here, we demonstrate direct, maskless creation of atom-like single silicon-vacancy (SiV) centers in diamond nanostructures via focused ion beam implantation with $\sim 32$ nm lateral precision and $< 50$ nm positioning accuracy relative to a nanocavity. Moreover, we determine the Si+ ion to SiV center conversion yield to $\sim 2.5\%$ and observe a 10-fold conversion yield increase by additional electron irradiation. We extract inhomogeneously broadened ensemble emission linewidths of $\sim 51$ GHz, and close to lifetime-limited single-emitter transition linewidths down to $126 \pm13$ MHz corresponding to $\sim 1.4$-times the natural linewidth. This demonstration of deterministic creation of optically coherent solid-state single quantum systems is an important step towards development of scalable quantum optical devices.
- Sep 22 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1609.06386v1We investigate cat codes that can correct multiple excitation losses and identify two types of logical errors: bit-flip errors due to excessive excitation loss and dephasing errors due to quantum back-action from the environment. We show that selected choices of logical subspace and coherent amplitude can efficiently reduce dephasing errors. The trade-off between the two major errors enables optimized performance of cat codes in terms of minimized decoherence. With high coupling efficiency, we show that one-way quantum repeaters with cat codes feature drastically boosted secure communication rate per mode compared with conventional encoding schemes, and thus showcase the promising potential of quantum information processing with continuous variable quantum codes.
- Sep 02 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1609.00228v3We report on the experimental realization of a ten-photon Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state using thin BiB$_{3}$O$_{6}$ crystals. The observed fidelity is $0.606\pm0.029$, demonstrating a genuine entanglement with a standard deviation of 3.6 $\sigma$. This result is further verified using $p$-value calculation, obtaining an upper bound of $3.7\times10^{-3}$ under an assumed hypothesis test. Our experiment paves a new way to efficiently engineer BiB$_{3}$O$_{6}$ crystal-based multi-photon entanglement systems, which provides a promising platform for investigating advanced optical quantum information processing tasks such as boson sampling, quantum error correction and quantum-enhanced measurement.
- Jun 27 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1606.07503v1Teleportation of an entangled state, known as entanglement swapping, plays an essential role in quantum communication and network.Here we report a field-test entanglement swapping experiment with two independent telecommunication band entangled photon-pair sources over the optical fibre network of Hefei city. The two sources are located at two nodes 12 km apart and the Bell-state measurement is performed in a third location which is connected to the two source nodes with 14.7 km and 10.6 km optical fibres. An average visibility of 79.9+/-4.8% is observed in our experiment, which is high enough to infer a violation of Bell inequality. With the entanglement swapping setup, we demonstrate a source independent quantum key distribution, which is also immune to any attack against detection in the measurement site.
- May 30 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1605.08547v3Quantum entanglement among multiple spatially separated particles is of fundamental interest, and can serve as central resources for studies in quantum nonlocality, quantum-to-classical transition, quantum error correction, and quantum simulation. The ability of generating an increasing number of entangled particles is an important benchmark for quantum information processing. The largest entangled states were previously created with fourteen trapped ions, eight photons, and five superconducting qubits. Here, based on spontaneous parametric down-converted two-photon entanglement source with simultaneously a high brightness of ~12 MHz/W, a collection efficiency of ~70% and an indistinguishability of ~91% between independent photons, we demonstrate, for the first time, genuine and distillable entanglement of ten single photons under different pump power. Our work creates a state-of-the-art platform for multi-photon experiments, and provide enabling technologies for challenging optical quantum information tasks such as high-efficiency scattershot boson sampling with many photons.
- Apr 28 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1604.08093v1Secret sharing of a quantum state, or quantum secret sharing, in which a dealer wants to share certain amount of quantum information with a few players, has wide applications in quantum information. The critical criterion in a threshold secret sharing scheme is confidentiality, with less than the designated number of players, no information can be recovered. Furthermore, in a quantum scenario, one additional critical criterion exists, the capability of sharing entangled and unknown quantum information. Here by employing a six-photon entangled state, we demonstrate a quantum threshold scheme, where the shared quantum secrecy can be efficiently reconstructed with a state fidelity as high as 93%. By observing that any one or two parties cannot recover the secrecy, we show that our scheme meets the confidentiality criterion. Meanwhile, we also demonstrate that entangled quantum information can be shared and recovered via our setting, which demonstrates that our implemented scheme is fully quantum. Moreover, our experimental setup can be treated as a decoding circuit of the 5-qubit quantum error-correcting code with two erasure errors.
- The past decade has seen great advances in developing color centers in diamond for sensing, quantum information processing, and tests of quantum foundations. Increasingly, the success of these applications as well as fundamental investigations of light-matter interaction depend on improved control of optical interactions with color centers -- from better fluorescence collection to efficient and precise coupling with confined single optical modes. Wide ranging research efforts have been undertaken to address these demands through advanced nanofabrication of diamond. This review will cover recent advances in diamond nano- and microphotonic structures for efficient light collection, color center to nanocavity coupling, hybrid integration of diamond devices with other material systems, and the wide range of fabrication methods that have enabled these complex photonic diamond systems.
- Mar 08 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1603.02089v1Quantum communication has historically been at the forefront of advancements, from fundamental tests of quantum physics to utilizing the quantum-mechanical properties of physical systems for practical applications. In the field of communication complexity, quantum communication allows the advantage of an exponential reduction in the information transmitted over classical communication to accomplish distributed computational tasks. However, to date, demonstrating this advantage in a practical setting continues to be a central challenge. Here, we report an experimental demonstration of a quantum fingerprinting protocol that for the first time surpasses the ultimate classical limit to transmitted information. Ultra-low noise superconducting single-photon detectors and a stable fibre-based Sagnac interferometer are used to implement a quantum fingerprinting system that is capable of transmitting less information than the classical proven lower bound over 20 km standard telecom fibre for input sizes of up to two Gbits. The results pave the way for experimentally exploring the advanced features of quantum communication and open a new window of opportunity for research in communication complexity and testing the foundations of physics.
- The tunneling junction between one-dimensional topological superconductor and integer (fractional) topological insulator (TI), realized via point contact, is investigated theoretically with bosonization technology and renormalization group methods. For the integer TI case, in a finite range of edge interaction parameter, there is a non-trivial stable fixed point which corresponds to the physical picture that the edge of TI breaks up into two sections at the junction, with one side coupling strongly to the Majorana fermion and exhibiting perfect Andreev reflection, while the other side decouples, exhibiting perfect normal reflection at low energies. This fixed point can be used as a signature of the Majorana fermion and tested by nowadays experiment techniques. For the fractional TI case, the universal low-energy transport properties are described by perfect normal reflection, perfect Andreev reflection, or perfect insulating fixed points dependent on the filling fraction and edge interaction parameter of fractional TI.
- Mar 01 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1602.08604v2Full quantum state tomography (FQST) plays a unique role in the estimation of the state of a quantum system without \empha priori knowledge or assumptions. Unfortunately, since FQST requires informationally (over)complete measurements, both the number of measurement bases and the computational complexity of data processing suffer an exponential growth with the size of the quantum system. A 14-qubit entangled state has already been experimentally prepared in an ion trap, and the data processing capability for FQST of a 14-qubit state seems to be far away from practical applications. In this paper, the computational capability of FQST is pushed forward to reconstruct a 14-qubit state with a run time of only 3.35 hours using the linear regression estimation (LRE) algorithm, even when informationally overcomplete Pauli measurements are employed. The computational complexity of the LRE algorithm is first reduced from $O(10^{19})$ to $O(10^{15})$ for a 14-qubit state, by dropping all the zero elements, and its computational efficiency is further sped up by fully exploiting the parallelism of the LRE algorithm with parallel Graphic Processing Unit (GPU) programming. Our result can play an important role in quantum information technologies with large quantum systems.
- Feb 19 2016 cond-mat.str-el quant-ph arXiv:1602.05654v2The point contact tunnel junctions between a one-dimensional topological superconductor and single-channel quantum Hall (QH) liquids are investigated theoretically with bosonization technology and renormalization group methods. For the $\nu=1$ integer QH liquid, the universal low-energy tunneling transport is governed by the perfect Andreev reflection fixed point with quantized zero-bias conductance $G(0)=2e^{2}/h$, which can serve as a definitive fingerprint of the existence of a Majorana fermion. For the $\nu =1/m$ Laughlin fractional QH liquids, its transport is governed by the perfect normal reflection fixed point with vanishing zero-bias conductance and bias-dependent conductance $G(V) \sim V^{m-2}$. Our setup is within reach of present experimental techniques.
- Jan 13 2016 quant-ph physics.optics arXiv:1601.02829v1We theoretically report an analog of photon-assisted tunneling (PAT) in a periodically driven lattice array without a static biased potential by studying a three-channel waveguide system. This analog of PAT can be achieved by only periodically modulating the top waveguide and adjusting the distance between the bottom and its adjacent waveguide. It is numerically shown that the PAT resonances also exist in the five-channel waveguide system and probably exist in the waveguide arrays with other odd numbers of waveguides, but they will become weak as the number of waveguides increases. With origin different from traditional PAT, this type of PAT found in our work is closely linked to the existence of the zero-energy (dark) Floquet states. It is readily observable under currently accessible experimental conditions and may be useful for controlling light propagation in waveguide arrays.
- Dec 08 2015 quant-ph arXiv:1512.01634v1Adaptive techniques have important potential for wide applications in enhancing precision of quantum parameter estimation. We present a recursively adaptive quantum state tomography (RAQST) protocol for finite dimensional quantum systems and experimentally implement the adaptive tomography protocol on two-qubit systems. In this RAQST protocol, an adaptive measurement strategy and a recursive linear regression estimation algorithm are performed. Numerical results show that our RAQST protocol can outperform the tomography protocols using mutually unbiased bases (MUB) and the two-stage MUB adaptive strategy even with the simplest product measurements. When nonlocal measurements are available, our RAQST can beat the Gill-Massar bound for a wide range of quantum states with a modest number of copies. We use only the simplest product measurements to implement two-qubit tomography experiments. In the experiments, we use error-compensation techniques to tackle systematic error due to misalignments and imperfection of wave plates, and achieve about 100-fold reduction of the systematic error. The experimental results demonstrate that the improvement of RAQST over nonadaptive tomography is significant for states with a high level of purity. Our results also show that this recursively adaptive tomography method is particularly effective for the reconstruction of maximally entangled states, which are important resources in quantum information.
- Sep 29 2015 quant-ph arXiv:1509.08435v1Despite the tremendous progress of quantum cryptography, efficient quantum communication over long distances (>1000km) remains an outstanding challenge due to fiber attenuation and operation errors accumulated over the entire communication distance. Quantum repeaters, as a promising approach, can overcome both photon loss and operation errors, and hence significantly speedup the communication rate. Depending on the methods used to correct loss and operation errors, all the proposed QR schemes can be classified into three categories (generations). Here we present the first systematic comparison of three generations of quantum repeaters by evaluating the cost of both temporal and physical resources, and identify the optimized quantum repeater architecture for a given set of experimental parameters. Our work provides a roadmap for the experimental realizations of highly efficient quantum networks over transcontinental distances.
- Sep 02 2015 quant-ph arXiv:1509.00086v1In this paper, based on a matrix norm, we first present a ball of separable unnormalized states around the identity matrix for the bipartite quantum system, which is larger than the separable ball in Frobenius norm. Then the proposed ball is used to get not only simple sufficient conditions for the separability of pseudopure states and the states with strong positive partial transposes, but also a separable ball centered at the identity matrix for the multipartite quantum system.
- In this paper, we study a model of quantum Markov chains that is a quantum analogue of Markov chains and is obtained by replacing probabilities in transition matrices with quantum operations. We show that this model is very suited to describe hybrid systems that consist of a quantum component and a classical one, although it has the same expressive power as another quantum Markov model proposed in the literature. Indeed, hybrid systems are often encountered in quantum information processing; for example, both quantum programs and quantum protocols can be regarded as hybrid systems. Thus, we further propose a model called hybrid quantum automata (HQA) that can be used to describe these hybrid systems that receive inputs (actions) from the outer world. We show the language equivalence problem of HQA is decidable in polynomial time. Furthermore, we apply this result to the trace equivalence problem of quantum Markov chains, and thus it is also decidable in polynomial time. Finally, we discuss model checking linear-time properties of quantum Markov chains, and show the quantitative analysis of regular safety properties can be addressed successfully.
- Jun 18 2015 quant-ph arXiv:1506.05353v2We reports direct and scalable measurement of multiparticle entanglement concurrence and three-tangle with embedding photonic quantum simulators. In this embedding framework [Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 240502 (2013)], $N$-qubit entanglement monotone, which associates with non-Hermitian operators, can be efficiently measured with only 2 (for even $N$) and 6 (for odd $N$) local measurement settings. Our experiment uses a multiphoton quantum simulator to mimic the dynamical entanglement evolution and track its concurrence and three-tangle.
- May 13 2015 quant-ph arXiv:1505.02879v2Quantum simulation is of great importance in quantum information science. Here, we report an experimental quantum channel simulator imbued with an algorithm for imitating the behavior of a general class of quantum systems. The reported quantum channel simulator consists of four single-qubit gates and one controlled-NOT gate. All types of quantum channels can be decomposed by the algorithm and implemented on this device. We deploy our system to simulate various quantum channels, such as quantum-noise channels and weak quantum measurement. Our results advance experimental quantum channel simulation, which is integral to the goal of quantum information processing.
- May 01 2015 quant-ph arXiv:1504.08054v3We investigate the usage of highly efficient error correcting codes of multilevel systems to protect encoded quantum information from erasure errors and implementation to repetitively correct these errors. Our scheme makes use of quantum polynomial codes to encode quantum information and generalizes teleportation based error correction for multilevel systems to correct photon losses and operation errors in a fault-tolerant manner. We discuss the application of quantum polynomial codes to one-way quantum repeaters. For various types of operation errors, we identify different parameter regions where quantum polynomial codes can achieve a superior performance compared to qubit based quantum parity codes.
- Mar 02 2015 physics.optics quant-ph arXiv:1502.07849v1A central goal in quantum information science is to efficiently interface photons with single optical modes for quantum networking and distributed quantum computing. Here, we introduce and experimentally demonstrate a compact and efficient method for the low-loss coupling of a solid-state qubit, the nitrogen vacancy (NV) centre in diamond, with a single-mode optical fibre. In this approach, single-mode tapered diamond waveguides containing exactly one high quality NV memory are selected and integrated on tapered silica fibres. Numerical optimization of an adiabatic coupler indicates that near-unity-efficiency photon transfer is possible between the two modes. Experimentally, we find an overall collection efficiency between 18-40 % and observe a raw single photon count rate above 700 kHz. This integrated system enables robust, alignment-free, and efficient interfacing of single-mode optical fibres with single photon emitters and quantum memories in solids.
- Feb 12 2015 quant-ph cond-mat.mes-hall arXiv:1502.03403v3We have investigated how the dynamics of a quantum particle initially localized in the left boundary site under periodic driving can be manipulated via control of the right boundary site of a lattice array. Because of the adjustable coupling between the right boundary site and its nearest-neighbor, we can realize either coherent destruction of tunneling to coherent tunneling (CDT-CT) transition or coherent tunneling to coherent destruction of tunneling (CT-CDT) transition, by driving or moving the right boundary site while keeping the left boundary site driven by a periodically oscillating field with a fixed driving parameter. In particular, the transition direction shows odd-even sensitivity to the number of lattice sites. We have also revealed that our proposed CDT-CT transition is robust against the second order coupling (SOC) between next-nearest-neighbor sites in odd-$N$-site systems, whereas localization can be significantly enhanced by SOC in even-$N$-site systems. More interestingly, it is found destruction and revival of CDT observable in non-high-frequency regimes. Our results can be readily verified within the capacity of current experiments.
- In the literature, there exist several interesting hybrid models of finite automata which have both quantum and classical states. We call them semi-quantum automata. In this paper, we compare the descriptional power of these models with that of DFA. Specifically, we present a uniform method that gives a lower bound on the size of the three existing main models of semi-quantum automata, and this bound shows that semi-quantum automata can be at most exponentially more concise than DFA. Compared with a recent work (Bianchi, Mereghetti, Palano, Theoret. Comput. Sci., 551(2014), 102-115), our method shows the following two advantages: (i) our method is much more concise; and (ii) our method is universal, since it is applicable to the three existing main models of semi-quantum automata, instead of only a specific model.
- Jan 16 2015 quant-ph physics.optics arXiv:1501.03532v2Using tapered fibers of As2Se3 chalcogenide glass, we produce photon pairs at telecommunication wavelengths with low pump powers. We found maximum coincidences-to-accidentals ratios of $2.13\pm0.07$ for degenerate pumping with 3.2 \muW average power, and $1.33\pm0.03$ for non-degenerate pumping with 1.0 \muW and 1.5 \muW average power of the two pumps. Our results show that the ultrahigh nonlinearity in these microwires could allow single-photon pumping to produce photon pairs, enabling the production of large entangled states, heralding of single photons after lossy transmission, and photonic quantum information processing with nonlinear optics.
- Dec 23 2014 cond-mat.mtrl-sci quant-ph arXiv:1412.6600v1A central challenge in developing magnetically coupled quantum registers in diamond is the fabrication of nitrogen vacancy (NV) centers with localization below ~20 nm to enable fast dipolar interaction compared to the NV decoherence rate. Here, we demonstrate the targeted, high throughput formation of NV centers using masks with a thickness of 270 nm and feature sizes down to ~1 nm. Super-resolution imaging resolves NVs with a full-width maximum distribution of $26\pm7$ nm and a distribution of NV-NV separations of $16\pm5$ nm.
- The concept of promise problems was introduced and started to be systematically explored by Even, Selman, Yacobi, Goldreich, and other scholars. It has been argued that promise problems should be seen as partial decision problems and as such that they are more fundamental than decision problems and formal languages that used to be considered as the basic ones for complexity theory. The main purpose of this paper is to explore the promise problems accepted by classical, quantum and also semi-quantum finite automata. More specifically, we first introduce two acceptance modes of promise problems, recognizability and solvability, and explore their basic properties. Afterwards, we show several results concerning descriptional complexity on promise problems. In particular, we prove: (1) there is a promise problem that can be recognized exactly by measure-once one-way quantum finite automata (MO-1QFA), but no deterministic finite automata (DFA) can recognize it; (2) there is a promise problem that can be solved with error probability $\epsilon\leq 1/3$ by one-way finite automaton with quantum and classical states (1QCFA), but no one-way probability finite automaton (PFA) can solve it with error probability $\epsilon\leq 1/3$; and especially, (3) there are promise problems $A(p)$ with prime $p$ that can be solved \em with any error probability by MO-1QFA with only two quantum basis states, but they can not be solved exactly by any MO-1QFA with two quantum basis states; in contrast, the minimal PFA solving $A(p)$ with any error probability (usually smaller than $1/2$) has $p$ states. Finally, we mention a number of problems related to promise for further study.
- Sep 30 2014 quant-ph cond-mat.other arXiv:1409.7770v3Machine learning, a branch of artificial intelligence, learns from previous experience to optimize performance, which is ubiquitous in various fields such as computer sciences, financial analysis, robotics, and bioinformatics. A challenge is that machine learning with the rapidly growing "big data" could become intractable for classical computers. Recently, quantum machine learning algorithms [Lloyd, Mohseni, and Rebentrost, arXiv.1307.0411] were proposed which could offer an exponential speedup over classical algorithms. Here, we report the first experimental entanglement-based classification of 2-, 4-, and 8-dimensional vectors to different clusters using a small-scale photonic quantum computer, which are then used to implement supervised and unsupervised machine learning. The results demonstrate the working principle of using quantum computers to manipulate and classify high-dimensional vectors, the core mathematical routine in machine learning. The method can in principle be scaled to larger number of qubits, and may provide a new route to accelerate machine learning.
- Quantum teleportation provides a "disembodied" way to transfer quantum states from one object to another at a distant location, assisted by priorly shared entangled states and a classical communication channel. In addition to its fundamental interest, teleportation has been recognized as an important element in long-distance quantum communication, distributed quantum networks and measurement-based quantum computation. There have been numerous demonstrations of teleportation in different physical systems such as photons, atoms, ions, electrons, and superconducting circuits. Yet, all the previous experiments were limited to teleportation of one degree of freedom (DoF) only. However, a single quantum particle can naturally possess various DoFs -- internal and external -- and with coherent coupling among them. A fundamental open challenge is to simultaneously teleport multiple DoFs, which is necessary to fully describe a quantum particle, thereby truly teleporting it intactly. Here, we demonstrate the first teleportation of the composite quantum states of a single photon encoded in both the spin and orbital angular momentum. We develop a method to project and discriminate hyper-entangled Bell states exploiting probabilistic quantum non-demolition measurement, which can be extended to more DoFs. We verify the teleportation for both spin-orbit product states and hybrid entangled state, and achieve a teleportation fidelity ranging from 0.57 to 0.68, above the classical limit. Our work moves a step toward teleportation of more complex quantum systems, and demonstrates an enhanced capability for scalable quantum technologies.
- A central aim of quantum information processing is the efficient entanglement of multiple stationary quantum memories via photons. Among solid-state systems, the nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centre in diamond has emerged as an excellent optically addressable memory with second-scale electron spin coherence times. Recently, quantum entanglement and teleportation have been shown between two NV-memories, but scaling to larger networks requires more efficient spin-photon interfaces such as optical resonators. Here, we demonstrate such NV-nanocavity systems with optical quality factors approaching 10,000 and electron spin coherence times exceeding 200 $\mu$s using a silicon hard-mask fabrication process. This spin-photon interface is integrated with on-chip microwave striplines for coherent spin control, providing an efficient quantum memory for quantum networks.
- Aug 12 2014 physics.optics quant-ph arXiv:1408.2070v1It has been proved that surface plasmon polariton (SPP) can well conserve and transmit the quantum nature of entangled photons. Therefore, further utilization and manipulation of such quantum nature of SPP in a plasmonic chip will be the next task for scientists in this field. In quantum logic circuits, the controlled-NOT (CNOT) gate is the key building block. Here, we implement the first plasmonic quantum CNOT gate with several-micrometer footprint by utilizing a single polarization-dependent beam-splitter (PDBS) fabricated on the dielectric-loaded SPP waveguide (DLSPPW). The quantum logic function of the CNOT gate is characterized by the truth table with an average fidelity of. Its entangling ability to transform a separable state into an entangled state is demonstrated with the visibilities of and for non-orthogonal bases. The DLSPPW based CNOT gate is considered to have good integratability and scalability, which will pave a new way for quantum information science.
- Jul 21 2014 quant-ph arXiv:1407.5007v2The dynamics for an open quantum system can be `unravelled' in infinitely many ways, depending on how the environment is monitored, yielding different sorts of conditioned states, evolving stochastically. In the case of ideal monitoring these states are pure, and the set of states for a given monitoring forms a basis (which is overcomplete in general) for the system. It has been argued elsewhere [D. Atkins et al., Europhys. Lett. 69, 163 (2005)] that the `pointer basis' as introduced by Zurek and Paz [Phys. Rev. Lett 70, 1187(1993)], should be identified with the unravelling-induced basis which decoheres most slowly. Here we show the applicability of this concept of pointer basis to the problem of state stabilization for quantum systems. In particular we prove that for linear Gaussian quantum systems, if the feedback control is assumed to be strong compared to the decoherence of the pointer basis, then the system can be stabilized in one of the pointer basis states with a fidelity close to one (the infidelity varies inversely with the control strength). Moreover, if the aim of the feedback is to maximize the fidelity of the unconditioned system state with a pure state that is one of its conditioned states, then the optimal unravelling for stabilizing the system in this way is that which induces the pointer basis for the conditioned states. We illustrate these results with a model system: quantum Brownian motion. We show that even if the feedback control strength is comparable to the decoherence, the optimal unravelling still induces a basis very close to the pointer basis. However if the feedback control is weak compared to the decoherence, this is not the case.
- May 07 2013 quant-ph arXiv:1305.1197v1We study a system of three coherently coupled states, where one state is shifted periodically against the other two. We discover such a system possesses a dark Floquet state at zero quasienergy and always with negligible population at the intermediate state. This dark Floquet state manifests itself dynamically in terms of the suppression of inter-state tunneling, a phenomenon known as coherent destruction of tunneling. We suggest to call it dark coherent destruction of tunneling (DCDT). At high frequency limit for the periodic driving, this Floquet state reduces to the well-known dark state widely used for STIRAP. Our results can be generalized to systems with more states and can be verified with easily implemented experiments within current technologies.
- Apr 26 2013 quant-ph arXiv:1304.6827v2A simple yet efficient method of linear regression estimation (LRE) is presented for quantum state tomography. In this method, quantum state reconstruction is converted into a parameter estimation problem of a linear regression model and the least-squares method is employed to estimate the unknown parameters. The asymptotic mean squared error (MSE) bound of the estimate can be given analytically, which can guide one to choose optimal measurement sets. The LRE is asymptotically optimal in the sense that the MSE may achieve the Cramér-Rao bound asymptotically. The computational complexity of LRE is O(d^4), where d is the dimension of the quantum state. Numerical examples show that LRE is much faster than maximum-likelihood estimation for quantum state tomography.
- We report three-well, resonant-phonon depopulation terahertz quantum cascade lasers with semi-insulating surface-plasmon waveguides and reduced active region (AR) thicknesses. Devices with thicknesses of 10, 7.5, 6, and 5 \mum are compared in terms of threshold current density, maximum operating temperature, output power and AR temperature. Thinner ARs are technologically less demanding for epitaxial growth and result in reduced electrical heating of devices. However, it is found that 7.5-\mum-thick devices give the lowest electrical power densities at threshold, as they represent the optimal trade-off between low electrical resistance and low threshold gain.
- Feb 19 2013 quant-ph arXiv:1302.4310v2Solving linear systems of equations is ubiquitous in all areas of science and engineering. With rapidly growing data sets, such a task can be intractable for classical computers, as the best known classical algorithms require a time proportional to the number of variables N. A recently proposed quantum algorithm shows that quantum computers could solve linear systems in a time scale of order log(N), giving an exponential speedup over classical computers. Here we realize the simplest instance of this algorithm, solving 2*2 linear equations for various input vectors on a quantum computer. We use four quantum bits and four controlled logic gates to implement every subroutine required, demonstrating the working principle of this algorithm.
- Nov 20 2012 quant-ph arXiv:1211.4202v2The light-matter interaction described by Rabi model and Jaynes-Cummings (JC) model is investigated by parity breaking as well as the scaling behavior of ground-state population-inversion expectation. We show that the parity breaking leads to different scaling behaviors in the two models, where the Rabi model demonstrates scaling invariance, but the JC model behaves in cusp-like way. Our study helps further understanding rotating-wave approximation and could present more subtle physics than any other characteristic parameter for the difference between the two models. More importantly, our results could be straightforwardly applied to the understanding of quantum phase transitions in spin-boson model. Furthermore, the scaling behavior is observable using currently available techniques in light-matter interaction.
- Sep 28 2012 quant-ph arXiv:1209.6178v1Throughout history, every advance in encryption has been defeated by advances in hacking with severe consequences. Quantum cryptography holds the promise to end this battle by offering unconditional security when ideal single-photon sources and detectors are employed. Unfortunately, ideal devices never exist in practice and device imperfections have become the targets of various attacks. By developing up-conversion single-photon detectors with high efficiency and low noise, we build up a measurement-device-independent quantum key distribution (MDI-QKD) system, which is immune to all hacking strategies on detection. Meanwhile, we employ the decoy-state method to defeat attacks on non-ideal source. By closing the loopholes in both source and detection, our practical system, which generates more than 25 kbit secure key over a 50-km fiber link, provides an ultimate solution for communication security.
- Quantum memories are regarded as one of the fundamental building blocks of linear-optical quantum computation and long-distance quantum communication. A long standing goal to realize scalable quantum information processing is to build a long-lived and efficient quantum memory. There have been significant efforts distributed towards this goal. However, either efficient but short-lived or long-lived but inefficient quantum memories have been demonstrated so far. Here we report a high-performance quantum memory in which long lifetime and high retrieval efficiency meet for the first time. By placing a ring cavity around an atomic ensemble, employing a pair of clock states, creating a long-wavelength spin wave, and arranging the setup in the gravitational direction, we realize a quantum memory with an intrinsic spin wave to photon conversion efficiency of 73(2)% together with a storage lifetime of 3.2(1) ms. This realization provides an essential tool towards scalable linear-optical quantum information processing.
- In the literature, there exist several quantum finite automata (QFA) models with both quantum and classical states. These models are of particular interest,as they show praiseworthy advantages over the fully quantum models in some nontrivial aspects. This paper characterizes these models in a uniform framework by proposing a general hybrid model consisting of a quantum component and a classical one which can interact with each other. The existing hybrid QFA can be naturally regarded as the general model with specific communication patterns (classical-quantum, quantum-classical, and two-way, respectively). We further clarify the relationship between these hybrid QFA and some other quantum models. In particular, it is shown that hybrid QFA can be simulated exactly by QFA with quantum operations, which in turn has a close relationship with two early proposed models: \it ancialla QFA and \it quantum sequential machines.
- Jun 01 2012 physics.atom-ph quant-ph arXiv:1205.7061v1A two-level quantum system coherently driven by a resonant electromagnetic field oscillates sinusoidally between the two levels at frequency $\Omega$ which is proportional to the field amplitude [1]. This phenomenon, known as the Rabi oscillation, has been at the heart of atomic, molecular and optical physics since the seminal work of its namesake and coauthors [2]. Notably, Rabi oscillations in isolated single atoms or dilute gases form the basis for metrological applications such as atomic clocks and precision measurements of physical constants [3]. Both inhomogeneous distribution of coupling strength to the field and interactions between individual atoms reduce the visibility of the oscillation and may even suppress it completely. A remarkable transformation takes place in the limit where only a single excitation can be present in the sample due to either initial conditions or atomic interactions: there arises a collective, many-body Rabi oscillation at a frequency $N^0.5\Omega$ involving all N >> 1 atoms in the sample [4]. This is true even for inhomogeneous atom-field coupling distributions, where single-atom Rabi oscillations may be invisible. When one of the two levels is a strongly interacting Rydberg level, many-body Rabi oscillations emerge as a consequence of the Rydberg excitation blockade. Lukin and coauthors outlined an approach to quantum information processing based on this effect [5]. Here we report initial observations of coherent many-body Rabi oscillations between the ground level and a Rydberg level using several hundred cold rubidium atoms. The strongly pronounced oscillations indicate a nearly complete excitation blockade of the entire mesoscopic ensemble by a single excited atom. The results pave the way towards quantum computation and simulation using ensembles of atoms.
- Apr 09 2012 quant-ph arXiv:1204.1532v1Coherent and reversible storage of multi-photon entanglement with a multimode quantum memory is essential for scalable all-optical quantum information processing. Although single photon has been successfully stored in different quantum systems, storage of multi-photon entanglement remains challenging because of the critical requirement for coherent control of photonic entanglement source, multimode quantum memory, and quantum interface between them. Here we demonstrate a coherent and reversible storage of biphoton Bell-type entanglement with a holographic multimode atomic-ensemble-based quantum memory. The retrieved biphoton entanglement violates Bell's inequality for 1 microsecond storage time and a memory-process fidelity of 98% is demonstrated by quantum state tomography.
- Mar 20 2012 quant-ph arXiv:1203.3948v2We explore the spin-boson model in a special case, i.e., with zero local field. In contrast to previous studies, we find no possibility for quantum phase transition (QPT) happening between the localized and delocalized phases, and the behavior of the model can be fully characterized by the even or odd parity as well as the parity breaking, instead of the QPT, owned by the ground state of the system. Our analytical treatment about the eigensolution of the ground state of the model presents for the first time a rigorous proof of no-degeneracy for the ground state of the model, which is independent of the bath type, the degrees of freedom of the bath and the calculation precision. We argue that the QPT mentioned previously appears due to unreasonable treatment of the ground state of the model or of the infrared divergence existing in the spectral functions for Ohmic and sub-Ohmic dissipations.
- Feb 28 2012 cond-mat.str-el quant-ph arXiv:1202.5719v1We study the breaking of parity in the spin-boson model and demonstrate unique scaling behavior of the magnetization and entanglement around the critical points for the parity breaking after suppressing the infrared divergence existing inherently in the spectral functions for Ohmic and sub-Ohmic dissipations. Our treatment is basically analytical and of generality for all types of the bath. We argue that the conventionally employed spectral function is not fully reasonable and the previous justification of quantum phase transition for localization needs to be more seriously reexamined.