results for au:Leek_P in:quant-ph

- Mar 21 2017 cond-mat.mes-hall quant-ph arXiv:1703.06202v1Coupling between a crystal of di(phenyl)-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl)iminoazanium (DPPH) radicals and a superconducting microwave resonator is investigated in a circuit quantum electrodynamics (cQED) architecture. The crystal exhibits paramagnetic behavior above 4 K, with antiferromagnetic correlations appearing below this temperature, and we demonstrate strong coupling at base temperature. The magnetic resonance acquires a field angle dependence as the crystal is cooled down, indicating anisotropy of the exchange interactions. These results show that multi-spin modes in organic crystals are suitable for cQED, offering a platform for their coherent manipulation. They also utilise the cQED architecture as a way to probe spin correlations at low temperature.
- Mar 20 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1703.05828v1Superconducting circuits are well established as a strong candidate platform for the development of quantum computing. In order to advance to a practically useful level, architectures are needed which combine arrays of many qubits with selective qubit control and readout, without compromising on coherence. Here we present a coaxial circuit QED architecture in which qubit and resonator are fabricated on opposing sides of a single chip, and control and readout wiring are provided by coaxial wiring running perpendicular to the chip plane. We present characterisation measurements of a fabricated device in good agreement with simulated parameters and demonstrating energy relaxation and dephasing times of $T_1 = 4.1\,\mu$s and $T_2 = 5.7\,\mu$s respectively. The architecture allows for scaling to large arrays of selectively controlled and measured qubits with the advantage of all wiring being out of the plane.
- Mar 20 2017 quant-ph cond-mat.supr-con arXiv:1703.06077v2Optimization of the fidelity of control operations is of critical importance in the pursuit of fault-tolerant quantum computation. We apply optimal control techniques to demonstrate that a single drive via the cavity in circuit quantum electrodynamics can implement a high-fidelity two-qubit all-microwave gate that directly entangles the qubits via the mutual qubit-cavity couplings. This is performed by driving at one of the qubits' frequencies which generates a conditional two-qubit gate, but will also generate other spurious interactions. These optimal control techniques are used to find pulse shapes that can perform this two-qubit gate with high fidelity, robust against errors in the system parameters. The simulations were all performed using experimentally relevant parameters and constraints.
- Mar 14 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1703.04495v1The experimental investigation of quantum devices incorporating mechanical resonators has opened up new frontiers in the study of quantum mechanics at a macroscopic level$^{1,2}$. Superconducting microwave circuits have proven to be a powerful platform for the realisation of such quantum devices, both in cavity optomechanics$^{3,4}$, and circuit quantum electro-dynamics (QED)$^{5,6}$. While most experiments to date have involved localised nanomechanical resonators, it has recently been shown that propagating surface acoustic waves (SAWs) can be piezoelectrically coupled to superconducting qubits$^{7,8}$, and confined in high-quality Fabry-Perot cavities up to microwave frequencies in the quantum regime$^{9}$, indicating the possibility of realising coherent exchange of quantum information between the two systems. Here we present measurements of a device in which a superconducting qubit is embedded in, and interacts with, the acoustic field of a Fabry-Perot SAW cavity on quartz, realising a surface acoustic version of cavity quantum electrodynamics. This quantum acoustodynamics (QAD) architecture may be used to develop new quantum acoustic devices in which quantum information is stored in trapped on-chip surface acoustic wavepackets, and manipulated in ways that are impossible with purely electromagnetic signals, due to the $10^{5}$ times slower speed of travel of the mechanical waves.
- Dec 01 2016 quant-ph cond-mat.mes-hall arXiv:1611.10354v2We explore the joint activated dynamics exhibited by two quantum degrees of freedom: a cavity mode oscillator which is strongly coupled to a superconducting qubit in the strongly coherently driven dispersive regime. Dynamical simulations and complementary measurements show a range of parameters where both the cavity and the qubit exhibit sudden simultaneous switching between two metastable states. This manifests in ensemble averaged amplitudes of both the cavity and qubit exhibiting a partial coherent cancellation. Transmission measurements of driven microwave cavities coupled to transmon qubits show detailed features which agree with the theory in the regime of simultaneous switching.
- Oct 19 2015 quant-ph cond-mat.mes-hall arXiv:1510.04965v1We present systematic measurements of the quality factors of surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonators on ST-X quartz in the gigahertz range at a temperature of $10 \, \textrm{mK}$. We demonstrate a internal quality factor $Q_\mathrm{i}$ approaching $0.5$ million at $0.5 \, \textrm{GHz}$ and show that $Q_\mathrm{i}\geq4.0\times10^4$ is achievable up to $4.4 \, \textrm{GHz}$. We show evidence for a polynomial dependence of propagation loss on frequency, as well as a weak drive power dependence of $Q_\mathrm{i}$ that saturates at low power, the latter being consistent with coupling to a bath of two-level systems. Our results indicate that SAW resonators are promising devices for integration with superconducting quantum circuits.
- Jun 05 2015 cond-mat.mes-hall quant-ph arXiv:1506.01631v1It has recently been demonstrated that surface acoustic waves (SAWs) can interact with superconducting qubits at the quantum level. SAW resonators in the GHz frequency range have also been found to have low loss at temperatures compatible with superconducting quantum circuits. These advances open up new possibilities to use the phonon degree of freedom to carry quantum information. In this paper, we give a description of the basic SAW components needed to develop quantum circuits, where propagating or localized SAW-phonons are used both to study basic physics and to manipulate quantum information. Using phonons instead of photons offers new possibilities which make these quantum acoustic circuits very interesting. We discuss general considerations for SAW experiments at the quantum level and describe experiments both with SAW resonators and with interaction between SAWs and a qubit. We also discuss several potential future developments.
- Sep 23 2014 quant-ph cond-mat.mes-hall arXiv:1409.6031v2We present measurements of coherence and successive decay dynamics of higher energy levels of a superconducting transmon qubit. By applying consecutive $\pi$-pulses for each sequential transition frequency, we excite the qubit from the ground state up to its fourth excited level and characterize the decay and coherence of each state. We find the decay to proceed mainly sequentially, with relaxation times in excess of 20 $\mu$s for all transitions. We also provide a direct measurement of the charge dispersion of these levels by analyzing beating patterns in Ramsey fringes. The results demonstrate the feasibility of using higher levels in transmon qubits for encoding quantum information.
- Aug 29 2011 cond-mat.mes-hall quant-ph arXiv:1108.5378v1Quantum coherence in solid-state systems has been demonstrated in superconducting circuits and in semiconductor quantum dots. This has paved the way to investigate solid-state systems for quantum information processing with the potential benefit of scalability compared to other systems based on atoms, ions and photons. Coherent coupling of superconducting circuits to microwave photons, circuit quantum electrodynamics (QED), has opened up new research directions and enabled long distance coupling of qubits. Here we demonstrate how the electromagnetic field of a superconducting microwave resonator can be coupled to a semiconductor double quantum dot. The charge stability diagram of the double dot, typically measured by direct current (DC) transport techniques, is investigated via dispersive frequency shifts of the coupled resonator. This hybrid all-solid-state approach offers the potential to coherently couple multiple quantum dot and superconducting qubits together on one chip, and offers a method for high resolution spectroscopy of semiconductor quantum structures.
- Sep 16 2010 quant-ph arXiv:1009.2834v1We report heating rate measurements in a microfabricated gold-on-sapphire surface electrode ion trap with trapping height of approximately 240 micron. Using the Doppler recooling method, we characterize the trap heating rates over an extended region of the trap. The noise spectral density of the trap falls in the range of noise spectra reported in ion traps at room temperature. We find that during the first months of operation the heating rates increase by approximately one order of magnitude. The increase in heating rates is largest in the ion loading region of the trap, providing a strong hint that surface contamination plays a major role for excessive heating rates. We discuss data found in the literature and possible relation of anomalous heating to sources of noise and dissipation in other systems, namely impurity atoms adsorbed on metal surfaces and amorphous dielectrics.
- The quantum properties of electromagnetic, mechanical or other harmonic oscillators can be revealed by investigating their strong coherent coupling to a single quantum two level system in an approach known as cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED). At temperatures much lower than the characteristic energy level spacing the observation of vacuum Rabi oscillations or mode splittings with one or a few quanta asserts the quantum nature of the oscillator. Here, we study how the classical response of a cavity QED system emerges from the quantum one when its thermal occupation -- or effective temperature -- is raised gradually over 5 orders of magnitude. In this way we explore in detail the continuous quantum-to-classical crossover and demonstrate how to extract effective cavity field temperatures from both spectroscopic and time-resolved vacuum Rabi measurements.
- At optical frequencies the radiation produced by a source, such as a laser, a black body or a single photon source, is frequently characterized by analyzing the temporal correlations of emitted photons using single photon counters. At microwave frequencies, however, there are no efficient single photon counters yet. Instead, well developed linear amplifiers allow for efficient measurement of the amplitude of an electromagnetic field. Here, we demonstrate how the properties of a microwave single photon source can be characterized using correlation measurements of the emitted radiation with such detectors. We also demonstrate the cooling of a thermal field stored in a cavity, an effect which we detect using a cross-correlation measurement of the radiation emitted at the two ends of the cavity.
- We present the realization of a cavity quantum electrodynamics setup in which photons of strongly different lifetimes are engineered in different harmonic modes of the same cavity. We achieve this in a superconducting transmission line resonator with superconducting qubits coupled to the different modes. One cavity mode is strongly coupled to a detection line for qubit state readout, while a second long lifetime mode is used for photon storage and coherent quantum operations. We demonstrate sideband based measurement of photon coherence, generation of n photon Fock states and the scaling of the sideband Rabi frequency with the square root of n using a scheme that may be extended to realize sideband based two-qubit logic gates.
- The exceptionally strong coupling realizable between superconducting qubits and photons stored in an on-chip microwave resonator allows for the detailed study of matter-light interactions in the realm of circuit quantum electrodynamics (QED). Here we investigate the resonant interaction between a single transmon-type multilevel artificial atom and weak thermal and coherent fields. We explore up to three photon dressed states of the coupled system in a linear response heterodyne transmission measurement. The results are in good quantitative agreement with a generalized Jaynes-Cummings model. Our data indicates that the role of thermal fields in resonant cavity QED can be studied in detail using superconducting circuits.
- The quantum state of a superconducting qubit nonresonantly coupled to a transmission line resonator can be determined by measuring the quadrature amplitudes of an electromagnetic field transmitted through the resonator. We present experiments in which we analyze in detail the dynamics of the transmitted field as a function of the measurement frequency for both weak continuous and pulsed measurements. We find excellent agreement between our data and calculations based on a set of Bloch-type differential equations for the cavity field derived from the dispersive Jaynes-Cummings Hamiltonian including dissipation. We show that the measured system response can be used to construct a measurement operator from which the qubit population can be inferred accurately. Such a measurement operator can be used in tomographic methods to reconstruct single and multiqubit states in ensemble-averaged measurements.
- The already very active field of cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED), traditionally studied in atomic systems, has recently gained additional momentum by the advent of experiments with semiconducting and superconducting systems. In these solid state implementations, novel quantum optics experiments are enabled by the possibility to engineer many of the characteristic parameters at will. In cavity QED, the observation of the vacuum Rabi mode splitting is a hallmark experiment aimed at probing the nature of matter-light interaction on the level of a single quantum. However, this effect can, at least in principle, be explained classically as the normal mode splitting of two coupled linear oscillators. It has been suggested that an observation of the scaling of the resonant atom-photon coupling strength in the Jaynes-Cummings energy ladder with the square root of photon number n is sufficient to prove that the system is quantum mechanical in nature. Here we report a direct spectroscopic observation of this characteristic quantum nonlinearity. Measuring the photonic degree of freedom of the coupled system, our measurements provide unambiguous, long sought for spectroscopic evidence for the quantum nature of the resonant atom-field interaction in cavity QED. We explore atom-photon superposition states involving up to two photons, using a spectroscopic pump and probe technique. The experiments have been performed in a circuit QED setup, in which ultra strong coupling is realized by the large dipole coupling strength and the long coherence time of a superconducting qubit embedded in a high quality on-chip microwave cavity.
- We present spectroscopic measurements of the Autler-Townes doublet and the sidebands of the Mollow triplet in a driven superconducting qubit. The ground to first excited state transition of the qubit is strongly pumped while the resulting dressed qubit spectrum is probed with a weak tone. The corresponding transitions are detected using dispersive read-out of the qubit coupled off-resonantly to a microwave transmission line resonator. The observed frequencies of the Autler-Townes and Mollow spectral lines are in good agreement with a dispersive Jaynes-Cummings model taking into account higher excited qubit states and dispersive level shifts due to off-resonant drives.
- Quantum state tomography is an important tool in quantum information science for complete characterization of multi-qubit states and their correlations. Here we report a method to perform a joint simultaneous read-out of two superconducting qubits dispersively coupled to the same mode of a microwave transmission line resonator. The non-linear dependence of the resonator transmission on the qubit state dependent cavity frequency allows us to extract the full two-qubit correlations without the need for single shot read-out of individual qubits. We employ standard tomographic techniques to reconstruct the density matrix of two-qubit quantum states.
- We present an ideal realization of the Tavis-Cummings model in the absence of atom number and coupling fluctuations by embedding a discrete number of fully controllable superconducting qubits at fixed positions into a transmission line resonator. Measuring the vacuum Rabi mode splitting with one, two and three qubits strongly coupled to the cavity field, we explore both bright and dark dressed collective multi-qubit states and observe the discrete square root of N scaling of the collective dipole coupling strength. Our experiments demonstrate a novel approach to explore collective states, such as the W-state, in a fully globally and locally controllable quantum system. Our scalable approach is interesting for solid-state quantum information processing and for fundamental multi-atom quantum optics experiments with fixed atom numbers.
- We demonstrate time resolved driving of two-photon blue sideband transitions between superconducting qubits and a transmission line resonator. Using the sidebands, we implement a pulse sequence that first entangles one qubit with the resonator, and subsequently distributes the entanglement between two qubits. We show generation of 75% fidelity Bell states by this method. The full density matrix of the two qubit system is extracted using joint measurement and quantum state tomography, and shows close agreement with numerical simulation. The scheme is potentially extendable to a scalable universal gate for quantum computation.
- In quantum information science, the phase of a wavefunction plays an important role in encoding information. While most experiments in this field rely on dynamic effects to manipulate this information, an alternative approach is to use geometric phase, which has been argued to have potential fault tolerance. We demonstrate the controlled accumulation of a geometric phase, Berry's phase, in a superconducting qubit, manipulating the qubit geometrically using microwave radiation, and observing the accumulated phase in an interference experiment. We find excellent agreement with Berry's predictions, and also observe a geometry dependent contribution to dephasing.