results for au:Lee_N in:cs

- This paper proposes spatial lattice modulation (SLM), a spatial modulation method for multipleinput-multiple-output (MIMO) systems. The key idea of SLM is to jointly exploit spatial, in-phase, and quadrature dimensions to modulate information bits into a multi-dimensional signal set that consists oflattice points. One major finding is that SLM achieves a higher spectral efficiency than the existing spatial modulation and spatial multiplexing methods for the MIMO channel under the constraint ofM-ary pulseamplitude-modulation (PAM) input signaling per dimension. In particular, it is shown that when the SLM signal set is constructed by using dense lattices, a significant signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) gain, i.e., a nominal coding gain, is attainable compared to the existing methods. In addition, closed-form expressions for both the average mutual information and average symbol-vector-error-probability (ASVEP) of generic SLM are derived under Rayleigh-fading environments. To reduce detection complexity, a low-complexity detection method for SLM, which is referred to as lattice sphere decoding, is developed by exploiting lattice theory. Simulation results verify the accuracy of the conducted analysis and demonstrate that the proposed SLM techniques achieve higher average mutual information and lower ASVEP than do existing methods.
- This paper presents a low-complexity near-maximum-likelihood-detection (near-MLD) algorithm called one-bit-sphere-decoding for an uplink massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system with one-bit analog-to-digital converters (ADCs). The idea of the proposed algorithm is to estimate the transmitted symbol vector sent by uplink users (a codeword vector) by searching over a sphere, which contains a collection of codeword vectors close to the received signal vector at the base station in terms of a weighted Hamming distance. To reduce the computational complexity for the construction of the sphere, the proposed algorithm divides the received signal vector into multiple sub-vectors each with reduced dimension. Then, it generates multiple spheres in parallel, where each sphere is centered at the sub-vector and contains a list of sub-codeword vectors. The detection performance of the proposed algorithm is also analyzed by characterizing the probability that the proposed algorithm performs worse than the MLD. The analysis shows how the dimension of each sphere and the size of the sub-codeword list are related to the performance-complexity tradeoff achieved by the proposed algorithm. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm achieves near-MLD performance, while reducing the computational complexity compared to the existing MLD method.
- Part 2 of this monograph builds on the introduction to tensor networks and their operations presented in Part 1. It focuses on tensor network models for super-compressed higher-order representation of data/parameters and related cost functions, while providing an outline of their applications in machine learning and data analytics. A particular emphasis is on the tensor train (TT) and Hierarchical Tucker (HT) decompositions, and their physically meaningful interpretations which reflect the scalability of the tensor network approach. Through a graphical approach, we also elucidate how, by virtue of the underlying low-rank tensor approximations and sophisticated contractions of core tensors, tensor networks have the ability to perform distributed computations on otherwise prohibitively large volumes of data/parameters, thereby alleviating or even eliminating the curse of dimensionality. The usefulness of this concept is illustrated over a number of applied areas, including generalized regression and classification (support tensor machines, canonical correlation analysis, higher order partial least squares), generalized eigenvalue decomposition, Riemannian optimization, and in the optimization of deep neural networks. Part 1 and Part 2 of this work can be used either as stand-alone separate texts, or indeed as a conjoint comprehensive review of the exciting field of low-rank tensor networks and tensor decompositions.
- We characterize the ergodic spectral efficiency of a non-cooperative and a cooperative type of K-tier heterogeneous networks with limited feedback. In the non-cooperative case, a multi-antenna base station (BS) serves a single-antenna user using maximum-ratio transmission based on limited feedback. In the cooperative case, a BS coordination set is formed by using dynamic clustering across the tiers, wherein the intra-cluster interference is mitigated by using multi-cell zero-forcing also based on limited feedback. Modeling the network based on stochastic geometry, we derive analytical expressions for the ergodic spectral efficiency as a function of the system parameters. Leveraging the obtained expressions, we formulate feedback partition problems and obtain solutions to improve the ergodic spectral efficiency. Simulations show the spectral efficiency improvement by using the obtained feedback partitions. Our major findings are as follows: 1) In the non-cooperative case, the feedback is only useful in a particular tier if the mean interference is small enough. 2) In the cooperative case, allocating more feedback to stronger intra-cluster BSs is efficient. 3) In both cases, the obtained solutions do not change depending on instantaneous signal-to-interference ratio.
- This paper considers an uplink multiuser multiple-input-multiple-output (MU-MIMO) system with one-bit analog-to-digital converters (ADCs), in which $K$ users with a single transmit antenna communicate with one base station (BS) with $N_{\rm r}$ receive antennas. In this system, a novel MU-MIMO detection method, named weighted minimum distance (wMD) decoding, was recently proposed by introducing an equivalent coding problem. Despite of its attractive performance, the wMD decoding has the two limitations to be used in practice: i) the hard-decision outputs can degrade the performance of a channel code; ii) the computational complexity grows exponentially with the $K$. To address those problems, we first present a soft-output wMD decoding that efficiently computes soft metrics (i.e., log-likelihood ratios) from one-bit quantized observations. We then construct a low-complexity (soft-output) wMD decoding by introducing \em hierarchical code partitioning. This method can be regarded as a sphere decoding in Hamming space, in that a search-spare is considerably reduced. Finally, we demonstrate that the proposed method significantly performs the state-of-the-art methods with a comparable complexity.
- Apr 17 2017 cs.CV arXiv:1704.04394v1We introduce a Deep Stochastic IOC RNN Encoderdecoder framework, DESIRE, for the task of future predictions of multiple interacting agents in dynamic scenes. DESIRE effectively predicts future locations of objects in multiple scenes by 1) accounting for the multi-modal nature of the future prediction (i.e., given the same context, future may vary), 2) foreseeing the potential future outcomes and make a strategic prediction based on that, and 3) reasoning not only from the past motion history, but also from the scene context as well as the interactions among the agents. DESIRE achieves these in a single end-to-end trainable neural network model, while being computationally efficient. The model first obtains a diverse set of hypothetical future prediction samples employing a conditional variational autoencoder, which are ranked and refined by the following RNN scoring-regression module. Samples are scored by accounting for accumulated future rewards, which enables better long-term strategic decisions similar to IOC frameworks. An RNN scene context fusion module jointly captures past motion histories, the semantic scene context and interactions among multiple agents. A feedback mechanism iterates over the ranking and refinement to further boost the prediction accuracy. We evaluate our model on two publicly available datasets: KITTI and Stanford Drone Dataset. Our experiments show that the proposed model significantly improves the prediction accuracy compared to other baseline methods.
- This paper considers an uplink multiuser massive multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) system with low-resolution analog-to-digital converters (ADCs), in which K users with a single-antenna communicate with one base station (BS) with Nr antennas. In this system, we present a novel multiuser MIMO detection framework that is inspired by coding theory. The key idea of the proposed framework is to create a code C of length 2Nr over a spatial domain. This code is constructed by a so-called auto-encoding function that is not designable but is completely described by a channel transformation followed by a quantization function of the ADCs. From this point of view, we convert a multiuser MIMO detection problem into an equivalent channel coding problem, in which a codeword of C corresponding to users' messages is sent over 2Nr parallel channels, each with different channel reliability. To the resulting problem, we propose a novel weighted minimum distance decoding (wMDD) that appropriately exploits the unequal channel reliabilities. It is shown that the proposed wMDD yields a non-trivial gain over the conventional minimum distance decoding (MDD). From coding-theoretic viewpoint, we identify that bit-error-rate (BER) exponentially decreases with the minimum distance of the code C, which plays a similar role with a condition number in conventional MIMO systems. Furthermore, we develop the communication method that uses the wMDD for practical scenarios where the BS has no knowledge of channel state information. Finally, numerical results are provided to verify the superiority of the proposed method.
- This paper considers a $K$-cell multiple access channel with inter-symbol interference. The primary finding of this paper is that, without instantaneous channel state information at the transmitters (CSIT), the sum degrees-of-freedom (DoF) of the considered channel is $\frac{\beta -1}{\beta}K$ with $\beta \geq 2$ when the number of users per cell is sufficiently large, where $\beta$ is the ratio of the maximum channel-impulse-response (CIR) length of desired links to that of interfering links in each cell. Our finding implies that even without instantaneous CSIT, \textitinterference-free DoF per cell is achievable as $\beta$ approaches infinity with a sufficiently large number of users per cell. This achievability is shown by a blind interference management method that exploits the relativity in delay spreads between desired and interfering links. In this method, all inter-cell-interference signals are aligned to the same direction by using a discrete-Fourier-transform-based precoding with cyclic prefix that only depends on the number of CIR taps. Using this method, we also characterize the achievable sum rate of the considered channel, in a closed-form expression.
- This paper investigates an uplink multiuser massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system with one-bit analog-to-digital converters (ADCs), in which $K$ users with a single-antenna communicate with one base station (BS) with $n_r$ antennas. In this system, we propose a novel MIMO detection framework, which is inspired by coding theory. The key idea of the proposed framework is to create a non-linear code $\Cc$ of length $n_r$ and rate $K/n_r$ using the encoding function that is completely characterized by a non-linear MIMO channel matrix. From this, a multiuser MIMO detection problem is converted into an equivalent channel coding problem, in which a codeword of the $\Cc$ is sent over $n_r$ parallel binary symmetric channels, each with different crossover probabilities. Levereging this framework, we develop a maximum likelihood decoding method, and show that the minimum distance of the $\Cc$ is strongly related to a diversity order. Furthermore, we propose a practical implementation method of the proposed framework when the channel state information is not known to the BS. The proposed method is to estimate the code $\Cc$ at the BS using a training sequence. Then, the proposed \em weighted minimum distance decoding is applied. Simulations results show that the proposed method almost achieves an ideal performance with a reasonable training overhead.
- A secret sharing scheme (SSS) was introduced by Shamir in 1979 using polynomial interpolation. Later it turned out that it is equivalent to an SSS based on a Reed-Solomon code. SSSs based on linear codes have been studied by many researchers. However there is little research on SSSs based on additive codes. In this paper, we study SSSs based on additive codes over $GF(4)$ and show that they require at least two steps of calculations to reveal the secret. We also define minimal access structures of SSSs from additive codes over $GF(4)$ and describe SSSs using some interesting additive codes over $GF(4)$ which contain generalized 2-designs.
- A linear code with a complementary dual (or LCD code) is defined to be a linear code $C$ whose dual code $C^{\perp}$ satisfies $C \cap C^{\perp}$= $\left\{ \mathbf{0}\right\} $. Let $LCD{[}n,k{]}$ denote the maximum of possible values of $d$ among $[n,k,d]$ binary LCD codes. We give exact values of $LCD{[}n,k{]}$ for $1 \le k \le n \le 12$. We also show that $LCD[n,n-i]=2$ for any $i\geq2$ and $n\geq2^{i}$. Furthermore, we show that $LCD[n,k]\leq LCD[n,k-1]$ for $k$ odd and $LCD[n,k]\leq LCD[n,k-2]$ for $k$ even.
- As far as we know, there is no decoding algorithm of any binary self-dual $[40, 20, 8]$ code except for the syndrome decoding applied to the code directly. This syndrome decoding for a binary self-dual $[40,20,8]$ code is not efficient in the sense that it cannot be done by hand due to a large syndrome table. The purpose of this paper is to give two new efficient decoding algorithms for an extremal binary doubly-even self-dual $[40,20, 8]$ code $C_{40,1}^{DE}$ by hand with the help of a Hermitian self-dual $[10,5,4]$ code $E_{10}$ over $GF(4)$. The main idea of this decoding is to project codewords of $C_{40,1}^{DE}$ onto $E_{10}$ so that it reduces the complexity of the decoding of $C_{40,1}^{DE}$. The first algorithm is called the representation decoding algorithm. It is based on the pattern of codewords of $E_{10}$. Using certain automorphisms of $E_{10}$, we show that only eight types of codewords of $E_{10}$ can produce all the codewords of $E_{10}$. The second algorithm is called the syndrome decoding algorithm based on $E_{10}$. It first solves the syndrome equation in $E_{10}$ and finds a corresponding binary codeword of $C_{40,1}^{DE}$.
- Dec 16 2016 cs.CV arXiv:1612.05234v1We introduce the concept of a Visual Compiler that generates a scene specific pedestrian detector and pose estimator without any pedestrian observations. Given a single image and auxiliary scene information in the form of camera parameters and geometric layout of the scene, the Visual Compiler first infers geometrically and photometrically accurate images of humans in that scene through the use of computer graphics rendering. Using these renders we learn a scene-and-region specific spatially-varying fully convolutional neural network, for simultaneous detection, pose estimation and segmentation of pedestrians. We demonstrate that when real human annotated data is scarce or non-existent, our data generation strategy can provide an excellent solution for bootstrapping human detection and pose estimation. Experimental results show that our approach outperforms off-the-shelf state-of-the-art pedestrian detectors and pose estimators that are trained on real data.
- This paper considers a massive multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) system with low-resolution analog-to-digital converters (ADCs). In this system, inspired by supervised learning, we propose a novel communication framework that consists of channel training and data detection. The underlying idea of the proposed framework is to use the input-output relations of a nonlinear system, formed by a channel and a quantization at the ADCs, for data detection. Specifically, for the channel training, we develop implicit and explicit training methods that empirically learn the conditional probability mass functions (PMFs) of the nonlinear system. For the data detection, we propose three detection methods that map a received signal vector to one of the indexes of possible symbol vectors, according to the empirical conditional PMFs learned from the channel training. We also present a low-complexity version of the proposed framework that reduces a detection complexity by using a successive-interference-cancellation (SIC) approach. In this low-complexity version, a symbol vector is divided into two subvectors and then these two subvectors are successively detected using SIC. When employing the proposed framework with one-bit ADCs, we derive an analytical expression for the symbol-vector-error probability. One major observation is that the symbol-vector-error probability decreases exponentially with the inverse of the number of transmit antennas, the operating signal-to-noise ratio, and the minimum distance that can increase with the number of receive antennas. Simulations demonstrate the detection error reduction of the proposed framework compared to existing detection techniques.
- This paper considers a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) system with low-resolution analog-to-digital converters (ADCs). In this system, the paper presents a new MIMO detection approach using coding theory. The principal idea of the proposed approach is to transform a non-linear MIMO channel to a linear MIMO channel by leveraging both a $p$-level quantizer and a lattice code where $p\geq 2$. After transforming to the linear MIMO channel with the sets of finite input and output elements, efficient MIMO detection methods are proposed to attain both diversity and multiplexing gains by using algebraic coding theory. In particular, using the proposed methods, the analytical characterizations of achievable rates are derived for different MIMO configurations. One major observation is that the proposed approach is particularly useful for a large MIMO system with the ADCs that use a few bits.
- This paper considers a $K$-user single-input-single-output interference channel with inter-symbol interference (ISI), in which the channel coefficients are assumed to be linear time-invariant with finite-length impulse response. The primary finding of this paper is that, with no channel state information at a transmitter (CSIT), the sum-spectral efficiency can be made to scale linearly with $K$, provided that the desired links have longer impulse response than do the interfering links. This linear gain is achieved by a novel multi-carrier communication scheme which we call \textitinterference-free orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (IF-OFDM). Furthermore, when a transmitter is able to learn CSIT from its paired receiver only, a higher sum-spectral efficiency can be achieved by a two-stage transmission method that concatenates IF-OFDM and vector coding based on singular value decomposition with water-filling power allocation. A major implication of the derived results is that separate encoding across subcarriers per link is sufficient to linearly increase the sum-spectral efficiency with $K$ in the interference channel with ISI. Simulation results support this claim.
- Sep 06 2016 cs.NA arXiv:1609.00893v3Machine learning and data mining algorithms are becoming increasingly important in analyzing large volume, multi-relational and multi--modal datasets, which are often conveniently represented as multiway arrays or tensors. It is therefore timely and valuable for the multidisciplinary research community to review tensor decompositions and tensor networks as emerging tools for large-scale data analysis and data mining. We provide the mathematical and graphical representations and interpretation of tensor networks, with the main focus on the Tucker and Tensor Train (TT) decompositions and their extensions or generalizations. Keywords: Tensor networks, Function-related tensors, CP decomposition, Tucker models, tensor train (TT) decompositions, matrix product states (MPS), matrix product operators (MPO), basic tensor operations, multiway component analysis, multilinear blind source separation, tensor completion, linear/multilinear dimensionality reduction, large-scale optimization problems, symmetric eigenvalue decomposition (EVD), PCA/SVD, huge systems of linear equations, pseudo-inverse of very large matrices, Lasso and Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) (This is Part 1)
- In this paper, we examine the benefits of multiple antenna communication in random wireless networks, the topology of which is modeled by stochastic geometry. The setting is that of the Poisson bipolar model introduced in [1], which is a natural model for ad-hoc and device-to-device (D2D) networks. The primary finding is that, with knowledge of channel state information between a receiver and its associated transmitter, by zero-forcing successive interference cancellation, and for appropriate antenna configurations, the ergodic spectral efficiency can be made to scale linearly with both 1) the minimum of the number of transmit and receive antennas, 2) the density of nodes and 3) the path-loss exponent. This linear gain is achieved by using the transmit antennas to send multiple data streams (e.g. through an open-loop transmission method) and by exploiting the receive antennas to cancel interference. Furthermore, when a receiver is able to learn channel state information from a certain number of near interferers, higher scaling gains can be achieved when using a successive interference cancellation method. A major implication of the derived scaling laws is that spatial multiplexing transmission methods are essential for obtaining better and eventually optimal scaling laws in multiple antenna random wireless networks. Simulation results support this analysis.
- We consider a polling system with two queues, exhaustive service, no switch-over times and exponential service times. The waiting cost depends on the position of the queue relative to the server: It costs a customer c per time unit to wait in the busy queue (where the server is) and d per time unit in the idle queue (where no server is). Customers arrive according to a Poisson process. We study the control problem of how arrivals should be routed to the two queues in order to minimize expected waiting costs and characterize individually and socially optimal routing policies under three scenarios of available information at decision epochs: no, partial and complete information. In the complete information case, we develop a new iterative algorithm to determine individually optimal policies, and show that such policies can be described by a switching curve. We conjecture that a linear switching curve is socially optimal, and prove that this policy is indeed optimal for the fluid version of the two-queue polling system.
- Apr 07 2016 cs.CV arXiv:1604.01431v3We develop predictive models of pedestrian dynamics by encoding the coupled nature of multi-pedestrian interaction using game theory, and deep learning-based visual analysis to estimate person-specific behavior parameters. Building predictive models for multi-pedestrian interactions however, is very challenging due to two reasons: (1) the dynamics of interaction are complex interdependent processes, where the predicted behavior of one pedestrian can affect the actions taken by others and (2) dynamics are variable depending on an individuals physical characteristics (e.g., an older person may walk slowly while the younger person may walk faster). To address these challenges, we (1) utilize concepts from game theory to model the interdependent decision making process of multiple pedestrians and (2) use visual classifiers to learn a mapping from pedestrian appearance to behavior parameters. We evaluate our proposed model on several public multiple pedestrian interaction video datasets. Results show that our strategic planning model explains human interactions 25% better when compared to state-of-the-art methods.
- This paper proposes a novel selective autoencoder approach within the framework of deep convolutional networks. The crux of the idea is to train a deep convolutional autoencoder to suppress undesired parts of an image frame while allowing the desired parts resulting in efficient object detection. The efficacy of the framework is demonstrated on a critical plant science problem. In the United States, approximately $1 billion is lost per annum due to a nematode infection on soybean plants. Currently, plant-pathologists rely on labor-intensive and time-consuming identification of Soybean Cyst Nematode (SCN) eggs in soil samples via manual microscopy. The proposed framework attempts to significantly expedite the process by using a series of manually labeled microscopic images for training followed by automated high-throughput egg detection. The problem is particularly difficult due to the presence of a large population of non-egg particles (disturbances) in the image frames that are very similar to SCN eggs in shape, pose and illumination. Therefore, the selective autoencoder is trained to learn unique features related to the invariant shapes and sizes of the SCN eggs without handcrafting. After that, a composite non-maximum suppression and differencing is applied at the post-processing stage.
- In this paper, we propose \textitcoded compressive sensing that recovers an $n$-dimensional integer sparse signal vector from a noisy and quantized measurement vector whose dimension $m$ is far-fewer than $n$. The core idea of coded compressive sensing is to construct a linear sensing matrix whose columns consist of lattice codes. We present a two-stage decoding method named \textitcompute-and-recover to detect the sparse signal from the noisy and quantized measurements. In the first stage, we transform such measurements into noiseless finite-field measurements using the linearity of lattice codewords. In the second stage, syndrome decoding is applied over the finite-field to reconstruct the sparse signal vector. A sufficient condition of a perfect recovery is derived. Our theoretical result demonstrates an interplay among the quantization level $p$, the sparsity level $k$, the signal dimension $n$, and the number of measurements $m$ for the perfect recovery. Considering 1-bit compressive sensing as a special case, we show that the proposed algorithm empirically outperforms an existing greedy recovery algorithm.
- We consider a downlink cellular network where multi-antenna base stations (BSs) transmit data to single-antenna users by using one of two linear precoding methods with limited feedback: (i) maximum ratio transmission (MRT) for serving a single user or (ii) zero forcing (ZF) for serving multiple users. The BS and user locations are drawn from a Poisson point process, allowing expressions for the signal- to-interference coverage probability and the ergodic spectral efficiency to be derived as a function of system parameters such as the number of BS antennas and feedback bits, and the pathloss exponent. We find a tight lower bound on the optimum number of feedback bits to maximize the net spectral efficiency, which captures the overall system gain by considering both of downlink and uplink spectral efficiency using limited feedback. Our main finding is that, when using MRT, the optimum number of feedback bits scales linearly with the number of antennas, and logarithmically with the channel coherence time. When using ZF, the feedback scales in the same ways as MRT, but also linearly with the pathloss exponent. The derived results provide system-level insights into the preferred channel codebook size by averaging the effects of short-term fading and long-term pathloss.
- A reliable support detection is essential for a greedy algorithm to reconstruct a sparse signal accurately from compressed and noisy measurements. This paper proposes a novel support detection method for greedy algorithms, which is referred to as "\textitmaximum a posteriori (MAP) support detection". Unlike existing support detection methods that identify support indices with the largest correlation value in magnitude per iteration, the proposed method selects them with the largest likelihood ratios computed under the true and null support hypotheses by simultaneously exploiting the distributions of sensing matrix, sparse signal, and noise. Leveraging this technique, MAP-Matching Pursuit (MAP-MP) is first presented to show the advantages of exploiting the proposed support detection method, and a sufficient condition for perfect signal recovery is derived for the case when the sparse signal is binary. Subsequently, a set of iterative greedy algorithms, called MAP-generalized Orthogonal Matching Pursuit (MAP-gOMP), MAP-Compressive Sampling Matching Pursuit (MAP-CoSaMP), and MAP-Subspace Pursuit (MAP-SP) are presented to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed support detection method to existing greedy algorithms. From empirical results, it is shown that the proposed greedy algorithms with highly reliable support detection can be better, faster, and easier to implement than basis pursuit via linear programming.
- We propose a new method for low-rank approximation of Moore-Penrose pseudoinverses (MPPs) of large-scale matrices using tensor networks. The computed pseudoinverses can be useful for solving or preconditioning of large-scale overdetermined or underdetermined systems of linear equations. The computation is performed efficiently and stably based on the modified alternating least squares (MALS) scheme using low-rank tensor train (TT) decompositions and tensor network contractions. The formulated large-scale optimization problem is reduced to sequential smaller-scale problems for which any standard and stable algorithms can be applied. Regularization technique is incorporated in order to alleviate ill-posedness and obtain robust low-rank approximations. Numerical simulation results illustrate that the regularized pseudoinverses of a wide class of non-square or nonsymmetric matrices admit good approximate low-rank TT representations. Moreover, we demonstrated that the computational cost of the proposed method is only logarithmic in the matrix size given that the TT-ranks of a data matrix and its approximate pseudoinverse are bounded. It is illustrated that a strongly nonsymmetric convection-diffusion problem can be efficiently solved by using the preconditioners computed by the proposed method.
- In this paper, we propose a new retrospective interference alignment for two-cell multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) interfering multiple access channels (IMAC) with the delayed channel state information at the transmitters (CSIT). It is shown that having delayed CSIT can strictly increase the sum-DoF compared to the case of no CSIT. The key idea is to align multiple interfering signals from adjacent cells onto a small dimensional subspace over time by fully exploiting the previously received signals as side information with outdated CSIT in a distributed manner. Remarkably, we show that the retrospective interference alignment can achieve the optimal sum-DoF in the context of two-cell two-user scenario by providing a new outer bound.
- This paper proposes a method for designing BS clusters and cluster patterns for pair-wise BS coordination. The key idea is that each BS cluster is formed by using the 2nd-order Voronoi region, and the BS clusters are assigned to a specific cluster pattern by using edge-coloring for a graph drawn by Delaunay triangulation. The main advantage of the proposed method is that the BS selection conflict problem is prevented, while selected users are guaranteed to communicate with their two closest BSs in any irregular BS topology. With the proposed coordination method, analytical expressions for the rate distribution and the ergodic spectral efficiency are derived as a function of relevant system parameters in a fixed irregular network model. In a random network model with a homogeneous Poisson point process, a lower bound on the ergodic spectral efficiency is characterized. Through system level simulations, the performance of the proposed method is compared with that of conventional coordination methods: dynamic clustering and static clustering. Our major finding is that, when users are dense enough in a network, the proposed method provides the same level of coordination benefit with dynamic clustering to edge users.
- Interference management has the potential to improve spectrum efficiency in current and next generation wireless systems (e.g. 3GPP LTE and IEEE 802.11). Recently, new paradigms for interference management have emerged to tackle interference in a general class of wireless networks: interference shaping and interference exploitation. Both approaches offer better performance in interference-limited communication regimes than traditionally thought possible. This article provides a high-level overview of several different interference shaping and exploitation techniques for single-hop, multi-hop, and multi-way network architectures. Graphical illustrations that explain the intuition behind each strategy are provided. The article concludes with a discussion of practical challenges associated with adopting sophisticated interference management strategies in the future.
- This letter investigates a new class of index coding problems. One sender broadcasts packets to multiple users, each desiring a subset, by exploiting prior knowledge of linear combinations of packets. We refer to this class of problems as index coding with coded side-information. Our aim is to characterize the minimum index code length that the sender needs to transmit to simultaneously satisfy all user requests. We show that the optimal binary vector index code length is equal to the minimum rank (minrank) of a matrix whose elements consist of the sets of desired packet indices and side- information encoding matrices. This is the natural extension of matrix minrank in the presence of coded side information. Using the derived expression, we propose a greedy randomized algorithm to minimize the rank of the derived matrix.
- This paper considers large random wireless networks where transmit-and-receive node pairs communicate within a certain range while sharing a common spectrum. By modeling the spatial locations of nodes based on stochastic geometry, analytical expressions for the ergodic spectral efficiency of a typical node pair are derived as a function of the channel state information available at a receiver (CSIR) in terms of relevant system parameters: the density of communication links, the number of receive antennas, the path loss exponent, and the operating signal-to-noise ratio. One key finding is that when the receiver only exploits CSIR for the direct link, the sum of spectral efficiencies linearly improves as the density increases, when the number of receive antennas increases as a certain super-linear function of the density. When each receiver exploits CSIR for a set of dominant interfering links in addition to the direct link, the sum of spectral efficiencies linearly increases with both the density and the path loss exponent if the number of antennas is a linear function of the density. This observation demonstrates that having CSIR for dominant interfering links provides a multiplicative gain in the scaling law. It is also shown that this linear scaling holds for direct CSIR when incorporating the effect of the receive antenna correlation, provided that the rank of the spatial correlation matrix scales super-linearly with the density. Simulation results back scaling laws derived from stochastic geometry.
- We propose new algorithms for singular value decomposition (SVD) of very large-scale matrices based on a low-rank tensor approximation technique called the tensor train (TT) format. The proposed algorithms can compute several dominant singular values and corresponding singular vectors for large-scale structured matrices given in a TT format. The computational complexity of the proposed methods scales logarithmically with the matrix size under the assumption that both the matrix and the singular vectors admit low-rank TT decompositions. The proposed methods, which are called the alternating least squares for SVD (ALS-SVD) and modified alternating least squares for SVD (MALS-SVD), compute the left and right singular vectors approximately through block TT decompositions. The very large-scale optimization problem is reduced to sequential small-scale optimization problems, and each core tensor of the block TT decompositions can be updated by applying any standard optimization methods. The optimal ranks of the block TT decompositions are determined adaptively during iteration process, so that we can achieve high approximation accuracy. Extensive numerical simulations are conducted for several types of TT-structured matrices such as Hilbert matrix, Toeplitz matrix, random matrix with prescribed singular values, and tridiagonal matrix. The simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods compared with standard SVD algorithms and TT-based algorithms developed for symmetric eigenvalue decomposition.
- We discuss extended definitions of linear and multilinear operations such as Kronecker, Hadamard, and contracted products, and establish links between them for tensor calculus. Then we introduce effective low-rank tensor approximation techniques including Candecomp/Parafac (CP), Tucker, and tensor train (TT) decompositions with a number of mathematical and graphical representations. We also provide a brief review of mathematical properties of the TT decomposition as a low-rank approximation technique. With the aim of breaking the curse-of-dimensionality in large-scale numerical analysis, we describe basic operations on large-scale vectors, matrices, and high-order tensors represented by TT decomposition. The proposed representations can be used for describing numerical methods based on TT decomposition for solving large-scale optimization problems such as systems of linear equations and symmetric eigenvalue problems.
- This paper characterizes the performance of coordinated beamforming with dynamic clustering. A downlink model based on stochastic geometry is put forth to analyze the performance of such base station (BS) coordination strategy. Analytical expressions for the complementary cumulative distribution function (CCDF) of the instantaneous signal-to-interference ratio (SIR) are derived in terms of relevant system parameters, chiefly the number of BSs forming the coordination clusters, the number of antennas per BS, and the pathloss exponent. Utilizing this CCDF, with pilot overheads further incorporated into the analysis, we formulate the optimization of the BS coordination clusters for a given fading coherence. Our results indicate that (i) coordinated beamforming is most beneficial to users that are in the outer part of their cells yet in the inner part of their coordination cluster, and that (ii) the optimal cluster cardinality for the typical user is small and it scales with the fading coherence. Simulation results verify the exactness of the SIR distributions derived for stochastic geometries, which are further compared with the corresponding distributions for deterministic grid networks.
- A space-time physical-layer network coding (ST- PNC) method is presented for information exchange among multiple users over fully-connected multi-way relay networks. The method involves two steps: i) side-information learning and ii) space-time relay transmission. In the first step, different sets of users are scheduled to send signals over networks and the remaining users and relays overhear the transmitted signals, thereby learning the interference patterns. In the second step, multiple relays cooperatively send out linear combinations of signals received in the previous phase using space-time precoding so that all users efficiently exploit their side-information in the form of: 1) what they sent and 2) what they overheard in decoding. This coding concept is illustrated through two simple network examples. It is shown that ST-PNC improves the sum of degrees of freedom (sum-DoF) of the network compared to existing interference management methods. With ST-PNC, the sum-DoF of a general multi-way relay network without channel knowledge at the users is characterized in terms of relevant system parameters, chiefly the number of users, the number of relays, and the number of antennas at relays. A major implication of the derived results is that efficiently harnessing both transmit- ted and overheard signals as side-information brings significant performance improvements to fully-connected multi-way relay networks.
- This paper proposes an interference alignment method with distributed and delayed channel state information at the transmitter (CSIT) for a class of interference networks. The core idea of the proposed method is to align interference signals over time at the unintended receivers in a distributed manner. With the proposed method, achievable trade-offs between the sum of degrees of freedom (sum-DoF) and feedback delay of CSI are characterized in both the X-channel and three-user interference channel to reveal the impact on how the CSI feedback delay affects the sum-DoF of the interference networks. A major implication of derived results is that distributed and moderately- delayed CSIT is useful to strictly improve the sum-DoF over the case of no CSI at the transmitter in a certain class of interference networks. For a class of X-channels, the results show how to optimally use distributed and moderately-delayed CSIT to yield the same sum-DoF as instantaneous and global CSIT. Further, leveraging the proposed transmission method and the known outer bound results, the sum-capacity of the two-user X-channel with a particular set of channel coefficients is characterized within a constant number of bits.
- This paper characterizes the degrees of freedom (DoF) regions for the multi-user vector broadcast channel with periodic channel state information (CSI) feedback. As a part of the characterization, a new transmission method called space-time interference alignment is proposed, which exploits both the current and past CSI jointly. Using the proposed alignment technique, an inner bound of the sum-DoF region is characterized as a function of a normalized CSI feedback frequency, which measures CSI feedback speed compared to the speed of user's channel variations. One consequence of the result is that the achievable sum-DoF gain is improved significantly when a user sends back both current and outdated CSI compared to the case where the user sends back current CSI only. Then, a trade-off between CSI feedback delay and the sum-DoF gain is characterized for the multi-user vector broadcast channel in terms of a normalized CSI feedback delay that measures CSI obsoleteness compared to channel coherence time. A crucial insight is that it is possible to achieve the optimal DoF gain if the feedback delay is less than a derived fraction of the channel coherence time. This precisely characterizes the intuition that a small delay should be negligible.
- We study a model of information spreading on multiplex networks, in which agents interact through multiple interaction channels (layers), say online vs.\ offline communication layers, subject to layer-switching cost for transmissions across different interaction layers. The model is characterized by the layer-wise path-dependent transmissibility over a contact, that is dynamically determined dependently on both incoming and outgoing transmission layers. We formulate an analytical framework to deal with such path-dependent transmissibility and demonstrate the nontrivial interplay between the multiplexity and spreading dynamics, including optimality. It is shown that the epidemic threshold and prevalence respond to the layer-switching cost non-monotonically and that the optimal conditions can change in abrupt non-analytic ways, depending also on the densities of network layers and the type of seed infections. Our results elucidate the essential role of multiplexity that its explicit consideration should be crucial for realistic modeling and prediction of spreading phenomena on multiplex social networks in an era of ever-diversifying social interaction layers.
- This paper considers a device-to-device (D2D) underlaid cellular network where an uplink cellular user communicates with the base station while multiple direct D2D links share the uplink spectrum. This paper proposes a random network model based on stochastic geometry and develops centralized and distributed power control algorithms. The goal of the proposed power control algorithms is two-fold: ensure the cellular users have sufficient coverage probability by limiting the interference created by underlaid D2D users, while also attempting to support as many D2D links as possible. For the distributed power control method, expressions for the coverage probabilities of cellular and D2D links are derived and a lower bound on the sum rate of the D2D links is provided. The analysis reveals the impact of key system parameters on the network performance. For example, the bottleneck of D2D underlaid cellular networks is the cross-tier interference between D2D links and the cellular user, not the D2D intra-tier interference. Numerical results show the gains of the proposed power control algorithms and accuracy of the analysis.
- This paper considers a fully-connected interference network with a relay in which multiple users equipped with a single antenna want to exchange multiple unicast messages with other users in the network by sharing the relay equipped with multiple antennas. For such a network, the degrees of freedom (DoF) are derived by considering various message exchange scenarios: a multi-user fully-connected Y channel, a two-pair two-way interference channel with the relay, and a two-pair two-way X channel with the relay. Further, considering distributed relays employing a single antenna in the two-way interference channel and the three-user fully-connected Y channel, achievable sum-DoF are also derived in the two-way interference channel and the three-user fully-connected Y channel. A major implication of the derived DoF results is that a relay with multiple antennas or multiple relays employing a single antenna increases the capacity scaling law of the multi-user interference network when multiple directional information flows are considered, even if the networks are fully-connected and all nodes operate in half-duplex. These results reveal that the relay is useful in the multi-way interference network with practical considerations.
- Dec 19 2012 astro-ph.IM cs.SE arXiv:1212.4458v3Filtergraph is a web application being developed by the Vanderbilt Initiative in Data-intensive Astrophysics (VIDA) to flexibly handle a large variety of astronomy datasets. While current datasets at Vanderbilt are being used to search for eclipsing binaries and extrasolar planets, this system can be easily reconfigured for a wide variety of data sources. The user loads a flat-file dataset into Filtergraph which instantly generates an interactive data portal that can be easily shared with others. From this portal, the user can immediately generate scatter plots, histograms, and tables based on the dataset. Key features of the portal include the ability to filter the data in real time through user-specified criteria, the ability to select data by dragging on the screen, and the ability to perform arithmetic operations on the data in real time. The application is being optimized for speed in the context of very large datasets: for instance, plot generated from a stellar database of 3.1 million entries render in less than 2 seconds on a standard web server platform. This web application has been created using the Web2py web framework based on the Python programming language. Filtergraph is freely available at http://filtergraph.vanderbilt.edu/.
- Channel state information at the transmitter (CSIT) aids interference management in many communication systems. Due to channel state information (CSI) feedback delay and time-variation in the wireless channel, perfect CSIT is not realistic. In this paper, the CSI feedback delay-DoF gain trade-off is characterized for the multi-user vector broadcast channel. A major insight is that it is possible to achieve the optimal degrees of freedom (DoF) gain if the delay is less than a certain fraction of the channel coherence time. This precisely characterizes the intuition that a small delay should be negligeable. To show this, a new transmission method called space-time interference alignment is proposed, which actively exploits both the current and past CSI.
- It is well known that the classical 2 user Gaussian interference channel has only 1 degree of freedom (DoF), which can be achieved by orthogonal time division among the 2 users. It is also known that the use of conventional relays, which introduce a processing delay of at least one symbol duration relative to the direct paths between sources and destinations, does not increase the DoF of the 2 user interference channel. The use of instantaneous relays (relays-without-delay) has been explored for the single user point-to-point setting and it is known that such a relay, even with memoryless forwarding at the relay, can achieve a higher capacity than conventional relays. In this work, we show that the 2 user interference channel with an instantaneous relay, achieves 3/2 DoF. Thus, an instantaneous relay increases not only the capacity but also the DoF of the 2 user interference channel. The achievable scheme is inspired by the aligned interference neutralization scheme recently proposed for the 2X2X2 interference channel. Remarkably the DoF gain is achieved with memoryless relays, i.e., with relays that have no memory of past received symbols.
- This paper focuses on two-cell multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) Gaussian interfering broadcast channels (MIMO-IFBC) with $K$ cooperating users on the cell-boundary of each BS. It corresponds to a downlink scenario for cellular networks with two base stations (BSs), and $K$ users equipped with Wi-Fi interfaces enabling to cooperate among users on a peer-to-peer basis. In this scenario, we propose a novel interference alignment (IA) technique exploiting user cooperation. Our proposed algorithm obtains the achievable degrees of freedom (DoF) of 2K when each BS and user have $M=K+1$ transmit antennas and $N=K$ receive antennas, respectively. Furthermore, the algorithm requires only a small amount of channel feedback information with the aid of the user cooperation channels. The simulations demonstrate that not only are the analytical results valid, but the achievable DoF of our proposed algorithm also outperforms those of conventional techniques.
- In this paper, we consider a two-cell interfering two-user multiple-input multiple-output multiple access channel (MIMO-MAC) with limited feedback. We first investigate the multiplexing gain of such channel when users have perfect channel state information at transmitter (CSIT) by exploiting an interference alignment scheme. In addition, we propose a feedback framework for the interference alignment in the limited feedback system. On the basis of the proposed feedback framework, we analyze the rate gap loss and it is shown that in order to keep the same multiplexing gain with the case of perfect CSIT, the number of feedback bits per receiver scales as $B \geq (M\!-1\!)\!\log_{2}(\textsf{SNR})+C$, where $M$ and $C$ denote the number of transmit antennas and a constant, respectively. Throughout the simulation results, it is shown that the sum-rate performance coincides with the derived results.
- This paper investigates a network information flow problem for a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) Gaussian wireless network with $K$-users and a single intermediate relay having $M$ antennas. In this network, each user intends to convey a multicast message to all other users while receiving $K-1$ independent messages from the other users via an intermediate relay. This network information flow is termed a MIMO Gaussian $K$-way relay channel. For this channel, we show that $\frac{K}{2}$ degrees of freedom is achievable if $M=K-1$. To demonstrate this, we come up with an encoding and decoding strategy inspired from cryptography theory. The proposed encoding and decoding strategy involves a \textitsignal space alignment for an encryption message for the multiple access phase (MAC) and \textitzero forcing with successive network code decoding for the broadcast (BC) phase. The idea of the \emphsignal space alignment for an encryption message is that all users cooperatively choose the precoding vectors to transmit the message so that the relay can receive a proper encryption message with a special structure, \textitnetwork code chain structure. During the BC phase, \emphzero forcing combined with successive network code decoding enables all users to decipher the encryption message from the relay despite the fact that they all have different self-information which they use as a key.