results for au:Lee_J in:quant-ph

- May 18 2018 quant-ph arXiv:1805.06580v1We propose a learning method for estimating unknown pure quantum states. The basic idea of our method is to learn a unitary operation $\hat{U}$ that transforms a given unknown state $|\psi_\tau\rangle$ to a known fiducial state $|f\rangle$. Then, after completion of the learning process, we can estimate and reproduce $|\psi_\tau\rangle$ based on the learned $\hat{U}$ and $|f\rangle$. To realize this idea, we cast a random-based learning algorithm, called `single-shot measurement learning,' in which the learning rule is based on an intuitive and reasonable criterion: the greater the number of success (or failure), the less (or more) changes are imposed. Remarkably, the learning process occurs by means of a single-shot measurement outcome. We demonstrate that our method works effectively, i.e., the learning is completed with a \em finite number, say $N$, of unknown-state copies. Most surprisingly, our method allows the maximum statistical accuracy to be achieved for large $N$, namely $\simeq O(N^{-1})$ scales of average infidelity. This result is comparable to those yielded from the standard quantum tomographic method in the case where additional information is available. It highlights a non-trivial message, that is, a random-based adaptive strategy can potentially be as accurate as other standard statistical approaches.
- May 09 2018 quant-ph arXiv:1805.02828v1We present a violation of the CHSH inequality without the fair sampling assumption with a continuously pumped photon pair source combined with two high efficiency superconducting detectors. Due to the continuous nature of the source, the choice of the duration of each measurement round effectively controls the average number of photon pairs participating in the Bell test. We observe a maximum violation of S= 2.01602(32) with average number of pairs per round of ~0.32, compatible with our system overall detection efficiencies. Systems that violate a Bell inequality are guaranteed to generate private randomness, with the randomness extraction rate depending on the observed violation and on the repetition rate of the Bell test. For our realization, the optimal rate of randomness generation is a compromise between the observed violation and the duration of each measurement round, with the latter realistically limited by the detection time jitter. Using an extractor composably secure against quantum adversary with quantum side information, we calculate an asymptotic rate of ~1300 random bits/s. With an experimental run of 43 minutes, we generated 617,920 random bits, corresponding to ~240 random bits/s.
- May 01 2018 quant-ph arXiv:1804.11311v1We propose a scheme to make use of recent advances in cavity QED-enhanced resonance fluorescence from quantum dots to generate a stream of entangled and indistinguishable photons. We then demonstrate that we can optically manipulate the state of a trapped hole spin to achieve complete coherent control of a qubit. In combination with the selective cavity enhancement of the resonantly excited transition, we use this capability to perform a proof-of-principle demonstration of our proposal by showing that the time bin of a single photon is dependent on the measured state of the trapped spin.
- May 01 2018 quant-ph arXiv:1804.11200v1We present a first study on the quantum sensitivity in decision making. The theory of decision making indicates what choices are optimal in a given situation. For example, when a decision is made, the available information, say "hint", is interpreted and translated into the optimal choices; however, the analyses and calculations of such processes are radically intractable. We thus propose a decision maker that adopts an algorithm which produces the outcomes in a probabilistic way. As a main result, we show both theoretically and experimentally that such a quantum decision maker potentially exhibits higher hint-sensitivity to the hints categorized between "good" and "poor." This quantum feature originates from the quantum superposition property involved in the decision making process. It is also shown that a higher hint-sensitivity still remains unless the quantum superposition is completely decohered.
- Apr 04 2018 quant-ph cond-mat.other arXiv:1804.00713v1Photonic time bin qubits are well suited to transmission via optical fibres and waveguide circuits. The states take the form $\frac{1}{\sqrt{2}}(\alpha \ket{0} + e^{i\phi}\beta \ket{1})$, with $\ket{0}$ and $\ket{1}$ referring to the early and late time bin respectively. By controlling the phase of a laser driving a spin-flip Raman transition in a single-hole-charged InAs quantum dot we demonstrate complete control over the phase, $\phi$. We show that this photon generation process can be performed deterministically, with only a moderate loss in coherence. Finally, we encode different qubits in different energies of the Raman scattered light, demonstrating wavelength division multiplexing at the single photon level.
- Mar 21 2018 quant-ph arXiv:1803.07275v1We propose a geometric multiparty extension of Clauser-Horne (CH) inequality. The standard CH inequality can be shown to be an implication of the fact that statistical separation between two events, $A$ and $B$, defined as $P(A\oplus B)$, where $A\oplus B=(A-B)\cup(B-A)$, satisfies the axioms of a distance. Our extension for tripartite case is based on triangle inequalities for the statistical separations of three probabilistic events $P(A\oplus B \oplus C)$. We show that Mermin inequality can be retrieved from our extended CH inequality for three subsystems. With our tripartite CH inequality, we investigate quantum violations by GHZ-type and W-type states. Our inequalities are compared to another type, so-called $N$-site CH inequality. In addition we argue how to generalize our method for more subsystems and measurement settings. Our method can be used to write down several Bell-type inequalities in a systematic manner.
- Mar 21 2018 quant-ph arXiv:1803.07176v1Magnetometry is a powerful technique for the non-invasive study of biological and physical systems. A key challenge lies in the simultaneous optimization of magnetic field sensitivity and maximum field range. In interferometry-based magnetometry, a quantum two-level system acquires a dynamic phase in response to an applied magnetic field. However, due to the 2\pi periodicity of the phase, increasing the coherent interrogation time to improve sensitivity results in reduced field range. Here we introduce a route towards both large magnetic field range and high sensitivity via measurements of the geometric phase acquired by a quantum two-level system. We experimentally demonstrate geometric-phase magnetometry using the optically addressable electronic spin associated with the nitrogen vacancy (NV) color center in diamond. Our approach enables unwrapping of the 2\pi phase ambiguity, decoupling of magnetic field range from sensitivity, and enhancement of the field range by about 400 times. We also find additional improvement in sensitivity in the nonadiabatic regime, and study how geometric-phase decoherence depends on adiabaticity. Our results show that the geometric phase can be a versatile tool for quantum sensing applications.
- We report a compact, scalable, quantum photonic integrated circuit realised by combining multiple, independent InGaAs/GaAs quantum-light-emitting-diodes (QLEDs) with a silicon oxynitride waveguide circuit. Each waveguide joining the circuit can then be excited by a separate, independently electrically contacted QLED. We show that the emission from neighbouring QLEDs can be independently tuned to degeneracy using the Stark Effect and that the resulting photon streams are indistinguishable. This enables on-chip Hong-Ou-Mandel-type interference, as required for many photonic quantum information processing schemes.
- We extend the work in New J. Phys. 19, 103015 (2017) by deriving a lower bound for the minimum time necessary to implement a unitary transformation on a generic, closed quantum system with an arbitrary number of classical control fields. This bound is explicitly analyzed for a specific N-level system similar to those used to represent simple models of an atom, or the first excitation sector of a Heisenberg spin chain, both of which are of interest in quantum control for quantum computation. Specifically, it is shown that the resultant bound depends on the dimension of the system, and on the number of controls used to implement a specific target unitary operation. The value of the bound determined numerically, and an estimate of the true minimum gate time are systematically compared for a range of system dimension and number of controls; special attention is drawn to the relationship between these two variables. It is seen that the bound captures the scaling of the minimum time well for the systems studied, and quantitatively is correct in the order of magnitude.
- Nov 21 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1711.06852v1We consider how to quantify non-Gaussianity for the correlation of a bipartite quantum state by using various measures such as relative entropy and geometric distances. We first show that an intuitive approach, i.e., subtracting the correlation of a reference Gaussian state from that of a target non-Gaussian state, fails to yield a non-negative measure with monotonicity under local Gaussian channels. Our finding clearly manifests that quantum-state correlations generally have no Gaussian extremality. We therefore propose a different approach by introducing relevantly averaged states to address correlation. This enables us to define a non-Gaussianity measure based on, e.g., the trace-distance and the fidelity, fulfilling all requirements as a measure of non-Gaussian correlation. For the case of the fidelity-based measure, we also present readily computable lower bounds of non-Gaussian correlation.
- Sep 04 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1709.00279v1We explore the electromagnetic field coupled to a mechanical resonator via quadratic optomechanical interaction in the reversed dissipation regime where the mechanical damping rate is much larger than the cavity field dissipation rate. It is shown that in this regime, the cavity field effectively acquires an additional reservoir which is conditioned by the temperature of the mechanical bath as well as the mechanical damping rate. We analytically find the steady-state mean photon number and the critical temperature of the mechanical oscillator to cool or heat the coupled electromagnetic field. We also show that in the case of quadratic coupling, the temperature of the mechanical oscillator can be estimated in the quantum regime by observing the noise spectrum of the cavity field.
- Jul 05 2017 cond-mat.mes-hall quant-ph arXiv:1707.00976v1We report the efficient coherent photon scattering from a semiconductor quantum dot embedded in a pillar microcavity. We show that a surface acoustic wave can periodically modulate the energy levels of the quantum dot, but has a negligible effect on the cavity mode. The scattered narrow-band laser is converted to a pulsed single-photon stream, displaying an anti-bunching dip characteristic of single-photon emission. Multiple phonon sidebands are resolved in the emission spectrum, due to the absorption and emission of vibrational quanta in each scattering event.
- Jun 27 2017 physics.chem-ph quant-ph arXiv:1706.08376v1Laser-induced adiabatic alignment and mixed-field orientation of 2,6-difluoroiodobenzene (C6H3F2I) molecules are probed by Coulomb explosion imaging following either near-infrared strong-field ionization or extreme-ultraviolet multi-photon inner-shell ionization using free-electron laser pulses. The resulting photoelectrons and fragment ions are captured by a double-sided velocity map imaging spectrometer and projected onto two position-sensitive detectors. The ion side of the spectrometer is equipped with the Pixel Imaging Mass Spectrometry (PImMS) camera, a time-stamping pixelated detector that can record the hit positions and arrival times of up to four ions per pixel per acquisition cycle. Thus, the time-of-flight trace and ion momentum distributions for all fragments can be recorded simultaneously. We show that we can obtain a high degree of one- and three-dimensional alignment and mixed- field orientation, and compare the Coulomb explosion process induced at both wavelengths.
- Jun 13 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1706.03760v2We generalize the operational quasiprobability involving sequential measurements proposed by Ryu \em et al. [Phys. Rev. A \bf 88, 052123] to a continuous-variable system. The quasiprobabilities in quantum optics are incommensurate, i.e., they represent a given physical observation in different mathematical forms from their classical counterparts, making it difficult to operationally interpret their negative values. Our operational quasiprobability is \em commensurate, enabling one to compare quantum and classical statistics on the same footing. We show that the operational quasiprobability can be negative against the hypothesis of macrorealism for various states of light. Quadrature variables of light are our examples of continuous variables. We also compare our approach to the Glauber-Sudarshan $\mathcal{P}$ function. In addition, we suggest an experimental scheme to sequentially measure the quadrature variables of light.
- Jun 07 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1706.01561v2The primary question in the emerging field of quantum machine learning (QML) is: can we achieve quantum speed-up of machine learning? and/or what and how the quantum effects contribute to the speed-up? The positive answers to such questions have recently been provided, for example, by the quantum support vector machine (QSVM) which classifies many quantum data vectors exponentially fast. However, to realize such an exponential learning speed-up, it is demanded to develop full-scale quantum computer with a specific quantum device, so-called "quantum random access memory (QRAM)"---which stores the classical big data, extremely fast, in the novel form of being quantum-mechanically superposed. Therefore, another question now arises: is it possible to attain quantum learning speed-up even with the classical training data, and hence, requiring no full-scale quantum computer and QRAM? To seek a satisfactory answer to this question, we consider a binary classification learning where the classicality of the training data are preserved. We then focus on a small unit structure for whole classification task, in which the minimum achievable quantum learning speed-up would be exhibited. We provide the analysis and proof-of-principle experimental validation of a certain degree of quantum learning speed-up in such a small unit, advocating an affirmative answer to the aforementioned main question. Through further investigation, it is also shown that our QML scheme is quite robust against the decoherence.
- May 30 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1705.10056v1Quantum teleportation is one of the crucial protocols in quantum information processing. It is important to accomplish an efficient teleportation under practical conditions, aiming at a higher fidelity desirably using fewer resources. The continuous-variable (CV) version of quantum teleportation was first proposed using a Gaussian state as a quantum resource, while other attempts were also made to improve performance by applying non-Gaussian operations. We investigate the CV teleportation to find its ultimate fidelity under energy constraint identifying an optimal quantum state. For this purpose, we present a formalism to evaluate teleportation fidelity as an expectation value of an operator. Using this formalism, we prove that the optimal state must be a form of photon-number entangled states. We further show that Gaussian states are near-optimal while non-Gaussian states make a slight improvement and therefore are rigorously optimal, particularly in the low-energy regime.
- May 25 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1705.08887v2We demonstrate a synchronized readout (SR) technique for spectrally selective detection of oscillating magnetic fields with sub-millihertz resolution, using coherent manipulation of solid state spins. The SR technique is implemented in a sensitive magnetometer (~50 picotesla/Hz^(1/2)) based on nitrogen vacancy (NV) centers in diamond, and used to detect nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signals from liquid-state samples. We obtain NMR spectral resolution ~3 Hz, which is nearly two orders of magnitude narrower than previously demonstrated with NV based techniques, using a sample volume of ~1 picoliter. This is the first application of NV-detected NMR to sense Boltzmann-polarized nuclear spin magnetization, and the first to observe chemical shifts and J-couplings.
- May 16 2017 quant-ph physics.optics arXiv:1705.05120v2We investigate the use of twin-mode quantum states of light with symmetric statistical features in their photon number for improving intensity-sensitive surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensors. For this purpose, one of the modes is sent into a prism setup where the Kretschmann configuration is employed as a sensing platform and the analyte to be measured influences the SPR excitation conditions. This influence modifies the output state of light that is subsequently analyzed by an intensity-difference measurement scheme. We show that quantum noise reduction is achieved not only as a result of the sub-Poissonian statistical nature of a single mode, but also as a result of the non-classical correlation of the photon number between the two modes. When combined with the high sensitivity of the SPR sensor, we show that the use of twin-mode quantum states of light notably enhances the estimation precision of the refractive index of an analyte. With this we are able to identify a clear strategy to further boost the performance of SPR sensors, which are already a mature technology in biochemical and medical sensing applications.
- Mar 31 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1703.10403v1Quantum states superposed across multiple particles or degrees of freedom are of crucial importance for the development of quantum technologies. Creating these states deterministically and with high effciency is an ongoing challenge. A promising approach is the repeated excitation of multi-level quantum emitters, which have been shown to naturally generate light with quantum statistics. Here we describe how to create one class of higher dimensional quantum state, a so called W-state, which is superposed across multiple time bins. We do this by repeated Raman scattering of photons from a charged quantum dot in a pillar microcavity. We show this method can be scaled to larger dimensions with no reduction in coherence or single photon character. We explain how to extend this work to enable the deterministic creation of arbitrary time-bin encoded qudits.
- Mar 20 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1703.06068v3We propose a general framework of the quantum/quasi-classical transformations by introducing the concept of quasi-joint-spectral distribution (QJSD). Specifically, we show that the QJSDs uniquely yield various pairs of quantum/quasi-classical transformations, including the Wigner-Weyl transform. We also discuss the statistical behaviour of combinations of generally non-commutin quantum observables by introducing the concept of quantum correlations and conditional expectations defined analogously to the classical counterpart. Based on these, Aharonov's weak value is given a statistical interpretation as one realisation of the quantum conditional expectations furnished in our formalism.
- Feb 07 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1702.01387v1A standard method to obtain information on a quantum state is to measure marginal distributions along many different axes in phase space, which forms a basis of quantum state tomography. We theoretically propose and experimentally demonstrate a general framework to manifest nonclassicality by observing a single marginal distribution only, which provides a novel insight into nonclassicality and a practical applicability to various quantum systems. Our approach maps the 1-dim marginal distribution into a factorized 2-dim distribution by multiplying the measured distribution or the vacuum-state distribution along an orthogonal axis. The resulting fictitious Wigner function becomes unphysical only for a nonclassical state, thus the negativity of the corresponding density operator provides an evidence of nonclassicality. Furthermore, the negativity measured this way yields a lower bound for entanglement potential---a measure of entanglement generated using a nonclassical state with a beam splitter setting that is a prototypical model to produce continuous-variable (CV) entangled states. Our approach detects both Gaussian and non-Gaussian nonclassical states in a reliable and efficient manner. Remarkably, it works regardless of measurement axis for all non-Gaussian states in finite-dimensional Fock space of any size, also extending to infinite-dimensional states of experimental relevance for CV quantum informatics. We experimentally illustrate the power of our criterion for motional states of a trapped ion confirming their nonclassicality in a measurement-axis independent manner. We also address an extension of our approach combined with phase-shift operations, which leads to a stronger test of nonclassicality, i.e. detection of genuine non-Gaussianity under a CV measurement.
- Compact and electrically controllable on-chip sources of indistinguishable photons are desirable for the development of integrated quantum technologies. We demonstrate that two quantum dot light emitting diodes (LEDs) in close proximity on a single chip can function as a tunable, all-electric quantum light source. Light emitted by an electrically excited driving LED is used to excite quantum dots the neighbouring diode. The wavelength of the quantum dot emission from the neighbouring driven diode is tuned via the quantum confined Stark effect. We also show that we can electrically tune the fine structure splitting.
- Dec 20 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1612.06063v1Quantum teleportation (QT) is a fundamentally remarkable communication protocol that also finds many important applications for quantum informatics. Given a quantum entangled resource, it is crucial to know to what extent one can accomplish the QT. This is usually assessed in terms of output fidelity, which can also be regarded as an operational measure of entanglement. In the case of multipartite communication when each communicator possesses a part of $N$-partite entangled state, not all pairs of communicators can achieve a high fidelity due to monogamy property of quantum entanglement. We here investigate how such a monogamy relation arises in multipartite continuous-variable (CV) teleportation particularly using a Gaussian entangled state. We show a strict monogamy relation, i.e. a sender cannot achieve a fidelity higher than optimal cloning limit with more than one receiver. While this seems rather natural owing to the no-cloning theorem, a strict monogamy relation still holds even if the sender is allowed to individually manipulate the reduced state in collaboration with each receiver to improve fidelity. The local operations are further extended to non-Gaussian operations such as photon subtraction and addition, and we demonstrate that the Gaussian cloning bound cannot be beaten by more than one pair of communicators. Furthermore we investigate a quantitative form of monogamy relation in terms of teleportation capability, for which we show that a faithful monogamy inequality does not exist.
- Nov 17 2016 cond-mat.mes-hall cond-mat.mtrl-sci cond-mat.str-el cond-mat.supr-con quant-ph arXiv:1611.05127v3SrTiO3-based heterointerfaces support quasi-two-dimensional (2D) electron systems that are analogous to III-V semiconductor heterostructures, but also possess superconducting, magnetic, spintronic, ferroelectric and ferroelastic degrees of freedom. Despite these rich properties, the relatively low mobilities of 2D complex-oxide interfaces appear to preclude ballistic transport in 1D. Here we show that nearly ideal 1D electron waveguides exhibiting quantized ballistic transport of electrons and (non-superconducting) electron pairs can be formed at the interface between the two band insulators LaAlO3 and SrTiO3. These electron waveguides are created using a well-established conductive atomic-force microscope (c-AFM) lithography technique that enables nanoscale control of the metal-insulator transition at the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface. Quantized ballistic transport within conducting nanowires at low temperature ranges from truly single-mode (1D) to three-dimensional (3D), depending on the applied magnetic field and gate voltage. Quantization of the lowest e^2/h plateau indicate a ballistic mean-free path l_MF~20 um, roughly an order of magnitude larger than in III-V nanowires. Non-superconducting electron pairs are found to be stable in magnetic fields as high as B=11 T, and propagate ballistically with quantized conduction 2e^2/h. Theories of one-dimensional (1D) transport of interacting electron systems depend crucially on the sign of the electron-electron interaction, which may help explain the highly ballistic transport behavior. The 1D geometry yields new insights into the electronic structure of the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 system and offers a new platform for the study of strongly interacting 1D electronic systems.
- Sep 28 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1609.08457v1Efficient sources of individual pairs of entangled photons are required for quantum networks to operate using fibre optic infrastructure. Entangled light can be generated by quantum dots (QDs) with naturally small fine-structure-splitting (FSS) between exciton eigenstates. Moreover, QDs can be engineered to emit at standard telecom wavelengths. To achieve sufficient signal intensity for applications, QDs have been incorporated into 1D optical microcavities. However, combining these properties in a single device has so far proved elusive. Here, we introduce a growth strategy to realise QDs with small FSS in the conventional telecom band, and within an optical cavity. Our approach employs droplet-epitaxy of InAs quantum dots on (001) substrates. We show the scheme improves the symmetry of the dots by 72%. Furthermore, our technique is universal, and produces low FSS QDs by molecular beam epitaxy on GaAs emitting at ~900nm, and metal-organic vapour phase epitaxy on InP emitting at 1550 nm, with mean FSS 4x smaller than for Stranski-Krastanow QDs.
- Sep 14 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1609.03940v1We observe the nonlinearity of the Jaynes-Cummings (JC) ladder in the Autler-Townes spectroscopy of the hyperfine ground states for a Rydberg-dressed two-atom system. Here the role of the two-level system in the JC model is played by the presence or absence of a collective Rydberg excitation, and the bosonic mode manifests as the number $n$ of single atom spin flips, symmetrically distributed between the atoms. We measure the normal-mode splitting and $\sqrt{n}$ nonlinearity as a function of detuning and Rabi frequency, thereby experimentally establishing the isomorphism with the JC model.
- Jul 22 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1607.06406v1We show that the joint behaviour of an arbitrary pair of quantum observables can be described by quasi-probabilities, which are extensions of the standard probabilities used for describing the behaviour of a single observable. The physical situations that require these quasi-probabilities arise when one considers quantum measurement of an observable conditioned by some other variable, with the notable example being the weak measurement employed to obtain Aharonov's weak value. Specifically, we present a general prescription for the construction of quasi-joint-probability (QJP) distributions associated with a given pair of observables. These QJP distributions are introduced in two complementary approaches: one from a bottom-up, strictly operational construction realised by examining the mathematical framework of the conditioned measurement scheme, and the other from a top-down viewpoint realised by applying the results of spectral theorem for normal operators and its Fourier transforms. It is then revealed that, for a pair of simultaneously measurable observables, the QJP distribution reduces to their unique standard joint-probability distribution, whereas for a non-commuting pair there exists an inherent indefiniteness in the choice, admitting a multitude of candidates that may equally be used for describing their joint behaviour. In the course of our argument, we find that the QJP distributions furnish the space of operators with their characteristic geometric structures such that the orthogonal projections and inner products of observables can, respectively, be given statistical interpretations as `conditionings' and `correlations'. The weak value $A_{w}$ for an observable $A$ is then given a geometric/statistical interpretation as either the orthogonal projection of $A$ onto the subspace generated by another observable $B$, or equivalently, as the conditioning of $A$ given $B$.
- Jul 13 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1607.03169v3Symmetric ensembles of neutral atoms interacting via the Rydberg blockade are well-described by the Jaynes-Cummings Hamiltonian. We use this framework to study the problem of generating arbitrary superpositions of Dicke states of hyperfine qubits in such ensembles. The combination of the symmetric Rydberg blockade and microwaves that drive the qubits with a time-dependent phase is sufficient to make these ensembles completely controllable, in the sense that one can generate an arbitrary unitary transformation on the system. We apply this to the problem of state mapping. With currently feasible parameters, it is possible to generate arbitrary symmetric states of ~ 10 hypefine qubits with high fidelity in ~ 1 microsecond, assuming fast microwave phase switching times. To reduce the requirements on phase switching, we propose a "dressed ground control" scheme, in which the control task is simplified by restricting the system's dynamics to the dressed ground subspace.
- Jul 08 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1607.01849v2We demonstrate a coherent and dynamic beam splitter based on light storage in cold atoms. An input weak laser pulse is first stored in a cold atom ensemble via electromagnetically-induced transparency (EIT). A set of counter-propagating control fields, applied at a later time, retrieves the stored pulse into two output spatial modes. The high visibility interference between the two output pulses clearly demonstrates that the beam splitting process is coherent. Furthermore, by manipulating the control lasers, it is possible to dynamically control the storage time, the power splitting ratio, the relative phase, and the optical frequencies of the output pulses. The active beam splitter demonstrated in this work is expected to significantly reduce the resource requirement in photonic quantum information and in all-optical information processing as a single cold atom ensemble can functionally replace a variety of optical elements, including beam splitters, mirrors, phase shifters, and optical quantum memories.
- Jul 07 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1607.01576v2We suggest an optical method which tests a nonclassical feature with a coherent state input. The test is designed with a multiplexer of on/off detectors and post-selection, adopting sub-binomiality as a nonclassical feature, replacing Mandel's $Q$-factor. The sub-binomiality is shown negative even for coherent states when the post-selection is made. However, we show that it can be reproduced also by a classical model assuming a stochastic on/off detectors. In the sense, the sub-binomiality is unlikely to identify the genuine nonclassicality. On the other hand, we propose a coincident probability of first two branches of the multiplexer and show that the classical model fails to reproduce the quantum coincident probability. The failure of the classical model results from the classical description of light, i.e. the divisibility of intensity into parts no matter how small it is. Then our optical test identifies a nonclassical feature of coherent states against the classical divisibility of light, which we call irreducibility.
- We proposed and demonstrated a new approach for realizing spin orbit coupling with ultracold atoms. We use orbital levels in a double well potential as pseudospin states. Two-photon Raman transitions between left and right wells induce spin-orbit coupling. This scheme does not require near resonant light, features adjustable interactions by shaping the double well potential, and does not depend on special properties of the atoms. A pseudospinor Bose-Einstein condensate spontaneously acquires an antiferromagnetic pseudospin texture which breaks the lattice symmetry similar to a supersolid.
- Jun 08 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1606.02036v2Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) entanglement introduced in 1935 deals with two particles that are entangled in their positions and momenta. Here we report the first experimental demonstration of EPR position-momentum entanglement of narrowband photon pairs generated from cold atoms. By using two-photon quantum ghost imaging and ghost interference, we demonstrate explicitly that the narrowband photon pairs violate the separability criterion, confirming EPR entanglement. We further demonstrate continuous variable EPR steering for positions and momenta of the two photons. Our new source of EPR-entangled narrowband photons is expected to play an essential role in spatially-multiplexed quantum information processing, such as, storage of quantum correlated images, quantum interface involving hyper-entangled photons, etc.
- Jun 06 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1606.00962v1We establish the fundamental limit of communication capacity within Gaussian schemes under phase-insensitive Gaussian channels, which employ multimode Gaussian states for encoding and collective Gaussian operations and measurements for decoding. We prove that this Gaussian capacity is additive, i.e., its upper bound occurs with separable encoding and separable receivers so that a single-mode communication suffices to achieve the largest capacity under Gaussian schemes. This rigorously characterizes the gap between the ultimate Holevo capacity and the capacity within Gaussian communication, showing that Gaussian regime is not sufficient to achieve the Holevo bound particularly in the low-photon regime. Furthermore the Gaussian benchmark established here can be used to critically assess the performance of non-Gaussian protocols for optical communication. We move on to identify non-Gaussian schemes to beat the Gaussian capacity and show that a non-Gaussian receiver recently implemented by Becerra et al. [Nat. Photon. 7, 147 (2013)] can achieve this aim with an appropriately chosen encoding strategy.
- Photons do not interact directly with each other, but conditional control of one beam by another can be achieved with non-linear optical media at high field intensities. It is exceedingly difficult to reach such intensities at the single photon level but proposals have been made to obtain effective interactions by scattering photons from single transitions. We report here effective interactions between photons created using a quantum dot weakly coupled to a cavity. We show that a passive single-photon non-linearity can modify the counting statistics of a Poissonian beam, sorting the photons in number. This is used to create strong correlations between detection events and sort polarisation correlated photons from an uncorrelated stream using a single spin. These results pave the way for optical switches operated by single quanta of light.
- Apr 27 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1604.07517v2"Where do classical and quantum computers fit in?" or "what can and cannot they do?" have been long-standing questions. In particular, drawing a clear borderline between classical and quantum computations is obscure and still remains controversial. With this issue in mind, we attempt to find a qualitatively distinguishable feature of quantum computation (QC). The main approach for our study is to consider a powerful classical computing machine called "stochastic ensemble machine (SEnM)," which runs with an ensemble consisting of finite (even infinite, in principle) copies of a single probabilistic machine, e.g., a probabilistic Turing machine (PTM). Then, we assume and test the following hypothesis: there exists an SEnM imitating QC. The test is carried out by introducing an information-theoretic inequality---we call "readout inequality." This inequality is obeyed by the SEnM's QC imitation and also imposes a critical condition on QC: if the hypothesis holds, the inequality should be satisfied by QC with the SEnM imitating it. However, QC can violate the inequality, and the above hypothesis is generally not accepted. Noting that quantum Turing machine can cover an SEnM and thinking of SEnM $\supseteq$ PTM, it is clear that QC is characterized beyond any classical probabilistic computation.
- Development of exponentially scaling methods has seen great progress in tackling larger systems than previously thought possible. One such technique, full configuration interaction quantum Monte Carlo, is a useful algorithm that allows exact diagonalization through stochastically sampling determinants. The method derives its utility from the information in the matrix elements of the Hamiltonian, along with a stochastic projected wave function, to find the important parts of Hilbert space. However, the stochastic representation of the wave function is not required to search Hilbert space efficiently, and here we describe a highly efficient deterministic method to achieve chemical accuracy for a wide range of systems, including the difficult Cr$_{2}$ dimer. In addition our method also allows efficient calculation of excited state energies, for which we illustrate with benchmark results for the excited states of C$_{2}$.
- Mar 01 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1602.08872v1We clarify the significance of quasiprobability (QP) in quantum mechanics that is relevant in describing physical quantities associated with a transition process. Our basic quantity is Aharonov's weak value, from which the QP can be defined up to a certain ambiguity parameterized by a complex number. Unlike the conventional probability, the QP allows us to treat two noncommuting observables consistently, and this is utilized to embed the QP in Bohmian mechanics such that its equivalence to quantum mechanics becomes more transparent. We also show that, with the help of the QP, Bohmian mechanics can be recognized as an ontological model with a certain type of contextuality.
- Jan 05 2016 quant-ph physics.optics arXiv:1601.00173v2Photonic sensors have many applications in a range of physical settings, from measuring mechanical pressure in manufacturing to detecting protein concentration in biomedical samples. A variety of sensing approaches exist, and plasmonic systems in particular have received much attention due to their ability to confine light below the diffraction limit, greatly enhancing sensitivity. Recently, quantum techniques have been identified that can outperform classical sensing methods and achieve sensitivity below the so-called shot-noise limit. Despite this significant potential, the use of definite photon number states in lossy plasmonic systems for further improving sensing capabilities is not well studied. Here, we investigate the sensing performance of a plasmonic interferometer that simultaneously exploits the quantum nature of light and its electromagnetic field confinement. We show that, despite the presence of loss, specialised quantum resources can provide improved sensitivity and resolution beyond the shot-noise limit within a compact plasmonic device operating below the diffraction limit.
- Nov 26 2015 quant-ph arXiv:1511.08052v2We present a versatile inequality of uncertainty relations which are useful when one approximates an observable and/or estimates a physical parameter based on the measurement of another observable. It is shown that the optimal choice for proxy functions used for the approximation is given by Aharonov's weak value, which also determines the classical Fisher information in parameter estimation, turning our inequality into the genuine Cramér-Rao inequality. Since the standard form of the uncertainty relation arises as a special case of our inequality, and since the parameter estimation is available as well, our inequality can treat both the position-momentum and the time-energy relations in one framework albeit handled differently.
- Nov 10 2015 quant-ph arXiv:1511.02649v2Quantum steering---a strong correlation to be verified even when one party or its measuring device is fully untrusted---not only provides a profound insight into quantum physics but also offers a crucial basis for practical applications. For continuous-variable (CV) systems, Gaussian states among others have been extensively studied, however, mostly confined to Gaussian measurements. While the fulfillment of Gaussian criterion is sufficient to detect CV steering, whether it is also necessary for Gaussian states is a question of fundamental importance in many contexts. This critically questions the validity of characterizations established only under Gaussian measurements like the quantification of steering and the monogamy relations. Here, we introduce a formalism based on local uncertainty relations of non-Gaussian measurements, which is shown to manifest quantum steering of some Gaussian states that Gaussian criterion fails to detect. To this aim, we look into Gaussian states of practical relevance, i.e. two-mode squeezed states under a lossy and an amplifying Gaussian channel. Our finding significantly modifies the characteristics of Gaussian-state steering so far established such as monogamy relations and one-way steering under Gaussian measurements, thus opening a new direction for critical studies beyond Gaussian regime.
- Nov 10 2015 quant-ph arXiv:1511.02309v2For a system randomly prepared in a number of quantum states, we present a lower bound for the distinguishability of the quantum states, that is, the success probability of determining the states in the form of entropy. When the states are all pure, acquiring the entropic lower bound requires only the density operator and the number of the possible states. This entropic bound shows a relation between the von Neumann entropy and the distinguishability.
- Sep 10 2015 quant-ph arXiv:1509.02550v2We derive steerability criteria applicable for both finite and infinite dimensional quantum systems using covariance matrices of local observables. We show that these criteria are useful to detect a wide range of entangled states particularly in high dimensional systems and that the Gaussian steering criteria for general M x N-modes of continuous variables are obtained as a special case. Extending from the approach of entanglement detection via covariance matrices, our criteria are based on the local uncertainty principles incorporating the asymmetric nature of steering scenario. Specifically, we apply the formulation to the case of local orthogonal observables and obtain some useful criteria that can be straightforwardly computable, and testable in experiment, with no need for numerical optimization.
- Sep 01 2015 physics.chem-ph physics.atm-clus physics.comp-ph physics.optics quant-ph arXiv:1508.07396v1The exciton binding energy, the energy required to dissociate an excited electron-hole pair into free charge carriers, is one of the key factors to the optoelectronic performance of organic materials. However, it remains unclear whether modern quantum-mechanical calculations, mostly based on Kohn-Sham density functional theory (KS-DFT) and time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT), are reliably accurate for exciton binding energies. In this study, the exciton binding energies and related optoelectronic properties (e.g., the ionization potentials, electron affinities, fundamental gaps, and optical gaps) of 121 small- to medium-sized molecules are calculated using KS-DFT and TDDFT with various density functionals. Our KS-DFT and TDDFT results are compared with those calculated using highly accurate CCSD and EOM-CCSD methods, respectively. The omegaB97, omegaB97X, and omegaB97X-D functionals are shown to generally outperform (with a mean absolute error of 0.36 eV) other functionals for the properties investigated.
- Aug 25 2015 cond-mat.mes-hall quant-ph arXiv:1508.05749v1We report Ramsey interference in the excitonic population of a negatively charged quantum dot revealing the coherence of the state in the limit where radiative decay is dominant. Our experiments show that the decay time of the Ramsey interference is limited by the spectral width of the transition. Applying a vertical magnetic field induces Zeeman split transitions that can be addressed by changing the laser detuning to reveal 2, 3 and 4 level system behaviour. We show that under finite field the phase-sensitive control of two optical pulses from a single laser can be used to prepare both population and spin qubits simultaneously.
- Aug 21 2015 quant-ph arXiv:1508.04922v2In quantum game theory, one of the most intriguing and important questions is, "Is it possible to get quantum advantages without any modification of the classical game?" The answer to this question so far has largely been negative. So far, it has usually been thought that a change of the classical game setting appears to be unavoidable for getting the quantum advantages. However, we give an affirmative answer here, focusing on the decision-making process (we call 'reasoning') to generate the best strategy, which may occur internally, e.g., in the player's brain. To show this, we consider a classical guessing game. We then define a one-player reasoning problem in the context of the decision-making theory, where the machinery processes are designed to simulate classical and quantum reasoning. In such settings, we present a scenario where a rational player is able to make better use of his/her weak preferences due to quantum reasoning, without any altering or resetting of the classically defined game. We also argue in further analysis that the quantum reasoning may make the player fail, and even make the situation worse, due to any inappropriate preferences.
- Aug 19 2015 quant-ph cond-mat.mes-hall arXiv:1508.04191v1We demonstrate a robust experimental method for determining the depth of individual shallow Nitrogen-Vacancy (NV) centers in diamond with $\sim1$ nm uncertainty. We use a confocal microscope to observe single NV centers and detect the proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signal produced by objective immersion oil, which has well understood nuclear spin properties, on the diamond surface. We determine the NV center depth by analyzing the NV NMR data using a model that describes the interaction of a single NV center with the statistically-polarized proton spin bath. We repeat this procedure for a large number of individual, shallow NV centers and compare the resulting NV depths to the mean value expected from simulations of the ion implantation process used to create the NV centers, with reasonable agreement.
- Aug 10 2015 quant-ph cond-mat.other arXiv:1508.01637v1Resonant excitation of atoms and ions in macroscopic cavities has lead to exceptional control over quanta of light. Translating these advantages into the solid state with emitters in microcavities promises revolutionary quantum technologies in information processing and metrology. Key is resonant optical reading and writing from the emitter-cavity system. However, it has been widely expected that the reflection of a resonant laser from a micro-fabricated wavelength-sized cavity would dominate any quantum signal. Here we demonstrate coherent photon scattering from a quantum dot in a micro-pillar. The cavity is shown to enhance the fraction of light which is resonantly scattered towards unity, generating anti-bunched indistinguishable photons a factor of 16 beyond the time-bandwidth limit, even when the transition is near saturation. Finally, deterministic excitation is used to create 2-photon N00N states with which we make super-resolving phase measurements in a photonic circuit.
- Aug 06 2015 quant-ph arXiv:1508.00972v1Entanglement is known to be an essential resource for many quantum information processes. However, it is now known that some quantum features may be acheived with quantum discord, a generalized measure of quantum correlation. In this paper, we study how quantum discord, or more specifically, the measures of entropic discord and geometric discord are affected by the influence of amplitude damping decoherence. We also show that a protocol deploying weak measurement and quantum measurement reversal can effectively protect quantum discord from amplitude damping decoherence, enabling to distribute quantum correlation between two remote parties in a noisy environment.
- Jul 02 2015 physics.optics quant-ph arXiv:1507.00256v2Fundamental to integrated photonic quantum computing is an on-chip method for routing and modulating quantum light emission. We demonstrate a hybrid integration platform consisting of arbitrarily designed waveguide circuits and single photon sources. InAs quantum dots (QD) embedded in GaAs are bonded to an SiON waveguide chip such that the QD emission is coupled to the waveguide mode. The waveguides are SiON core embedded in a SiO2 cladding. A tuneable Mach Zehnder modulates the emission between two output ports and can act as a path-encoded qubit preparation device. The single photon nature of the emission was veri?ed by an on-chip Hanbury Brown and Twiss measurement.
- May 25 2015 quant-ph arXiv:1505.06000v3We study the sensitivity of phase estimation using a generic class of path-symmetric entangled states $|\varphi\rangle|0\rangle+|0\rangle|\varphi\rangle$, where an arbitrary state $|\varphi\rangle$ occupies one of two modes in quantum superposition. This class of states includes the previously considered states, i.e. $NOON$ states and entangled coherent states, as special cases. With its generalization, we identify the practical limit of phase estimation under energy constraint that is characterized by the photon statistics of the component state $|\varphi\rangle$. We first show that quantum Cramer-Rao bound (QCRB) can be lowered with super-Poissonianity of the state $|\varphi\rangle$. By introducing a component state of the form $|\varphi\rangle=\sqrt{q}|1\rangle+\sqrt{1-q}|N\rangle$, we particularly show that an arbitrarily small QCRB can be achieved even with a finite energy in an ideal situation. For practical measurement schemes, we consider a parity measurement and a full photon-counting method to obtain phase-sensitivity. Without photon loss, the latter scheme employing any path-symmetric states $|\varphi\rangle|0\rangle+|0\rangle|\varphi\rangle$ achieves the QCRB over the entire range $[0,2\pi]$ of unknown phase shift $\phi$ whereas the former does so in a certain confined range of $\phi$. We find that the case of $|\varphi\rangle=\sqrt{q}|1\rangle+\sqrt{1-q}|N\rangle$ provides the most robust resource against loss among the considered entangled states over the whole range of input energy. Finally we also propose experimental schemes to generate these path-symmetric entangled states.
- May 07 2015 quant-ph arXiv:1505.01470v2We theoretically propose and experimentally demonstrate a nonclassicality test of single-mode field in phase space, which has an analogy with the nonlocality test proposed by Banaszek and Wodkiewicz [Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 2009 (1999)]. Our approach to deriving the classical bound draws on the fact that the Wigner function of a coherent state is a product of two independent distributions as if the orthogonal quadratures (position and momentum) in phase space behave as local realistic variables. Our method detects every pure nonclassical Gaussian state, which can also be extended to mixed states. Furthermore, it sets a bound for all Gaussian states and their mixtures, thereby providing a criterion to detect a genuine quantum non-Gaussian state. Remarkably, our phase-space approach with invariance under Gaussian unitary operations leads to an optimized test for a given non-Gaussian state. We experimentally show how this enhanced method can manifest quantum non-Gaussianity of a state by simply choosing phase-space points appropriately, which is essentially equivalent to implementing a squeezing operation on a given state.
- Apr 17 2015 quant-ph arXiv:1504.04221v2A long-standing problem on the classical capacity of bosonic Gaussian channels has recently been resolved by proving the minimum output entropy conjecture. It is also known that the ultimate capacity quantified by the Holevo bound can be achieved asymptotically by using an infinite number of channels. However, it is less understood to what extent the communication capacity can be reached if one uses a finite number of channels, which is a topic of practical importance. In this paper, we study the capacity of Gaussian communication, i.e., employing Gaussian states and Gaussian measurements to encode and decode information under a single-channel use. We prove that the optimal capacity of single-channel Gaussian communication is achieved by one of two well-known protocols, i.e., coherent-state communication or squeezed-state communication, depending on the energy (number of photons) as well as the characteristics of the channel. Our result suggests that the coherent-state scheme known to achieve the ultimate information-theoretic capacity is not a practically optimal scheme for the case of using a finite number of channels. We find that overall the squeezed-state communication is optimal in a small-photon-number regime whereas the coherent-state communication performs better in a large-photon-number regime.
- We experimentally demonstrate optical trapping of 87Rb atoms using a two-color evanescent field around an optical nanofiber. In our trapping geometry, a blue-detuned traveling wave whose polarization is nearly parallel to the polarization of a red-detuned standing wave produces significant vector light shifts that lead to broadening of the absorption profile of a near-resonant beam at the trapping site. A model that includes scalar, vector, and tensor light shifts of the probe transition $5S_{1/2}$-$5P_{3/2}$ from the trapping beams, weighted by the temperature-dependent position of the atoms in the trap, qualitatively describes the observed asymmetric profile and explains differences with previous experiments that used Cs atoms. The model provides a consistent way to extract the number of atoms in the trap.
- Dec 03 2014 quant-ph arXiv:1412.0686v2We improve upon a recently introduced efficient quantum state reconstruction procedure targeted to states well-approximated by the multi-scale entanglement renormalization ansatz (MERA), e.g., ground states of critical models. We show how to numerically select a subset of experimentally accessible measurements which maximizes information extraction about renormalized particles, thus dramatically reducing the required number of physical measurements. We numerically estimate the number of measurements required to characterize the ground state of the critical 1D Ising (resp. XX) model and find that MERA tomography on 16-qubit (resp. 24-qubit) systems requires the same experimental effort than brute-force tomography on 8 qubits. We derive a bound computable from experimental data which certifies the distance between the experimental and reconstructed states.
- The negatively-charged nitrogen vacancy center (NV) in diamond has generated significant interest as a platform for quantum information processing and sensing in the solid state. For most applications, high quality optical cavities are required to enhance the NV zero-phonon line (ZPL) emission. An outstanding challenge in maximizing the degree of NV-cavity coupling is the deterministic placement of NVs within the cavity. Here, we report photonic crystal nanobeam cavities coupled to NVs incorporated by a delta-doping technique that allows nanometer-scale vertical positioning of the emitters. We demonstrate cavities with Q up to ~24,000 and mode volume V ~ $0.47({\lambda}/n)^{3}$ as well as resonant enhancement of the ZPL of an NV ensemble with Purcell factor of ~20. Our fabrication technique provides a first step towards deterministic NV-cavity coupling using spatial control of the emitters.
- We calculate quantum mechanical scattering problems for multi-indexed extensions of soliton potential by Darboux transformations in terms of pseudo virtual wavefunctions. As an application, we calculate infinite set of higher integer KdV solitons by the inverse scattering transform method of KdV equation.
- We propose a nanowaveguide platform for collective atom-light interaction through evanescent field coupling. We have developed a 1cm-long silicon nitride nanowaveguide can use evanescent fields to trap and probe an ensemble of 87Rb atoms. The waveguide has a sub-micrometer square mode area and was designed with tapers for high fiber-to-waveguide coupling efficiencies at near-infrared wavelengths (750nm to 1100nm). Inverse tapers in the platform adiabatically transfer a weakly guided mode of fiber-coupled light into a strongly guided mode with an evanescent field to trap atoms and then back to a weakly guided mode at the other end of the waveguide. The coupling loss is -1dB per facet (~80% coupling efficiency) at 760nm and 1064nm, which is estimated by a propagation loss measurement with waveguides of different lengths. The proposed platform has good thermal conductance and can guide high optical powers for trapping atoms in ultra-high vacuum. As an intermediate step, we have observed thermal atom absorption of the evanescent component of a nanowaveguide, and have demonstrated the U-wire mirror magneto-optical trap that can transfer atoms to the proximity of the surface.
- We propose a protection scheme of a superconducting microwave resonator to realize a hybrid quantum system, where cold neutral atoms are coupled with a single microwave photon through magnetic dipole interaction at an interface inductor. The evanescent field atom trap such as a waveguide/nanofiber atom trap, brings both surface-scattered photons and absorption-induced broadband blackbody radiation which result in quasiparticles and a low quality factor at the resonator. A proposed multiband protection layer consists of pairs of two dielectric layers and a thin nanogrid conductive dielectric layer above the interface inductor. We show numerical simulations of quality factors and reflection/absorption spectra, indicating that the proposed multilayer structure can protect a lumped-element microwave resonator from optical photons and blackbody radiation while maintaining a reasonably high quality factor.
- Aug 07 2014 quant-ph arXiv:1408.1153v1We study a continuous variable (CV) dense-coding protocol, originally proposed to employ a two-mode squeezed state, using a general two-mode Gaussian state as a quantum channel. We particularly obtain conditions to manifest quantum advantage by beating two well-known single-mode schemes, namely, the squeezed-state scheme (best Gaussian scheme) and the number-state scheme (optimal scheme achieving the Holevo bound). We then extend our study to a multipartite Gaussian state and investigate the monogamy of operational entanglement measured by the communication capacity under the dense-coding protocol. We show that this operational entanglement represents a strict monogamy relation, by means of Heisenberg's uncertainty principle among different parties, i.e., the quantum advantage for communication can be possible for only one pair of two-mode systems among many parties.
- We extend previous work on the perturbative expansion of the Renyi entropy, $S_q$, around $q=1$ for a spherical entangling surface in a general CFT. Applied to conformal scalar fields in various spacetime dimensions, the results appear to conflict with the known conformal scalar Renyi entropies. On the other hand, the perturbative results agree with known Renyi entropies in a variety of other theories, including theories of free fermions and vector fields and theories with Einstein gravity duals. We propose a resolution stemming from a careful consideration of boundary conditions near the entangling surface. This is equivalent to a proper treatment of total-derivative terms in the definition of the modular Hamiltonian. As a corollary, we are able to resolve an outstanding puzzle in the literature regarding the Renyi entropy of ${\cal N}=4$ super-Yang-Mills near $q=1$. A related puzzle regards the question of stationarity of the renormalized entanglement entropy (REE) across a circle for a (2+1)-dimensional massive scalar field. We point out that the boundary contributions to the modular Hamiltonian shed light on the previously-observed non-stationarity. Moreover, IR divergences appear in perturbation theory about the massless fixed point that inhibit our ability to reliably calculate the REE at small non-zero mass.
- Jun 10 2014 quant-ph arXiv:1406.2305v1The quantum-to-classical transition of a quantum state is a topic of great interest in fundamental and practical aspects. A coarse-graining in quantum measurement has recently been suggested as its possible account in addition to the usual decoherence model. We here investigate the reconstruction of a Gaussian state (single mode and two modes) by coarse-grained homodyne measurements. To this aim, we employ two methods, the direct reconstruction of the covariance matrix and the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE), respectively, and examine the reconstructed state under each scheme compared to the state interacting with a Gaussian (squeezed thermal) reservoir. We clearly demonstrate that the coarse-graining model, though applied equally to all quadrature amplitudes, is not compatible with the decoherence model by a thermal (phase-insensitive) reservoir. Furthermore, we compare the performance of the direct reconstruction and the MLE methods by investigating the fidelity and the nonclassicality of the reconstructed states and show that the MLE method can generally yield a more reliable reconstruction, particularly without information on a reference frame (phase of input state).
- Mar 19 2014 quant-ph arXiv:1403.4417v1It has been believed that statistical inequality such as Bell inequality should be modified once measurement independence (MI), the assumption that observers can freely choose measurement settings without changing the probability distribution of hidden variables, is relaxed. However, we show that there exists the possibility that Bell inequality is still valid even if MI is relaxed. MI is only a sufficient condition to derive Bell inequality when both determinism and setting independence, usually called as local realism, are satisfied. We thus propose a new condition necessary and sufficient for deriving Bell inequality, called as concealed measurement dependence.
- Mar 18 2014 quant-ph arXiv:1403.4004v1We propose and experimentally demonstrate an approximate universal-NOT (U-NOT) operation that is robust against operational errors. In our proposal, the U-NOT operation is composed of stochastic unitary operations represented by the vertices of regular polyhedrons. The operation is designed to be robust against random operational errors by increasing the number of unitary operations (i.e., reference axes). Remarkably, no increase in the total number of measurements nor additional resources are required to perform the U-NOT operation. Our method can be applied in general to reduce operational errors to an arbitrary degree of precision when approximating any anti-unitary operation in a stochastic manner.
- Entanglement entropy in even dimensional conformal field theories (CFTs) contains well-known universal terms arising from the conformal anomaly. Renyi entropies are natural generalizations of the entanglement entropy that are much less understood. Above two spacetime dimensions, the universal terms in the Renyi entropies are unknown for general entangling geometries. We conjecture a new structure in the dependence of the four-dimensional Renyi entropies on the intrinsic and extrinsic geometry of the entangling surface. We provide evidence for this conjecture by direct numerical computations in the free scalar and fermion field theories. The computation involves relating the four-dimensional free massless Renyi entropies across cylindrical entangling surfaces to corresponding three-dimensional massive Renyi entropies across circular entangling surfaces. Our numerical technique also allows us to directly probe other interesting aspects of three-dimensional Renyi entropy, including the massless renormalized Renyi entropy and calculable contributions to the perimeter law.
- We calculate infinite set of initial profiles of higher integer KdV solitons, which are both exactly solvable for the Schrodinger equation and for the Gel'fand-Levitan-Marchenko equation in the inverse scattering transform method of KdV equation. The calculation of these higher integer soliton solutions is based on the recently developed multi-indexed extensions of the reflectionless soliton potential.
- Quantum plasmonics is a rapidly growing field of research that involves the study of the quantum properties of light and its interaction with matter at the nanoscale. Here, surface plasmons - electromagnetic excitations coupled to electron charge density waves on metal-dielectric interfaces or localized on metallic nanostructures - enable the confinement of light to scales far below that of conventional optics. In this article we review recent progress in the experimental and theoretical investigation of the quantum properties of surface plasmons, their role in controlling light-matter interactions at the quantum level and potential applications. Quantum plasmonics opens up a new frontier in the study of the fundamental physics of surface plasmons and the realization of quantum-controlled devices, including single-photon sources, transistors and ultra-compact circuitry at the nanoscale.
- Dec 17 2013 quant-ph arXiv:1312.4286v1We show that the influence of the shared phonon bath considered in H. Hossein-Nejad and G. D. Scholes, New J. Phys. 12, 065045 (2010) on the exciton transfer in a two-molecule system can be reproduced by that of an independent bath model.
- Dec 13 2013 physics.optics quant-ph arXiv:1312.3446v1The integration of nanophotonics and atomic physics has been a long-sought goal that would open new frontiers for optical physics. Here, we report the development of the first integrated optical circuit with a photonic crystal capable of both localizing and interfacing atoms with guided photons in the device. By aligning the optical bands of a photonic crystal waveguide (PCW) with selected atomic transitions, our platform provides new opportunities for novel quantum transport and many-body phenomena by way of photon-mediated atomic interactions along the PCW. From reflection spectra measured with average atom number N = 1.1$\pm$0.4, we infer that atoms are localized within the PCW by Casimir-Polder and optical dipole forces. The fraction of single-atom radiative decay into the PCW is $\Gamma_{\rm 1D}/\Gamma'$ = 0.32$\pm$0.08, where $\Gamma_{1D}$ is the rate of emission into the guided mode and $\Gamma'$ is the decay rate into all other channels. $\Gamma_{\rm 1D}/\Gamma'$ is quoted without enhancement due to an external cavity and is unprecedented in all current atom-photon interfaces.
- We demonstrate a many-atom-cavity system with a high-finesse dual-wavelength standing wave cavity in which all participating rubidium atoms are nearly identically coupled to a 780-nm cavity mode. This homogeneous coupling is enforced by a one-dimensional optical lattice formed by the field of a 1560-nm cavity mode.
- New solvable one-dimensional quantum mechanical scattering problems are presented. They are obtained from known solvable potentials by multiple Darboux transformations in terms of virtual and pseudo virtual wavefunctions. The same method applied to confining potentials, e.g. Pöschl-Teller and the radial oscillator potentials, has generated the \em multi-indexed Jacobi and Laguerre polynomials. Simple multi-indexed formulas are derived for the transmission and reflection amplitudes of several solvable potentials.