In many environments only a tiny subset of all states yield high reward. In these cases, few of the interactions with the environment provide a relevant learning signal. Hence, we may want to preferentially train on those high-reward states and the probable trajectories leading to them. To this end, we advocate for the use of a backtracking model that predicts the preceding states that terminate at a given high-reward state. We can train a model which, starting from a high value state (or one that is estimated to have high value), predicts and sample for which the (state, action)-tuples may have led to that high value state. These traces of (state, action) pairs, which we refer to as Recall Traces, sampled from this backtracking model starting from a high value state, are informative as they terminate in good states, and hence we can use these traces to improve a policy. We provide a variational interpretation for this idea and a practical algorithm in which the backtracking model samples from an approximate posterior distribution over trajectories which lead to large rewards. Our method improves the sample efficiency of both on- and off-policy RL algorithms across several environments and tasks.
In few-shot classification, we are interested in learning algorithms that train a classifier from only a handful of labeled examples. Recent progress in few-shot classification has featured meta-learning, in which a parameterized model for a learning algorithm is defined and trained on episodes representing different classification problems, each with a small labeled training set and its corresponding test set. In this work, we advance this few-shot classification paradigm towards a scenario where unlabeled examples are also available within each episode. We consider two situations: one where all unlabeled examples are assumed to belong to the same set of classes as the labeled examples of the episode, as well as the more challenging situation where examples from other distractor classes are also provided. To address this paradigm, we propose novel extensions of Prototypical Networks (Snell et al., 2017) that are augmented with the ability to use unlabeled examples when producing prototypes. These models are trained in an end-to-end way on episodes, to learn to leverage the unlabeled examples successfully. We evaluate these methods on versions of the Omniglot and miniImageNet benchmarks, adapted to this new framework augmented with unlabeled examples. We also propose a new split of ImageNet, consisting of a large set of classes, with a hierarchical structure. Our experiments confirm that our Prototypical Networks can learn to improve their predictions due to unlabeled examples, much like a semi-supervised algorithm would.
We introduce HoME: a Household Multimodal Environment for artificial agents to learn from vision, audio, semantics, physics, and interaction with objects and other agents, all within a realistic context. HoME integrates over 45,000 diverse 3D house layouts based on the SUNCG dataset, a scale which may facilitate learning, generalization, and transfer. HoME is an open-source, OpenAI Gym-compatible platform extensible to tasks in reinforcement learning, language grounding, sound-based navigation, robotics, multi-agent learning, and more. We hope HoME better enables artificial agents to learn as humans do: in an interactive, multimodal, and richly contextualized setting.
It is commonly assumed that language refers to high-level visual concepts while leaving low-level visual processing unaffected. This view dominates the current literature in computational models for language-vision tasks, where visual and linguistic input are mostly processed independently before being fused into a single representation. In this paper, we deviate from this classic pipeline and propose to modulate the \emphentire visual processing by linguistic input. Specifically, we condition the batch normalization parameters of a pretrained residual network (ResNet) on a language embedding. This approach, which we call MOdulated RESnet (\MRN), significantly improves strong baselines on two visual question answering tasks. Our ablation study shows that modulating from the early stages of the visual processing is beneficial.
We propose a generalization of neural network sequence models. Instead of predicting one symbol at a time, our multi-scale model makes predictions over multiple, potentially overlapping multi-symbol tokens. A variation of the byte-pair encoding (BPE) compression algorithm is used to learn the dictionary of tokens that the model is trained with. When applied to language modelling, our model has the flexibility of character-level models while maintaining many of the performance benefits of word-level models. Our experiments show that this model performs better than a regular LSTM on language modeling tasks, especially for smaller models.
We introduce GuessWhat?!, a two-player guessing game as a testbed for research on the interplay of computer vision and dialogue systems. The goal of the game is to locate an unknown object in a rich image scene by asking a sequence of questions. Higher-level image understanding, like spatial reasoning and language grounding, is required to solve the proposed task. Our key contribution is the collection of a large-scale dataset consisting of 150K human-played games with a total of 800K visual question-answer pairs on 66K images. We explain our design decisions in collecting the dataset and introduce the oracle and questioner tasks that are associated with the two players of the game. We prototyped deep learning models to establish initial baselines of the introduced tasks.
Jul 19 2016 cs.CV
Segmentation of focal (localized) brain pathologies such as brain tumors and brain lesions caused by multiple sclerosis and ischemic strokes are necessary for medical diagnosis, surgical planning and disease development as well as other applications such as tractography. Over the years, attempts have been made to automate this process for both clinical and research reasons. In this regard, machine learning methods have long been a focus of attention. Over the past two years, the medical imaging field has seen a rise in the use of a particular branch of machine learning commonly known as deep learning. In the non-medical computer vision world, deep learning based methods have obtained state-of-the-art results on many datasets. Recent studies in computer aided diagnostics have shown deep learning methods (and especially convolutional neural networks - CNN) to yield promising results. In this chapter, we provide a survey of CNN methods applied to medical imaging with a focus on brain pathology segmentation. In particular, we discuss their characteristic peculiarities and their specific configuration and adjustments that are best suited to segment medical images. We also underline the intrinsic differences deep learning methods have with other machine learning methods.
Memory networks are neural networks with an explicit memory component that can be both read and written to by the network. The memory is often addressed in a soft way using a softmax function, making end-to-end training with backpropagation possible. However, this is not computationally scalable for applications which require the network to read from extremely large memories. On the other hand, it is well known that hard attention mechanisms based on reinforcement learning are challenging to train successfully. In this paper, we explore a form of hierarchical memory network, which can be considered as a hybrid between hard and soft attention memory networks. The memory is organized in a hierarchical structure such that reading from it is done with less computation than soft attention over a flat memory, while also being easier to train than hard attention over a flat memory. Specifically, we propose to incorporate Maximum Inner Product Search (MIPS) in the training and inference procedures for our hierarchical memory network. We explore the use of various state-of-the art approximate MIPS techniques and report results on SimpleQuestions, a challenging large scale factoid question answering task.
Audio Description (AD) provides linguistic descriptions of movies and allows visually impaired people to follow a movie along with their peers. Such descriptions are by design mainly visual and thus naturally form an interesting data source for computer vision and computational linguistics. In this work we propose a novel dataset which contains transcribed ADs, which are temporally aligned to full length movies. In addition we also collected and aligned movie scripts used in prior work and compare the two sources of descriptions. In total the Large Scale Movie Description Challenge (LSMDC) contains a parallel corpus of 118,114 sentences and video clips from 202 movies. First we characterize the dataset by benchmarking different approaches for generating video descriptions. Comparing ADs to scripts, we find that ADs are indeed more visual and describe precisely what is shown rather than what should happen according to the scripts created prior to movie production. Furthermore, we present and compare the results of several teams who participated in a challenge organized in the context of the workshop "Describing and Understanding Video & The Large Scale Movie Description Challenge (LSMDC)", at ICCV 2015.
May 10 2016 cs.LG
We present Neural Autoregressive Distribution Estimation (NADE) models, which are neural network architectures applied to the problem of unsupervised distribution and density estimation. They leverage the probability product rule and a weight sharing scheme inspired from restricted Boltzmann machines, to yield an estimator that is both tractable and has good generalization performance. We discuss how they achieve competitive performance in modeling both binary and real-valued observations. We also present how deep NADE models can be trained to be agnostic to the ordering of input dimensions used by the autoregressive product rule decomposition. Finally, we also show how to exploit the topological structure of pixels in images using a deep convolutional architecture for NADE.
Mar 29 2016 cs.CV
In many computer vision tasks, the relevant information to solve the problem at hand is mixed to irrelevant, distracting information. This has motivated researchers to design attentional models that can dynamically focus on parts of images or videos that are salient, e.g., by down-weighting irrelevant pixels. In this work, we propose a spatiotemporal attentional model that learns where to look in a video directly from human fixation data. We model visual attention with a mixture of Gaussians at each frame. This distribution is used to express the probability of saliency for each pixel. Time consistency in videos is modeled hierarchically by: 1) deep 3D convolutional features to represent spatial and short-term time relations and 2) a long short-term memory network on top that aggregates the clip-level representation of sequential clips and therefore expands the temporal domain from few frames to seconds. The parameters of the proposed model are optimized via maximum likelihood estimation using human fixations as training data, without knowledge of the action in each video. Our experiments on Hollywood2 show state-of-the-art performance on saliency prediction for video. We also show that our attentional model trained on Hollywood2 generalizes well to UCF101 and it can be leveraged to improve action classification accuracy on both datasets.
We present an approach based on feed-forward neural networks for learning the distribution of textual documents. This approach is inspired by the Neural Autoregressive Distribution Estimator(NADE) model, which has been shown to be a good estimator of the distribution of discrete-valued igh-dimensional vectors. In this paper, we present how NADE can successfully be adapted to the case of textual data, retaining from NADE the property that sampling or computing the probability of observations can be done exactly and efficiently. The approach can also be used to learn deep representations of documents that are competitive to those learned by the alternative topic modeling approaches. Finally, we describe how the approach can be combined with a regular neural network N-gram model and substantially improve its performance, by making its learned representation sensitive to the larger, document-specific context.
We present an autoencoder that leverages learned representations to better measure similarities in data space. By combining a variational autoencoder with a generative adversarial network we can use learned feature representations in the GAN discriminator as basis for the VAE reconstruction objective. Thereby, we replace element-wise errors with feature-wise errors to better capture the data distribution while offering invariance towards e.g. translation. We apply our method to images of faces and show that it outperforms VAEs with element-wise similarity measures in terms of visual fidelity. Moreover, we show that the method learns an embedding in which high-level abstract visual features (e.g. wearing glasses) can be modified using simple arithmetic.
We introduce the Dynamic Capacity Network (DCN), a neural network that can adaptively assign its capacity across different portions of the input data. This is achieved by combining modules of two types: low-capacity sub-networks and high-capacity sub-networks. The low-capacity sub-networks are applied across most of the input, but also provide a guide to select a few portions of the input on which to apply the high-capacity sub-networks. The selection is made using a novel gradient-based attention mechanism, that efficiently identifies input regions for which the DCN's output is most sensitive and to which we should devote more capacity. We focus our empirical evaluation on the Cluttered MNIST and SVHN image datasets. Our findings indicate that DCNs are able to drastically reduce the number of computations, compared to traditional convolutional neural networks, while maintaining similar or even better performance.
Purpose: In this paper, we investigate a framework for interactive brain tumor segmentation which, at its core, treats the problem of interactive brain tumor segmentation as a machine learning problem. Methods: This method has an advantage over typical machine learning methods for this task where generalization is made across brains. The problem with these methods is that they need to deal with intensity bias correction and other MRI-specific noise. In this paper, we avoid these issues by approaching the problem as one of within brain generalization. Specifically, we propose a semi-automatic method that segments a brain tumor by training and generalizing within that brain only, based on some minimum user interaction. Conclusion: We investigate how adding spatial feature coordinates (i.e. $i$, $j$, $k$) to the intensity features can significantly improve the performance of different classification methods such as SVM, kNN and random forests. This would only be possible within an interactive framework. We also investigate the use of a more appropriate kernel and the adaptation of hyper-parameters specifically for each brain. Results: As a result of these experiments, we obtain an interactive method whose results reported on the MICCAI-BRATS 2013 dataset are the second most accurate compared to published methods, while using significantly less memory and processing power than most state-of-the-art methods.
Efficient Maximum Inner Product Search (MIPS) is an important task that has a wide applicability in recommendation systems and classification with a large number of classes. Solutions based on locality-sensitive hashing (LSH) as well as tree-based solutions have been investigated in the recent literature, to perform approximate MIPS in sublinear time. In this paper, we compare these to another extremely simple approach for solving approximate MIPS, based on variants of the k-means clustering algorithm. Specifically, we propose to train a spherical k-means, after having reduced the MIPS problem to a Maximum Cosine Similarity Search (MCSS). Experiments on two standard recommendation system benchmarks as well as on large vocabulary word embeddings, show that this simple approach yields much higher speedups, for the same retrieval precision, than current state-of-the-art hashing-based and tree-based methods. This simple method also yields more robust retrievals when the query is corrupted by noise.
We introduce a new representation learning approach for domain adaptation, in which data at training and test time come from similar but different distributions. Our approach is directly inspired by the theory on domain adaptation suggesting that, for effective domain transfer to be achieved, predictions must be made based on features that cannot discriminate between the training (source) and test (target) domains. The approach implements this idea in the context of neural network architectures that are trained on labeled data from the source domain and unlabeled data from the target domain (no labeled target-domain data is necessary). As the training progresses, the approach promotes the emergence of features that are (i) discriminative for the main learning task on the source domain and (ii) indiscriminate with respect to the shift between the domains. We show that this adaptation behaviour can be achieved in almost any feed-forward model by augmenting it with few standard layers and a new gradient reversal layer. The resulting augmented architecture can be trained using standard backpropagation and stochastic gradient descent, and can thus be implemented with little effort using any of the deep learning packages. We demonstrate the success of our approach for two distinct classification problems (document sentiment analysis and image classification), where state-of-the-art domain adaptation performance on standard benchmarks is achieved. We also validate the approach for descriptor learning task in the context of person re-identification application.
In this paper, we present a fully automatic brain tumor segmentation method based on Deep Neural Networks (DNNs). The proposed networks are tailored to glioblastomas (both low and high grade) pictured in MR images. By their very nature, these tumors can appear anywhere in the brain and have almost any kind of shape, size, and contrast. These reasons motivate our exploration of a machine learning solution that exploits a flexible, high capacity DNN while being extremely efficient. Here, we give a description of different model choices that we've found to be necessary for obtaining competitive performance. We explore in particular different architectures based on Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN), i.e. DNNs specifically adapted to image data. We present a novel CNN architecture which differs from those traditionally used in computer vision. Our CNN exploits both local features as well as more global contextual features simultaneously. Also, different from most traditional uses of CNNs, our networks use a final layer that is a convolutional implementation of a fully connected layer which allows a 40 fold speed up. We also describe a 2-phase training procedure that allows us to tackle difficulties related to the imbalance of tumor labels. Finally, we explore a cascade architecture in which the output of a basic CNN is treated as an additional source of information for a subsequent CNN. Results reported on the 2013 BRATS test dataset reveal that our architecture improves over the currently published state-of-the-art while being over 30 times faster.
Common Representation Learning (CRL), wherein different descriptions (or views) of the data are embedded in a common subspace, is receiving a lot of attention recently. Two popular paradigms here are Canonical Correlation Analysis (CCA) based approaches and Autoencoder (AE) based approaches. CCA based approaches learn a joint representation by maximizing correlation of the views when projected to the common subspace. AE based methods learn a common representation by minimizing the error of reconstructing the two views. Each of these approaches has its own advantages and disadvantages. For example, while CCA based approaches outperform AE based approaches for the task of transfer learning, they are not as scalable as the latter. In this work we propose an AE based approach called Correlational Neural Network (CorrNet), that explicitly maximizes correlation among the views when projected to the common subspace. Through a series of experiments, we demonstrate that the proposed CorrNet is better than the above mentioned approaches with respect to its ability to learn correlated common representations. Further, we employ CorrNet for several cross language tasks and show that the representations learned using CorrNet perform better than the ones learned using other state of the art approaches.
In this work, we introduce a dataset of video annotated with high quality natural language phrases describing the visual content in a given segment of time. Our dataset is based on the Descriptive Video Service (DVS) that is now encoded on many digital media products such as DVDs. DVS is an audio narration describing the visual elements and actions in a movie for the visually impaired. It is temporally aligned with the movie and mixed with the original movie soundtrack. We describe an automatic DVS segmentation and alignment method for movies, that enables us to scale up the collection of a DVS-derived dataset with minimal human intervention. Using this method, we have collected the largest DVS-derived dataset for video description of which we are aware. Our dataset currently includes over 84.6 hours of paired video/sentences from 92 DVDs and is growing.
Recent progress in using recurrent neural networks (RNNs) for image description has motivated the exploration of their application for video description. However, while images are static, working with videos requires modeling their dynamic temporal structure and then properly integrating that information into a natural language description. In this context, we propose an approach that successfully takes into account both the local and global temporal structure of videos to produce descriptions. First, our approach incorporates a spatial temporal 3-D convolutional neural network (3-D CNN) representation of the short temporal dynamics. The 3-D CNN representation is trained on video action recognition tasks, so as to produce a representation that is tuned to human motion and behavior. Second we propose a temporal attention mechanism that allows to go beyond local temporal modeling and learns to automatically select the most relevant temporal segments given the text-generating RNN. Our approach exceeds the current state-of-art for both BLEU and METEOR metrics on the Youtube2Text dataset. We also present results on a new, larger and more challenging dataset of paired video and natural language descriptions.
There has been a lot of recent interest in designing neural network models to estimate a distribution from a set of examples. We introduce a simple modification for autoencoder neural networks that yields powerful generative models. Our method masks the autoencoder's parameters to respect autoregressive constraints: each input is reconstructed only from previous inputs in a given ordering. Constrained this way, the autoencoder outputs can be interpreted as a set of conditional probabilities, and their product, the full joint probability. We can also train a single network that can decompose the joint probability in multiple different orderings. Our simple framework can be applied to multiple architectures, including deep ones. Vectorized implementations, such as on GPUs, are simple and fast. Experiments demonstrate that this approach is competitive with state-of-the-art tractable distribution estimators. At test time, the method is significantly faster and scales better than other autoregressive estimators.
Feb 10 2015 cs.LG
We present a mathematical construction for the restricted Boltzmann machine (RBM) that doesn't require specifying the number of hidden units. In fact, the hidden layer size is adaptive and can grow during training. This is obtained by first extending the RBM to be sensitive to the ordering of its hidden units. Then, thanks to a carefully chosen definition of the energy function, we show that the limit of infinitely many hidden units is well defined. As with RBM, approximate maximum likelihood training can be performed, resulting in an algorithm that naturally and adaptively adds trained hidden units during learning. We empirically study the behaviour of this infinite RBM, showing that its performance is competitive to that of the RBM, while not requiring the tuning of a hidden layer size.
We introduce a new representation learning algorithm suited to the context of domain adaptation, in which data at training and test time come from similar but different distributions. Our algorithm is directly inspired by theory on domain adaptation suggesting that, for effective domain transfer to be achieved, predictions must be made based on a data representation that cannot discriminate between the training (source) and test (target) domains. We propose a training objective that implements this idea in the context of a neural network, whose hidden layer is trained to be predictive of the classification task, but uninformative as to the domain of the input. Our experiments on a sentiment analysis classification benchmark, where the target domain data available at training time is unlabeled, show that our neural network for domain adaption algorithm has better performance than either a standard neural network or an SVM, even if trained on input features extracted with the state-of-the-art marginalized stacked denoising autoencoders of Chen et al. (2012).
Topic modeling based on latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) has been a framework of choice to deal with multimodal data, such as in image annotation tasks. Another popular approach to model the multimodal data is through deep neural networks, such as the deep Boltzmann machine (DBM). Recently, a new type of topic model called the Document Neural Autoregressive Distribution Estimator (DocNADE) was proposed and demonstrated state-of-the-art performance for text document modeling. In this work, we show how to successfully apply and extend this model to multimodal data, such as simultaneous image classification and annotation. First, we propose SupDocNADE, a supervised extension of DocNADE, that increases the discriminative power of the learned hidden topic features and show how to employ it to learn a joint representation from image visual words, annotation words and class label information. We test our model on the LabelMe and UIUC-Sports data sets and show that it compares favorably to other topic models. Second, we propose a deep extension of our model and provide an efficient way of training the deep model. Experimental results show that our deep model outperforms its shallow version and reaches state-of-the-art performance on the Multimedia Information Retrieval (MIR) Flickr data set.
Cross-language learning allows us to use training data from one language to build models for a different language. Many approaches to bilingual learning require that we have word-level alignment of sentences from parallel corpora. In this work we explore the use of autoencoder-based methods for cross-language learning of vectorial word representations that are aligned between two languages, while not relying on word-level alignments. We show that by simply learning to reconstruct the bag-of-words representations of aligned sentences, within and between languages, we can in fact learn high-quality representations and do without word alignments. Since training autoencoders on word observations presents certain computational issues, we propose and compare different variations adapted to this setting. We also propose an explicit correlation maximizing regularizer that leads to significant improvement in the performance. We empirically investigate the success of our approach on the problem of cross-language test classification, where a classifier trained on a given language (e.g., English) must learn to generalize to a different language (e.g., German). These experiments demonstrate that our approaches are competitive with the state-of-the-art, achieving up to 10-14 percentage point improvements over the best reported results on this task.
One of the most tedious tasks in the application of machine learning is model selection, i.e. hyperparameter selection. Fortunately, recent progress has been made in the automation of this process, through the use of sequential model-based optimization (SMBO) methods. This can be used to optimize a cross-validation performance of a learning algorithm over the value of its hyperparameters. However, it is well known that ensembles of learned models almost consistently outperform a single model, even if properly selected. In this paper, we thus propose an extension of SMBO methods that automatically constructs such ensembles. This method builds on a recently proposed ensemble construction paradigm known as agnostic Bayesian learning. In experiments on 22 regression and 39 classification data sets, we confirm the success of this proposed approach, which is able to outperform model selection with SMBO.
Recent work on learning multilingual word representations usually relies on the use of word-level alignements (e.g. infered with the help of GIZA++) between translated sentences, in order to align the word embeddings in different languages. In this workshop paper, we investigate an autoencoder model for learning multilingual word representations that does without such word-level alignements. The autoencoder is trained to reconstruct the bag-of-word representation of given sentence from an encoded representation extracted from its translation. We evaluate our approach on a multilingual document classification task, where labeled data is available only for one language (e.g. English) while classification must be performed in a different language (e.g. French). In our experiments, we observe that our method compares favorably with a previously proposed method that exploits word-level alignments to learn word representations.
The Neural Autoregressive Distribution Estimator (NADE) and its real-valued version RNADE are competitive density models of multidimensional data across a variety of domains. These models use a fixed, arbitrary ordering of the data dimensions. One can easily condition on variables at the beginning of the ordering, and marginalize out variables at the end of the ordering, however other inference tasks require approximate inference. In this work we introduce an efficient procedure to simultaneously train a NADE model for each possible ordering of the variables, by sharing parameters across all these models. We can thus use the most convenient model for each inference task at hand, and ensembles of such models with different orderings are immediately available. Moreover, unlike the original NADE, our training procedure scales to deep models. Empirically, ensembles of Deep NADE models obtain state of the art density estimation performance.
We introduce RNADE, a new model for joint density estimation of real-valued vectors. Our model calculates the density of a datapoint as the product of one-dimensional conditionals modeled using mixture density networks with shared parameters. RNADE learns a distributed representation of the data, while having a tractable expression for the calculation of densities. A tractable likelihood allows direct comparison with other methods and training by standard gradient-based optimizers. We compare the performance of RNADE on several datasets of heterogeneous and perceptual data, finding it outperforms mixture models in all but one case.
Topic modeling based on latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) has been a framework of choice to perform scene recognition and annotation. Recently, a new type of topic model called the Document Neural Autoregressive Distribution Estimator (DocNADE) was proposed and demonstrated state-of-the-art performance for document modeling. In this work, we show how to successfully apply and extend this model to the context of visual scene modeling. Specifically, we propose SupDocNADE, a supervised extension of DocNADE, that increases the discriminative power of the hidden topic features by incorporating label information into the training objective of the model. We also describe how to leverage information about the spatial position of the visual words and how to embed additional image annotations, so as to simultaneously perform image classification and annotation. We test our model on the Scene15, LabelMe and UIUC-Sports datasets and show that it compares favorably to other topic models such as the supervised variant of LDA.
Machine learning algorithms frequently require careful tuning of model hyperparameters, regularization terms, and optimization parameters. Unfortunately, this tuning is often a "black art" that requires expert experience, unwritten rules of thumb, or sometimes brute-force search. Much more appealing is the idea of developing automatic approaches which can optimize the performance of a given learning algorithm to the task at hand. In this work, we consider the automatic tuning problem within the framework of Bayesian optimization, in which a learning algorithm's generalization performance is modeled as a sample from a Gaussian process (GP). The tractable posterior distribution induced by the GP leads to efficient use of the information gathered by previous experiments, enabling optimal choices about what parameters to try next. Here we show how the effects of the Gaussian process prior and the associated inference procedure can have a large impact on the success or failure of Bayesian optimization. We show that thoughtful choices can lead to results that exceed expert-level performance in tuning machine learning algorithms. We also describe new algorithms that take into account the variable cost (duration) of learning experiments and that can leverage the presence of multiple cores for parallel experimentation. We show that these proposed algorithms improve on previous automatic procedures and can reach or surpass human expert-level optimization on a diverse set of contemporary algorithms including latent Dirichlet allocation, structured SVMs and convolutional neural networks.
The restricted Boltzmann machine (RBM) is a flexible tool for modeling complex data, however there have been significant computational difficulties in using RBMs to model high-dimensional multinomial observations. In natural language processing applications, words are naturally modeled by K-ary discrete distributions, where K is determined by the vocabulary size and can easily be in the hundreds of thousands. The conventional approach to training RBMs on word observations is limited because it requires sampling the states of K-way softmax visible units during block Gibbs updates, an operation that takes time linear in K. In this work, we address this issue by employing a more general class of Markov chain Monte Carlo operators on the visible units, yielding updates with computational complexity independent of K. We demonstrate the success of our approach by training RBMs on hundreds of millions of word n-grams using larger vocabularies than previously feasible and using the learned features to improve performance on chunking and sentiment classification tasks, achieving state-of-the-art results on the latter.
Conditional Restricted Boltzmann Machines (CRBMs) are rich probabilistic models that have recently been applied to a wide range of problems, including collaborative filtering, classification, and modeling motion capture data. While much progress has been made in training non-conditional RBMs, these algorithms are not applicable to conditional models and there has been almost no work on training and generating predictions from conditional RBMs for structured output problems. We first argue that standard Contrastive Divergence-based learning may not be suitable for training CRBMs. We then identify two distinct types of structured output prediction problems and propose an improved learning algorithm for each. The first problem type is one where the output space has arbitrary structure but the set of likely output configurations is relatively small, such as in multi-label classification. The second problem is one where the output space is arbitrarily structured but where the output space variability is much greater, such as in image denoising or pixel labeling. We show that the new learning algorithms can work much better than Contrastive Divergence on both types of problems.
Sep 20 2011 cs.AI
We discuss an attentional model for simultaneous object tracking and recognition that is driven by gaze data. Motivated by theories of perception, the model consists of two interacting pathways: identity and control, intended to mirror the what and where pathways in neuroscience models. The identity pathway models object appearance and performs classification using deep (factored)-Restricted Boltzmann Machines. At each point in time the observations consist of foveated images, with decaying resolution toward the periphery of the gaze. The control pathway models the location, orientation, scale and speed of the attended object. The posterior distribution of these states is estimated with particle filtering. Deeper in the control pathway, we encounter an attentional mechanism that learns to select gazes so as to minimize tracking uncertainty. Unlike in our previous work, we introduce gaze selection strategies which operate in the presence of partial information and on a continuous action space. We show that a straightforward extension of the existing approach to the partial information setting results in poor performance, and we propose an alternative method based on modeling the reward surface as a Gaussian Process. This approach gives good performance in the presence of partial information and allows us to expand the action space from a small, discrete set of fixation points to a continuous domain.
We consider the problem of training probabilistic conditional random fields (CRFs) in the context of a task where performance is measured using a specific loss function. While maximum likelihood is the most common approach to training CRFs, it ignores the inherent structure of the task's loss function. We describe alternatives to maximum likelihood which take that loss into account. These include a novel adaptation of a loss upper bound from the structured SVMs literature to the CRF context, as well as a new loss-inspired KL divergence objective which relies on the probabilistic nature of CRFs. These loss-sensitive objectives are compared to maximum likelihood using ranking as a benchmark task. This comparison confirms the importance of incorporating loss information in the probabilistic training of CRFs, with the loss-inspired KL outperforming all other objectives.
We consider the problem of classification when inputs correspond to sets of vectors. This setting occurs in many problems such as the classification of pieces of mail containing several pages, of web sites with several sections or of images that have been pre-segmented into smaller regions. We propose generalizations of the restricted Boltzmann machine (RBM) that are appropriate in this context and explore how to incorporate different assumptions about the relationship between the input sets and the target class within the RBM. In experiments on standard multiple-instance learning datasets, we demonstrate the competitiveness of approaches based on RBMs and apply the proposed variants to the problem of incoming mail classification.
This paper describes two applications of conditional restricted Boltzmann machines (CRBMs) to the task of autotagging music. The first consists of training a CRBM to predict tags that a user would apply to a clip of a song based on tags already applied by other users. By learning the relationships between tags, this model is able to pre-process training data to significantly improve the performance of a support vector machine (SVM) autotagging. The second is the use of a discriminative RBM, a type of CRBM, to autotag music. By simultaneously exploiting the relationships among tags and between tags and audio-based features, this model is able to significantly outperform SVMs, logistic regression, and multi-layer perceptrons. In order to be applied to this problem, the discriminative RBM was generalized to the multi-label setting and four different learning algorithms for it were evaluated, the first such in-depth analysis of which we are aware.