results for au:Landreman_M in:physics

- Mar 28 2018 physics.plasm-ph arXiv:1803.09049v2Flux tube simulations of plasma turbulence in stellarators and tokamaks typically employ coordinates which are aligned with the magnetic field lines. Anisotropic turbulent fluctuations can be represented in such field-aligned coordinates very efficiently, but the resulting non-trivial boundary conditions involve all three spatial directions, and must be handled with care. The standard "twist-and-shift" formulation of the boundary conditions [Beer, Cowley, Hammett \textitPhys. Plasmas \textbf2, 2687 (1995)] was derived assuming axisymmetry and is widely used because it is efficient, as long as the global magnetic shear is not too small. A generalization of this formulation is presented, appropriate for studies of non-axisymmetric, stellarator-symmetric configurations, as well as for axisymmetric configurations with small global shear. The key idea is to replace the "twist" of the standard approach (which accounts only for global shear) with the integrated local shear. This generalization allows one significantly more freedom when choosing the extent of the simulation domain in each direction, without losing the natural efficiency of field-line-following coordinates. It also corrects errors associated with naive application of axisymmetric boundary conditions to non-axisymmetric configurations. Simulations of stellarator turbulence that employ the generalized boundary conditions require much less resolution than simulations that use the (incorrect, axisymmetric) boundary conditions. We also demonstrate the surprising result that (at least in some cases) an easily implemented but manifestly incorrect formulation of the boundary conditions does \it not change important predicted quantities, such as the turbulent heat flux.
- Mar 09 2018 physics.plasm-ph arXiv:1803.03187v1Tight tolerances have been a leading driver of cost in recent stellarator experiments, so improved definition and control of tolerances can have significant impact on progress in the field. Here we relate tolerances to the shape gradient representation that has been useful for shape optimization in industry, used for example to determine which regions of a car or aerofoil most affect drag, and we demonstrate how the shape gradient can be computed for physics properties of toroidal plasmas. The shape gradient gives the local differential contribution to some scalar figure of merit (shape functional) caused by normal displacement of the shape. In contrast to derivatives with respect to quantities parameterizing a shape (e.g. Fourier amplitudes), which have been used previously for optimizing plasma and coil shapes, the shape gradient gives spatially local information and so is more easily related to engineering constraints. We present a method to determine the shape gradient for any figure of merit using the parameter derivatives that are already routinely computed for stellarator optimization. Examples of shape gradients for plasma and electromagnetic coil shapes are given. We also derive and present examples of an analogous representation of the local sensitivity to magnetic field errors; this magnetic sensitivity can be rapidly computed from the shape gradient. The shape gradient and magnetic sensitivity can both be converted into local tolerances, which inform how accurately the coils should be built and positioned, where trim coils and structural supports for coils should be placed, and where magnetic material and current leads can best be located. Both sensitivity measures provide insight into shape optimization, enable systematic calculation of tolerances, and connect physics optimization to engineering criteria that are more easily specified in real space than in Fourier space.
- Jan 16 2018 physics.plasm-ph arXiv:1801.04317v1We present a method for stellarator coil design via gradient-based optimization of the coil-winding surface. The REGCOIL (Landreman 2017 Nucl. Fusion 57 046003) approach is used to obtain the coil shapes on the winding surface using a continuous current potential. We apply the adjoint method to calculate derivatives of the objective function, allowing for efficient computation of analytic gradients while eliminating the numerical noise of approximate derivatives. We are able to improve engineering properties of the coils by targeting the root-mean-squared current density in the objective function. We obtain winding surfaces for W7-X and HSX which simultaneously decrease the normal magnetic field on the plasma surface and increase the surface-averaged distance between the coils and the plasma in comparison with the actual winding surfaces. The coils computed on the optimized surfaces feature a smaller toroidal extent and curvature and increased inter-coil spacing. A technique for visualization of the sensitivity of figures of merit to normal surface displacement of the winding surface is presented, with potential applications for understanding engineering tolerances.
- Aug 15 2017 physics.plasm-ph arXiv:1708.04029v1First-principles simulations of tokamak turbulence have proven to be of great value in recent decades. We develop a pseudo-spectral velocity formulation of the turbulence equations that smoothly interpolates between the highly efficient but lower resolution 3D gyrofluid representation and the conventional but more expensive 5D gyrokinetic representation. Our formulation is a projection of the nonlinear gyrokinetic equation onto a Laguerre-Hermite velocity-space basis. We discuss issues related to collisions, closures, and entropy. While any collision operator can be used in the formulation, we highlight a model operator that has a particularly sparse Laguerre-Hermite representation, while satisfying conservation laws and the H theorem. Free streaming, magnetic drifts, and nonlinear phase mixing each give rise to closure problems, which we discuss in relation to the instabilities of interest and to free energy conservation. We show that the model is capable of reproducing gyrokinetic results for linear instabilities and zonal flow dynamics. Thus the final model is appropriate for the study of instabilities, turbulence, and transport in a wide range of geometries, including tokamaks and stellarators.
- Mar 20 2017 physics.plasm-ph arXiv:1703.06129v2Neoclassical transport in the presence of non-axisymmetric magnetic fields causes a toroidal torque known as neoclassical toroidal viscosity (NTV). The toroidal symmetry of ITER will be broken by the finite number of toroidal field coils and by test blanket modules (TBMs). The addition of ferritic inserts (FIs) will decrease the magnitude of the toroidal field ripple. 3D magnetic equilibria with toroidal field ripple and ferromagnetic structures are calculated for an ITER steady-state scenario using the Variational Moments Equilibrium Code (VMEC). Neoclassical transport quantities in the presence of these error fields are calculated using the Stellarator Fokker-Planck Iterative Neoclassical Conservative Solver (SFINCS). These calculations fully account for $E_r$, flux surface shaping, multiple species, magnitude of ripple, and collisionality rather than applying approximate analytic NTV formulae. As NTV is a complicated nonlinear function of $E_r$, we study its behavior over a plausible range of $E_r$. We estimate the toroidal flow, and hence $E_r$, using a semi-analytic turbulent intrinsic rotation model and NUBEAM calculations of neutral beam torque. The NTV from the $\rvert n \rvert = 18$ ripple dominates that from lower $n$ perturbations of the TBMs. With the inclusion of FIs, the magnitude of NTV torque is reduced by about 75% near the edge. We present comparisons of several models of tangential magnetic drifts, finding appreciable differences only for superbanana-plateau transport at small $E_r$. We find the scaling of calculated NTV torque with ripple magnitude to indicate that ripple-trapping may be a significant mechanism for NTV in ITER. The computed NTV torque without ferritic components is comparable in magnitude to the NBI and intrinsic turbulent torques and will likely damp rotation, but the NTV torque is significantly reduced by the planned ferritic inserts.
- Mar 10 2017 physics.plasm-ph arXiv:1703.03375v2Breaking the up-down symmetry of the tokamak poloidal cross-section can significantly increase the spontaneous rotation due to turbulent momentum transport. In this work, we optimize the shape of flux surfaces with both tilted elongation and tilted triangularity in order to maximize this drive of intrinsic rotation. Nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations demonstrate that adding optimally-tilted triangularity can double the momentum transport of a tilted elliptical shape. This work indicates that tilting the elongation and triangularity in an ITER-like device can reduce the energy transport and drive intrinsic rotation with an Alfvén Mach number on the order of $1\%$. This rotation is four times larger than the rotation expected in ITER and is sufficient to stabilize MHD instabilities. It is shown that this optimal shape can be created using the shaping coils of several experiments.
- Oct 12 2016 physics.plasm-ph arXiv:1610.03249v1Mitigation of runaway electrons is one of the outstanding issues for the reliable operation of ITER and other large tokamaks, and accurate estimates for the expected runaway-electron energies and current are needed. Previously, linearized tools (which assume the runaway population to be small) have been used to study the runaway dynamics, but these tools are not valid in the cases of most interest, i.e. when the runaway population becomes substantial. We study runaway-electron formation in a post-disruption ITER plasma using the newly developed non-linear code NORSE, and describe a feedback mechanism by which a transition to electron slide-away can be induced at field strengths significantly lower than previously expected. If the electric field is actively imposed using the control system, the entire electron population is quickly converted to runaways in the scenario considered. We find the time until the feedback mechanism sets in to be highly dependent on the details of the mechanisms removing heat from the thermal electron population.
- Sep 15 2016 physics.plasm-ph arXiv:1609.04378v2Several fast methods for computing stellarator coil shapes are compared, including the classical NESCOIL procedure [Merkel, Nucl. Fusion 27, 867 (1987)], its generalization using truncated singular value decomposition, and a Tikhonov regularization approach we call REGCOIL in which the squared current density is included in the objective function. Considering W7-X and NCSX geometries, and for any desired level of regularization, we find the REGCOIL approach simultaneously achieves lower surface-averaged and maximum values of both current density (on the coil winding surface) and normal magnetic field (on the desired plasma surface). This approach therefore can simultaneously improve the free-boundary reconstruction of the target plasma shape while substantially increasing the minimum distances between coils, preventing collisions between coils while improving access for ports and maintenance. The REGCOIL method also allows finer control over the level of regularization, it preserves convexity to ensure the local optimum found is the global optimum, and it eliminates two pathologies of NESCOIL: the resulting coil shapes become independent of the arbitrary choice of angles used to parameterize the coil surface, and the resulting coil shapes converge rather than diverge as Fourier resolution is increased. We therefore contend that REGCOIL should be used instead of NESCOIL for applications in which a fast and robust method for coil calculation is needed, such as when targeting coil complexity in fixed-boundary plasma optimization, or for scoping new stellarator geometries.
- Aug 10 2016 physics.plasm-ph arXiv:1608.02742v2Energetic electrons are of interest in many types of plasmas, however previous modeling of their properties has been restricted to the use of linear Fokker-Planck collision operators or non-relativistic formulations. Here, we describe a fully non-linear kinetic-equation solver, capable of handling large electric-field strengths (compared to the Dreicer field) and relativistic temperatures. This tool allows modeling of the momentum-space dynamics of the electrons in cases where strong departures from Maxwellian distributions may arise. As an example, we consider electron runaway in magnetic-confinement fusion plasmas and describe a transition to electron slide-away at field strengths significantly lower than previously predicted.
- Apr 21 2016 physics.plasm-ph arXiv:1604.05914v2We review in a tutorial fashion some of the causes of impurity density variations along field lines and radial impurity transport in the moment approach framework. An explicit and compact form of the parallel inertia force valid for arbitrary toroidal geometry and magnetic coordinates is derived and shown to be non-negligible for typical TJ-II plasma conditions. In the second part of the article, we apply the fluid model including main ion-impurity friction and inertia to observations of asymmetric emissivity patterns in neutral beam heated plasmas of the TJ-II stellarator. The model is able to explain qualitatively several features of the radiation asymmetry, both in stationary and transient conditions, based on the calculated in-surface variations of the impurity density.
- Mar 11 2016 physics.plasm-ph arXiv:1603.03279v1The velocity-space distribution of alpha particles born in fusion devices is subject to modification at moderate energies due to turbulent transport. Therefore, one must calculate the evolution of an equilibrium distribution whose functional form is not known \empha priori. Using a novel technique, applicable to any trace impurity, we have made this calculation not only possible, but particularly efficient. We demonstrate a microturbulence-induced departure from the local slowing-down distribution, an inversion of the energy distribution, and associated modifications to the alpha heating and pressure profiles in an ITER-like scenario.
- Mar 03 2016 physics.plasm-ph arXiv:1603.00688v3We present a numerical study of collisional transport in a tokamak pedestal in the presence of non-trace impurities, using the radially global $\delta f$ neoclassical solver PERFECT [M. Landreman et al. 2014 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 56 045005]. It is known that in a tokamak core with non-trace impurities present the radial impurity flux opposes the bulk ion flux to provide an ambipolar particle transport, with the electron transport being negligibly small. However, in a sharp density pedestal with sub-sonic ion flows the electron transport can be comparable to the ion and impurity flows. Furthermore, the neoclassical particle transport is not intrinsically ambipolar, and the non-ambipolarity of the fluxes extends outside the pedestal region by the radial coupling of the perturbations. The neoclassical momentum transport, which is finite in the presence of ion orbit-width scale profile variations, is significantly enhanced when impurities are present in non-trace quantities, even if the total parallel mass flow is dominated by the bulk ions.
- Jan 22 2016 physics.plasm-ph arXiv:1601.05741v2The magnetic field that supports tokamak and stellarator plasmas must be produced by coils well separated from the plasma. However the larger the separation, the more difficult it is to produce a given magnetic field in the plasma region, so plasma configurations should be chosen that can be supported as efficiently as possible by distant coils. The efficiency of an externally-generated magnetic field is a measure of the field's shaping component magnitude at the plasma compared to the magnitude near the coils; the efficiency of a plasma equilibrium can be measured using the efficiency of the required external shaping field. Counterintuitively, plasma shapes with low curvature and spectral width may have low efficiency, whereas plasma shapes with sharp edges may have high efficiency. Two precise measures of magnetic field efficiency, which correctly identify such differences in difficulty, will be examined. These measures, which can be expressed as matrices, relate the externally-produced normal magnetic field on the plasma surface to the either the normal field or current on a distant control surface. A singular value decomposition (SVD) of either matrix yields an efficiency ordered basis for the magnetic field distributions. Calculations are carried out for both tokamak and stellarator cases. For axisymmetric surfaces with circular cross-section, the SVD is calculated analytically, and the range of poloidal and toroidal mode numbers that can be controlled to a given desired level is determined. If formulated properly, these efficiency measures are independent of the coordinates used to parameterize the surfaces.
- Jan 06 2016 physics.plasm-ph arXiv:1601.00898v3Improved understanding of runaway-electron formation and decay processes are of prime interest for the safe operation of large tokamaks, and the dynamics of the runaway electrons during dynamical scenarios such as disruptions are of particular concern. In this paper, we present kinetic modelling of scenarios with time-dependent plasma parameters; in particular, we investigate hot-tail runaway generation during a rapid drop in plasma temperature. With the goal of studying runaway-electron generation with a self-consistent electric-field evolution, we also discuss the implementation of a collision operator that conserves momentum and energy and demonstrate its properties. An operator for avalanche runaway-electron generation, which takes the energy dependence of the scattering cross section and the runaway distribution into account, is investigated. We show that the simplified avalanche model of Rosenbluth & Putvinskii [Nucl. Fusion 1997 37 1355] can give inaccurate results for the avalanche growth rate (either lower or higher) for many parameters, especially when the average runaway energy is modest, such as during the initial phase of the avalanche multiplication. The developments presented pave the way for improved modelling of runaway-electron dynamics during disruptions or other dynamic events.
- Apr 21 2015 physics.plasm-ph arXiv:1504.04810v2Impurities cause radiation losses and plasma dilution, and in stellarator plasmas the neoclassical ambipolar radial electric field is often unfavorable for avoiding strong impurity peaking. In this work we use a new continuum drift-kinetic solver, the SFINCS code (the Stellarator Fokker-Planck Iterative Neoclassical Conservative Solver) [M. Landreman et al., Phys. Plasmas 21 (2014) 042503] which employs the full linearized Fokker-Planck-Landau operator, to calculate neoclassical impurity transport coefficients for a Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) magnetic configuration. We compare SFINCS calculations with theoretical asymptotes in the high collisionality limit. We observe and explain a 1/nu-scaling of the inter-species radial transport coefficient at low collisionality, arising due to the field term in the inter-species collision operator, and which is not found with simplified collision models even when momentum correction is applied. However, this type of scaling disappears if a radial electric field is present. We also use SFINCS to analyze how the impurity content affects the neoclassical impurity dynamics and the bootstrap current. We show that a change in plasma effective charge Zeff of order unity can affect the bootstrap current enough to cause a deviation in the divertor strike point locations.
- Jan 14 2015 physics.plasm-ph arXiv:1501.02980v1In this work we numerically demonstrate both significant transient (i.e. non-modal) linear amplification and sustained nonlinear turbulence in a kinetic plasma system with no unstable eigenmodes. The particular system considered is an electrostatic plasma slab with magnetic shear, kinetic electrons and ions, weak collisions, and a density gradient, but with no temperature gradient. In contrast to hydrodynamic examples of non-modal growth and subcritical turbulence, here there is no sheared flow in the equilibrium. Significant transient linear amplification is found when the magnetic shear and collisionality are weak. It is also demonstrated that nonlinear turbulence can be sustained if initialized at sufficient amplitude. We prove these two phenomena are related: when sustained turbulence occurs without unstable eigenmodes, states that are typical of the turbulence must yield transient linear amplification of the gyrokinetic free energy.
- Nov 10 2014 physics.plasm-ph arXiv:1411.1807v2We demonstrate that the universal mode driven by the density gradient in a plasma slab can be absolutely unstable even in the presence of reasonable magnetic shear. Previous studies from the 1970s that reached the opposite conclusion used an eigenmode equation limited to $L_x \gg \rho_i$, where $L_x$ is the scale length of the mode in the radial direction, and $\rho_i$ is the ion Larmor radius. Here we instead use a gyrokinetic approach which does not have this same limitation. Instability is found for perpendicular wavenumbers $k_y$ in the range $0.7 \lesssim k_y \rho_i \lesssim 100$, and for sufficiently weak magnetic shear: $L_s / L_n \ge 17$, where $L_s$ and $L_n$ are the scale lengths of magnetic shear and density. Thus, the plasma drift wave in a sheared magnetic field may be unstable even with no temperature gradients, no trapped particles, and no magnetic curvature.
- Oct 22 2014 physics.plasm-ph arXiv:1410.5618v2A stellarator is said to be omnigeneous if all particles have vanishing average radial drifts. In omnigeneous stellarators, particles are perfectly confined in the absence of turbulence and collisions, whereas in non-omnigeneous configurations, particle can drift large radial distances. One of the consequences of omnigeneity is that the unfavorable inverse scaling with collisionality of the stellarator neoclassical fluxes disappears. In the pioneering and influential article [Cary~J~R and Shasharina~S~G 1997 \it Phys. Plasmas \bf 4 3323], the conditions that the magnetic field of a stellarator must satisfy to be omnigeneous are derived. However, reference [Cary~J~R and Shasharina~S~G 1997 \it Phys. Plasmas \bf 4 3323] only considered omnigeneous stellarators in which all the minima of the magnetic field strength on a flux surface must have the same value. The same is assumed for the maxima. We show that omnigenenous magnetic fields can have local minima and maxima with different values. Thus, the parameter space in which omnigeneous stellarators are possible is larger than previously expected. The analysis presented in this article is only valid for orbits with vanishing radial width, and in principle it is not applicable to energetic particles. However, one would expect that improving neoclassical confinement would improve energetic particle confinement.
- Dec 23 2013 physics.plasm-ph physics.comp-ph arXiv:1312.6058v3In this work, we examine the validity of several common simplifying assumptions used in numerical neoclassical calculations for nonaxisymmetric plasmas, both by using a new continuum drift-kinetic code and by considering analytic properties of the kinetic equation. First, neoclassical phenomena are computed for the LHD and W7-X stellarators using several versions of the drift-kinetic equation, including the commonly used incompressible-ExB-drift approximation and two other variants, corresponding to different effective particle trajectories. It is found that for electric fields below roughly one third of the resonant value, the different formulations give nearly identical results, demonstrating the incompressible ExB-drift approximation is quite accurate in this regime. However, near the electric field resonance, the models yield substantially different results. We also compare results for various collision operators, including the full linearized Fokker-Planck operator. At low collisionality, the radial transport driven by radial gradients is nearly identical for the different operators, while in other cases it is found to be important that collisions conserve momentum.
- Dec 10 2013 physics.plasm-ph arXiv:1312.2148v2Conventional radially-local neoclassical calculations become inadequate if the radial gradient scale lengths of the H-mode pedestal become as small as the poloidal ion gyroradius. Here, we describe a radially global $\delta f$ continuum code that generalizes neoclassical calculations to allow stronger gradients. As with conventional neoclassical calculations, the formulation is time-independent and requires only the solution of a single sparse linear system. We demonstrate precise agreement with an asymptotic analytic solution of the radially global kinetic equation in the appropriate limits of aspect ratio and collisionality. This agreement depends crucially on accurate treatment of finite orbit width effects.
- Sep 17 2013 physics.plasm-ph arXiv:1309.4059v2Poloidal asymmetries in the impurity density can be generated by radio frequency heating in the core and by neoclassical effects in the edge of tokamak plasmas. In a pedestal case study, using global neoclassical simulations we find that finite orbit width effects can generate significant poloidal variation in the electrostatic potential, which varies on a small radial scale. Gyrokinetic modeling shows that these poloidal asymmetries can be strong enough to significantly modify turbulent impurity peaking. In the pedestal the ExB drift in the radial electric field can give a larger contribution to the poloidal motion of impurities than that of their parallel streaming. Under such circumstances we find that up-down asymmetries can also affect impurity peaking.
- Aug 12 2013 physics.plasm-ph arXiv:1308.2099v2The synchrotron radiation emitted by runaway electrons in a fusion plasma provides information regarding the particle momenta and pitch-angles of the runaway electron population through the strong dependence of the synchrotron spectrum on these parameters. Information about the runaway density and its spatial distribution, as well as the time evolution of the above quantities, can also be deduced. In this paper we present the synchrotron radiation spectra for typical avalanching runaway electron distributions. Spectra obtained for a distribution of electrons are compared to the emission of mono-energetic electrons with a prescribed pitch-angle. We also examine the effects of magnetic field curvature and analyse the sensitivity of the resulting spectrum to perturbations to the runaway distribution. The implications for the deduced runaway electron parameters are discussed. We compare our calculations to experimental data from DIII-D and estimate the maximum observed runaway energy.
- Jul 25 2013 physics.plasm-ph arXiv:1307.6579v1Fully-ionised carbon impurity flow is studied in ion-root, neutral beam heated plasmas by means of Charge Exchange Recombination Spectroscopy (CXRS) in the TJ-II stellarator. Perpendicular flows are found to be in reasonable agreement with neoclassical calculations of the radial electric field. The parallel flow of the impurity is obtained at two locations of the same flux surface after subtraction of the calculated Pfirsch-Schlüter parallel velocity. For the medium density plasmas studied, $\bar{n}_{\rm e}\in(1.2-2.4)\times 10^{19}$ m$^{-3}$, the measured impurity flow is found to be inconsistent with a total incompressible flow, i.e. $\nabla\cdot{\bf u}_z\ne0$, thus contradicting the usual assumption of a constant density on each flux surface. The experimentally observed velocity deviations are compared with the parallel return flow calculated from a modelled impurity density redistribution driven by ion-impurity friction. Although the calculated return flow substantially modifies the incompressible velocity pattern, the modifications do not explain the in-surface variations of impurity parallel mass flow at the precise locations of the CXRS measurements. Small inhomogeneities of the electrostatic potential in a surface are also shown to affect the impurity redistribution but do not provide a better understanding of the measurements.
- May 16 2013 physics.plasm-ph physics.comp-ph arXiv:1305.3518v2Synchrotron emission from runaway electrons may be used to diagnose plasma conditions during a tokamak disruption, but solving this inverse problem requires rapid simulation of the electron distribution function and associated synchrotron emission as a function of plasma parameters. Here we detail a framework for this forward calculation, beginning with an efficient numerical method for solving the Fokker-Planck equation in the presence of an electric field of arbitrary strength. The approach is continuum (Eulerian), and we employ a relativistic collision operator, valid for arbitrary energies. Both primary and secondary runaway electron generation are included. For cases in which primary generation dominates, a time-independent formulation of the problem is described, requiring only the solution of a single sparse linear system. In the limit of dominant secondary generation, we present the first numerical verification of an analytic model for the distribution function. The numerical electron distribution function in the presence of both primary and secondary generation is then used for calculating the synchrotron emission spectrum of the runaways. It is found that the average synchrotron spectra emitted from realistic distribution functions are not well approximated by the emission of a single electron at the maximum energy.
- Oct 22 2012 physics.plasm-ph physics.comp-ph arXiv:1210.5289v2Numerical techniques for discretization of velocity space in continuum kinetic calculations are described. An efficient spectral collocation method is developed for the speed coordinate - the radius in velocity space - employing a novel set of non-classical orthogonal polynomials. For problems in which Fokker-Planck collisions are included, a common situation in plasma physics, a procedure is detailed to accurately and efficiently treat the field term in the collision operator (in the absence of gyrokinetic corrections). When species with disparate masses are included simultaneously, a careful extrapolation of the Rosenbluth potentials is performed. The techniques are demonstrated in neoclassical calculations of the bootstrap current and plasma flows in a tokamak.
- Jul 10 2012 physics.plasm-ph arXiv:1207.1795v2In transport barriers, particularly H-mode edge pedestals, radial scale lengths can become comparable to the ion orbit width, causing neoclassical physics to become radially nonlocal. In this work, the resulting changes to neoclassical flow and current are examined both analytically and numerically. Steep density gradients are considered, with scale lengths comparable to the poloidal ion gyroradius, together with strong radial electric fields sufficient to electrostatically confine the ions. Attention is restricted to relatively weak ion temperature gradients (but permitting arbitrary electron temperature gradients), since in this limit a delta-f (small departures from a Maxwellian distribution) rather than full-f approach is justified. This assumption is in fact consistent with measured inter-ELM H-Mode edge pedestal density and ion temperature profiles in many present experiments, and is expected to be increasingly valid in future lower collisionality experiments. In the numerical analysis, the distribution function and Rosenbluth potentials are solved for simultaneously, allowing use of the exact field term in the linearized Fokker-Planck collision operator. In the pedestal, the parallel and poloidal flows are found to deviate strongly from the best available conventional neoclassical prediction, with large poloidal variation of a different form than in the local theory. These predicted effects may be observable experimentally. In the local limit, the Sauter bootstrap current formulae appear accurate at low collisionality, but they can overestimate the bootstrap current near the plateau regime. In the pedestal ordering, ion contributions to the bootstrap and Pfirsch-Schluter currents are also modified.
- Jun 27 2012 physics.plasm-ph arXiv:1206.5912v1In a tokamak pedestal, radial scale lengths can become comparable to the ion orbit width, invalidating conventional neoclassical calculations of flow and bootstrap current. In this work we illustrate a non-local approach that allows strong radial density variation while maintaining small departures from a Maxwellian distribution. Non-local effects alter the magnitude and poloidal variation of the flow and current. The approach is implemented in a new global delta-f continuum code using the full linearized Fokker-Planck collision operator. Arbitrary collisionality and aspect ratio are allowed as long as the poloidal magnetic field is small compared to the total magnetic field. Strong radial electric fields, sufficient to electrostatically confine the ions, are also included. These effects may be important to consider in any comparison between experimental pedestal flow measurements and theory.
- Dec 27 2011 physics.plasm-ph arXiv:1112.5725v1Any viable stellarator reactor will need to be nearly omnigenous, meaning the radial guiding-center drift velocity averages to zero over time for all particles. While omnigenity is easier to achieve than quasisymmetry, we show here that several properties of quasisymmetric plasmas also apply directly or with only minor modification to the larger class of omnigenous plasmas. For example, concise expressions exist for the flow and current, closely resembling those for a tokamak, and these expressions are explicit in that no magnetic differential equations remain. A helicity (M,N) can be defined for any omnigenous field, based on the topology by which |B| contours close on a flux surface, generalizing the helicity associated with quasisymmetric fields. For generalized quasi-poloidal symmetry (M=0), the bootstrap current vanishes, which may yield desirable equilibrium and stability properties. A concise expression is derived for the radial electric field in any omnigenous plasma that is not quasisymmetric. The fact that tokamak-like analytical calculations are possible in omnigenous plasmas despite their fully-3D magnetic spectrum makes these configurations useful for gaining insight and benchmarking codes. A construction is given to produce omnigenous B(theta, zeta) patterns with stellarator symmetry.
- Apr 05 2011 physics.plasm-ph arXiv:1104.0597v1In the pedestal of a tokamak, the sharp radial gradients of density and temperature can give rise to poloidal variation in the density of impurities. At the same time, the flow of the impurity species is modified relative to the conventional neoclassical result. In this paper, these changes to the density and flow of a collisional impurity species are calculated for the case when the main ions are in the plateau regime. In this regime it is found that the impurity density can be higher at either the inboard or outboard side. This finding differs from earlier results for banana- or Pfirsch-Schlüter-regime main ions, in which case the impurity density is always higher at the inboard side in the absence of rotation. Finally, the modifications to the impurity flow are also given for the other regimes of main-ion collisionality.
- Feb 15 2011 physics.plasm-ph arXiv:1102.2508v1In the standard "monoenergetic" approach to numerical calculation of stellarator neoclassical transport, to expedite computation, ad-hoc changes are made to the kinetic equation so speed enters only as a parameter. Here we examine the validity of this approach by considering the effective particle trajectories in a model magnetic field. We find monoenergetic codes systematically under-predict the true trapped particle fraction, with the error in the trapped ion fraction being of order unity when the electric field is large, suggesting some results of these codes may be unreliable in this regime. This inaccuracy is independent of any errors introduced by approximation of the collision operator.
- Nov 24 2010 physics.plasm-ph arXiv:1011.5184v1We show that in perfectly quasi-isodynamic magnetic fields, which are generally non-quasisymmetric and which can approximate fields of experimental interest, neoclassical calculations can be carried out analytically more completely than in a general stellarator. Here, we define a quasi-isodynamic field to be one in which the longitudinal adiabatic invariant is a flux function and in which the constant-B contours close poloidally. We first derive several geometric relations among the magnetic field components and the field strength. Using these relations, the forms of the flow and current are obtained for arbitrary collisionality. The flow, radial electric field, and bootstrap current are also determined explicitly for the long-mean-free-path regime.
- Feb 15 2007 physics.plasm-ph arXiv:physics/0702117v1Selective enhancement (>10^3) of harmonics extending to the water window (~4nm) generated in an argon gas filled straight bore capillary waveguide is demonstrated. This enhancement is in good agreement with modeling which indicates that multimode quasi-phasematching (MMQPM) is achieved by rapid axial intensity modulations caused by beating between the fundamental and higher order capillary modes. Substantial pulse-energies (>10nJ per pulse per harmonic order) at wavelengths beyond the carbon K-edge (~4.37nm, ~284eV) up to ~360eV are observed from argon ions for the first time.
- Feb 15 2007 physics.plasm-ph physics.optics arXiv:physics/0702116v1A new scheme for quasi-phasematching high harmonic generation (HHG) in gases is proposed. In this, the rapid variation of the axial intensity resulting from excitation of more than one mode of a waveguide is used to achieve quasi phasematching. Numerical modeling demonstrates enhancement of the harmonic signal over that achieved for a single coherence length by factors >10^4.