results for au:Kumar_S in:gr-qc

- Feb 15 2018 gr-qc arXiv:1802.05241v1We report on a new all-sky search for periodic gravitational waves in the frequency band 475-2000 Hz and with a frequency time derivative in the range of [-1.0e-8, +1e-9] Hz/s. Potential signals could be produced by a nearby spinning and slightly non-axisymmetric isolated neutron star in our galaxy. This search uses the data from Advanced LIGO's first observational run O1. No gravitational wave signals were observed, and upper limits were placed on their strengths. For completeness, results from the separately published low frequency search 20-475 Hz are included as well. Our lowest upper limit on worst-case (linearly polarized) strain amplitude h_0 is 4e-25 near 170 Hz, while at the high end of our frequency range we achieve a worst-case upper limit of 1.3e-24. For a circularly polarized source (most favorable orientation), the smallest upper limit obtained is ~1.5e-25.
- Dec 05 2017 gr-qc astro-ph.CO arXiv:1712.01168v1Cosmic strings are topological defects which can be formed in GUT-scale phase transitions in the early universe. They are also predicted to form in the context of string theory. The main mechanism for a network of Nambu-Goto cosmic strings to lose energy is through the production of loops and the subsequent emission of gravitational waves, thus offering an experimental signature for the existence of cosmic strings. Here we report on the analysis conducted to specifically search for gravitational-wave bursts from cosmic string loops in the data of Advanced LIGO 2015-2016 observing run (O1). No evidence of such signals was found in the data, and as a result we set upper limits on the cosmic string parameters for three recent loop distribution models. In this paper, we initially derive constraints on the string tension $G\mu$ and the intercommutation probability, using not only the burst analysis performed on the O1 data set, but also results from the previously published LIGO stochastic O1 analysis, pulsar timing arrays, cosmic microwave background and Big-Bang nucleosynthesis experiments. We show that these data sets are complementary in that they probe gravitational waves produced by cosmic string loops during very different epochs. Finally, we show that the data sets exclude large parts of the parameter space of the three loop distribution models we consider.
- Nov 16 2017 astro-ph.HE gr-qc arXiv:1711.05578v1On June 8, 2017 at 02:01:16.49 UTC, a gravitational-wave signal from the merger of two stellar-mass black holes was observed by the two Advanced LIGO detectors with a network signal-to-noise ratio of 13. This system is the lightest black hole binary so far observed, with component masses $12^{+7}_{-2}\,M_\odot$ and $7^{+2}_{-2}\,M_\odot$ (90% credible intervals). These lie in the range of measured black hole masses in low-mass X-ray binaries, thus allowing us to compare black holes detected through gravitational waves with electromagnetic observations. The source's luminosity distance is $340^{+140}_{-140}$ Mpc, corresponding to redshift $0.07^{+0.03}_{-0.03}$. We verify that the signal waveform is consistent with the predictions of general relativity.
- Future measurements of primordial non-Gaussianity can reveal cosmologically produced particles with masses of order the inflationary Hubble scale and their interactions with the inflaton, giving us crucial insights into the structure of fundamental physics at extremely high energies. We study gauge-Higgs theories that may be accessible in this regime, carefully imposing the constraints of gauge symmetry and its (partial) Higgsing. We distinguish two types of Higgs mechanisms: (i) a standard one in which the Higgs scale is constant before and after inflation, where the particles observable in non-Gaussianities are far heavier than can be accessed by laboratory experiments, perhaps associated with gauge unification, and (ii) a "heavy-lifting" mechanism in which couplings to curvature can result in Higgs scales of order the Hubble scale during inflation while reducing to far lower scales in the current era, where they may now be accessible to collider and other laboratory experiments. In the heavy-lifting option, renormalization-group running of terrestrial measurements yield predictions for cosmological non-Gaussianities. If the heavy-lifted gauge theory suffers a hierarchy problem, such as does the Standard Model, confirming such predictions would demonstrate a striking violation of the Naturalness Principle. While observing gauge-Higgs sectors in non-Gaussianities will be challenging given the constraints of cosmic variance, we show that it may be possible with reasonable precision given favorable couplings to the inflationary dynamics.
- Oct 26 2017 astro-ph.HE gr-qc arXiv:1710.09320v1The first observation of a binary neutron star coalescence by the Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo gravitational-wave detectors offers an unprecedented opportunity to study matter under the most extreme conditions. After such a merger, a compact remnant is left over whose nature depends primarily on the masses of the inspiralling objects and on the equation of state of nuclear matter. This could be either a black hole or a neutron star (NS), with the latter being either long-lived or too massive for stability implying delayed collapse to a black hole. Here, we present a search for gravitational waves from the remnant of the binary neutron star merger GW170817 using data from Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo. We search for short ($\lesssim1$ s) and intermediate-duration ($\lesssim 500$ s) signals, which includes gravitational-wave emission from a hypermassive NS or supramassive NS, respectively. We find no signal from the post-merger remnant. Our derived strain upper limits are more than an order of magnitude larger than those predicted by most models. For short signals, our best upper limit on the root-sum-square of the gravitational-wave strain emitted from 1--4 kHz is $h_{\rm rss}^{50\%}=2.1\times 10^{-22}$ Hz$^{-1/2}$ at 50% detection efficiency. For intermediate-duration signals, our best upper limit at 50% detection efficiency is $h_{\rm rss}^{50\%}=8.4\times 10^{-22}$ Hz$^{-1/2}$ for a millisecond magnetar model, and $h_{\rm rss}^{50\%}=5.9\times 10^{-22}$ Hz$^{-1/2}$ for a bar-mode model. These results indicate that post-merger emission from a similar event may be detectable when advanced detectors reach design sensitivity or with next-generation detectors.
- Oct 17 2017 gr-qc arXiv:1710.05837v1The LIGO Scientific and Virgo Collaborations have announced the first detection of gravitational waves from the coalescence of two neutron stars. The merger rate of binary neutron stars estimated from this event suggests that distant, unresolvable binary neutron stars create a significant astrophysical stochastic gravitational-wave background. The binary neutron star background will add to the background from binary black holes, increasing the amplitude of the total astrophysical background relative to previous expectations. In the Advanced LIGO-Virgo frequency band most sensitive to stochastic backgrounds (near 25 Hz), we predict a total astrophysical background with amplitude $\Omega_{\rm GW} (f=25 \text{Hz}) = 1.8_{-1.3}^{+2.7} \times 10^{-9}$ with $90\%$ confidence, compared with $\Omega_{\rm GW} (f=25 \text{Hz}) = 1.1_{-0.7}^{+1.2} \times 10^{-9}$ from binary black holes alone. Assuming the most probable rate for compact binary mergers, we find that the total background may be detectable with a signal-to-noise-ratio of 3 after 40 months of total observation time, based on the expected timeline for Advanced LIGO and Virgo to reach their design sensitivity.
- Oct 09 2017 gr-qc astro-ph.HE arXiv:1710.02327v2Spinning neutron stars asymmetric with respect to their rotation axis are potential sources of continuous gravitational waves for ground-based interferometric detectors. In the case of known pulsars a fully coherent search, based on matched filtering, which uses the position and rotational parameters obtained from electromagnetic observations, can be carried out. Matched filtering maximizes the signal-to-noise (SNR) ratio, but a large sensitivity loss is expected in case of even a very small mismatch between the assumed and the true signal parameters. For this reason, \it narrow-band analyses methods have been developed, allowing a fully coherent search for gravitational waves from known pulsars over a fraction of a hertz and several spin-down values. In this paper we describe a narrow-band search of eleven pulsars using data from Advanced LIGO's first observing run. Although we have found several initial outliers, further studies show no significant evidence for the presence of a gravitational wave signal. Finally, we have placed upper limits on the signal strain amplitude lower than the spin-down limit for 5 of the 11 targets over the bands searched: in the case of J1813-1749 the spin-down limit has been beaten for the first time. For an additional 3 targets, the median upper limit across the search bands is below the spin-down limit. This is the most sensitive narrow-band search for continuous gravitational waves carried out so far.
- Sep 28 2017 gr-qc arXiv:1709.09203v1We present results from the first directed search for nontensorial gravitational waves. While general relativity allows for tensorial (plus and cross) modes only, a generic metric theory may, in principle, predict waves with up to six different polarizations. This analysis is sensitive to continuous signals of scalar, vector or tensor polarizations, and does not rely on any specific theory of gravity. After searching data from the first observation run of the advanced LIGO detectors for signals at twice the rotational frequency of 200 known pulsars, we find no evidence of gravitational waves of any polarization. We report the first upper limits for scalar and vector strains, finding values comparable in magnitude to previously-published limits for tensor strain. Our results may be translated into constraints on specific alternative theories of gravity.
- In this work we present some new results obtained in a study of the phase diagram of charged compact boson stars in a theory involving a complex scalar field with a conical potential coupled to a U(1) gauge field and gravity. We here obtain new bifurcation points in this model. We present a detailed discussion of the various regions of the phase diagram with respect to the bifurcation points. The theory is seen to contain rich physics in a particular domain of the phase diagram.
- In this work we study the boson stars and boson shells in a theory involving massive complex scalar fields coupled to the U(1) gauge field and gravity in a conical potential in the presence of a cosmological constant ${\Lambda}$ which we treat as a free parameter taking positive and negative values and thereby allowing us to study the theory in the de Sitter and Anti de Sitter spaces respectively. Boson stars are found to come in two types, having either ball-like or shell-like charge density. We have studied the properties of these solutions and have also determined their domains of existence for some specific values of the parameters of the theory. Similar solutions have also been obtained by Kleihaus, Kunz, Laemmerzahl and List in a theory involving massless complex scalar fields coupled to the U(1) gauge field and gravity in a conical potential in the absence of a cosmological constant ${\Lambda}$.
- Sep 28 2017 gr-qc astro-ph.HE arXiv:1709.09660v3On August 14, 2017 at 10:30:43 UTC, the Advanced Virgo detector and the two Advanced LIGO detectors coherently observed a transient gravitational-wave signal produced by the coalescence of two stellar mass black holes, with a false-alarm-rate of $\lesssim$ 1 in 27000 years. The signal was observed with a three-detector network matched-filter signal-to-noise ratio of 18. The inferred masses of the initial black holes are $30.5_{-3.0}^{+5.7}$ Msun and $25.3_{-4.2}^{+2.8}$ Msun (at the 90% credible level). The luminosity distance of the source is $540_{-210}^{+130}~\mathrm{Mpc}$, corresponding to a redshift of $z=0.11_{-0.04}^{+0.03}$. A network of three detectors improves the sky localization of the source, reducing the area of the 90% credible region from 1160 deg$^2$ using only the two LIGO detectors to 60 deg$^2$ using all three detectors. For the first time, we can test the nature of gravitational wave polarizations from the antenna response of the LIGO-Virgo network, thus enabling a new class of phenomenological tests of gravity.
- Sep 11 2017 astro-ph.CO gr-qc arXiv:1709.02384v2In this letter, we report precise and robust observational constraints on dark matter-dark energy scattering cross section, using the latest data from cosmic microwave background (CMB) Planck temperature and polarization, baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) measurements and weak gravitational lensing data from Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Lensing Survey (CFHTLenS). The scattering scenario consists of a pure momentum exchange between the dark components, and we find $\sigma_d < 10^{-29} \, {\rm cm^2}$ at 95\% CL from the joint analysis (CMB + BAO + CFHTLenS), for typical dark matter particle mass of the order 1-10 ${\rm GeV}/c^2$. We notice that the scattering among the dark components may influence the growth of large scale structure in the Universe, leaving the background cosmology unaltered.
- Sep 08 2017 gr-qc astro-ph.CO arXiv:1709.02367v3We propose a modified theory of gravitation constructed by the addition of the term $f(T_{\mu\nu}T^{\mu\nu})$ to the Einstein-Hilbert action, and elaborate a particular case $f(T_{\mu\nu}T^{\mu\nu})=\alpha(T_{\mu\nu}T^{\mu\nu})^{\eta}$, where $\alpha$ and $\eta$ are real constants, dubbed as energy-momentum powered gravity (EMPG). We search for viable cosmologies arising from EMPG especially in the context of the late-time accelerated expansion of the Universe. We investigate the ranges of the EMPG parameters $(\alpha,\eta)$ on theoretical as well as observational grounds leading to the late-time acceleration of the Universe with pressureless matter only, while keeping the successes of standard general relativity at early times. We find that $\eta=0$ corresponds to the $\Lambda$CDM model, whereas $\eta\neq 0$ leads to a $w$CDM-type model. However, the underlying physics of the EMPG model is entirely different in the sense that the energy in the EMPG Universe is sourced by pressureless matter only. Moreover, the energy of the pressureless matter is not conserved, namely, in general it does not dilute as $\rho\propto a^{-3}$ with the expansion of the Universe. Finally, we constrain the parameters of an EMPG-based cosmology with a recent compilation of 28 Hubble parameter measurements, and find that this model describes an evolution of the Universe similar to that in the $\Lambda$CDM model. We briefly discuss that EMPG can be unified with Starobinsky gravity to describe the complete history of the Universe including the inflationary era.
- Recently it was proposed to use cavity-optomechanical systems to test for quantum gravity corrections to quantum canonical commutation relations [Nat. Phys. 8, 393-397 (2012)]. Improving the achievable precision of such devices represents a major challenge that we address with our present work. More specifically, we develop sophisticated paths in phase-space of such optomechanical system to obtain feasible accuracy and precision under shot noise and contributions from higher-order corrections to the optomechanical Hamiltonian. Furthermore, we propose a method to increase precision by using squeezed states of light. Finally, we demonstrate the robustness of our scheme to experimental imperfection, thereby improving our prospects of carrying out tests of quantum gravity with near-future optomechanical technology.
- Jul 11 2017 gr-qc astro-ph.IM arXiv:1707.02667v2We report on an all-sky search for periodic gravitational waves in the frequency band 20-475 Hz and with a frequency time derivative in the range of [-1.0, +0.1]e-8 Hz/s. Such a signal could be produced by a nearby spinning and slightly non-axisymmetric isolated neutron star in our galaxy. This search uses the data from Advanced LIGO's first observational run, O1. No periodic gravitational wave signals were observed, and upper limits were placed on their strengths. The lowest upper limits on worst-case (linearly polarized) strain amplitude h0 are 4e-25 near 170 Hz. For a circularly polarized source (most favorable orientation), the smallest upper limits obtained are 1.5e-25. These upper limits refer to all sky locations and the entire range of frequency derivative values. For a population-averaged ensemble of sky locations and stellar orientations, the lowest upper limits obtained for the strain amplitude are 2.5e-25.
- Jul 11 2017 gr-qc arXiv:1707.02669v2We report results of a deep all-sky search for periodic gravitational waves from isolated neutron stars in data from the first Advanced LIGO observing run. This search investigates the low frequency range of Advanced LIGO data, between 20 and 100 Hz, much of which was not explored in initial LIGO. The search was made possible by the computing power provided by the volunteers of the Einstein@Home project. We find no significant signal candidate and set the most stringent upper limits to date on the amplitude of gravitational wave signals from the target population, corresponding to a sensitivity depth of 48.7 [1/$\sqrt{{\textrm{Hz}}}$]. At the frequency of best strain sensitivity, near 100 Hz, we set 90% confidence upper limits of $1.8 \times 10^{-25}$. At the low end of our frequency range, 20 Hz, we achieve upper limits of $3.9 \times 10^{-24}$. At 55 Hz we can exclude sources with ellipticities greater than $10^{-5}$ within 100 pc of Earth with fiducial value of the principal moment of inertia of $10^{38} \textrm{kg m}^2$.
- Jul 04 2017 astro-ph.CO gr-qc arXiv:1707.00603v2We do a comprehensive study of the Bayesian evidences for a large number of dark energy models using a combination of latest cosmological data from SNIa, CMB, BAO, Strong lensing time delay, Growth measurements, measurements of Hubble parameter at different redshifts and measurements of angular diameter distance by Megamaser Cosmology Project . We consider a variety of scalar field models with different potentials as well as different parametrisations for the dark energy equation of state. Among 21 models that we consider in our study, we do not find strong evidences in favour of any evolving dark energy model compared to $\Lambda$CDM. For the evolving dark energy models, we show that purely non-phantom models have much better evidences compared to those models that allow both phantom and non-phantom behaviours. Canonical scalar field with exponential and tachyon field with square potential have highest evidences among all the models considered in this work. We also show that a combination of low redshift measurements decisively favours an accelerating $\Lambda$CDM model compared to a non-accelerating power law model.
- Jun 13 2017 astro-ph.HE gr-qc arXiv:1706.03119v3We present the results of a semicoherent search for continuous gravitational waves from the low-mass X-ray binary Scorpius X-1, using data from the first Advanced LIGO observing run. The search method uses details of the modelled, parametrized continuous signal to combine coherently data separated by less than a specified coherence time, which can be adjusted to trade off sensitivity against computational cost. A search was conducted over the frequency range from 25 Hz to 2000 Hz, spanning the current observationally-constrained range of the binary orbital parameters. No significant detection candidates were found, and frequency-dependent upper limits were set using a combination of sensitivity estimates and simulated signal injections. The most stringent upper limit was set at 175 Hz, with comparable limits set across the most sensitive frequency range from 100 Hz to 200 Hz. At this frequency, the 95 pct upper limit on signal amplitude h0 is 2.3e-25 marginalized over the unknown inclination angle of the neutron star's spin, and 8.03e-26 assuming the best orientation (which results in circularly polarized gravitational waves). These limits are a factor of 3-4 stronger than those set by other analyses of the same data, and a factor of about 7 stronger than the best upper limits set using initial LIGO data. In the vicinity of 100 Hz, the limits are a factor of between 1.2 and 3.5 above the predictions of the torque balance model, depending on inclination angle, if the most likely inclination angle of 44 degrees is assumed, they are within a factor of 1.7.
- Jun 07 2017 gr-qc astro-ph.HE arXiv:1706.01812v1We describe the observation of GW170104, a gravitational-wave signal produced by the coalescence of a pair of stellar-mass black holes. The signal was measured on January 4, 2017 at 10:11:58.6 UTC by the twin advanced detectors of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory during their second observing run, with a network signal-to-noise ratio of 13 and a false alarm rate less than 1 in 70,000 years. The inferred component black hole masses are $31.2^{+8.4}_{-6.0}\,M_\odot$ and $19.4^{+5.3}_{-5.9}\,M_\odot$ (at the 90% credible level). The black hole spins are best constrained through measurement of the effective inspiral spin parameter, a mass-weighted combination of the spin components perpendicular to the orbital plane, $\chi_\mathrm{eff} = -0.12^{+0.21}_{-0.30}.$ This result implies that spin configurations with both component spins positively aligned with the orbital angular momentum are disfavored. The source luminosity distance is $880^{+450}_{-390}~\mathrm{Mpc}$ corresponding to a redshift of $z = 0.18^{+0.08}_{-0.07}$. We constrain the magnitude of modifications to the gravitational-wave dispersion relation and perform null tests of general relativity. Assuming that gravitons are dispersed in vacuum like massive particles, we bound the graviton mass to $m_g \le 7.7 \times 10^{-23}~\mathrm{eV}/c^2$. In all cases, we find that GW170104 is consistent with general relativity.
- Apr 18 2017 gr-qc arXiv:1704.04628v4During their first observational run, the two Advanced LIGO detectors attained an unprecedented sensitivity, resulting in the first direct detections of gravitational-wave signals and GW151226, produced by stellar-mass binary black hole systems. This paper reports on an all-sky search for gravitational waves (GWs) from merging intermediate mass black hole binaries (IMBHBs). The combined results from two independent search techniques were used in this study: the first employs a matched-filter algorithm that uses a bank of filters covering the GW signal parameter space, while the second is a generic search for GW transients (bursts). No GWs from IMBHBs were detected, therefore, we constrain the rate of several classes of IMBHB mergers. The most stringent limit is obtained for black holes of individual mass $100\,M_\odot$, with spins aligned with the binary orbital angular momentum. For such systems, the merger rate is constrained to be less than $0.93~\mathrm{Gpc^{-3}\,yr}^{-1}$ in comoving units at the $90\%$ confidence level, an improvement of nearly 2 orders of magnitude over previous upper limits.
- Apr 13 2017 gr-qc arXiv:1704.03719v3Results are presented from a semi-coherent search for continuous gravitational waves from the brightest low-mass X-ray binary, Scorpius X-1, using data collected during the first Advanced LIGO observing run (O1). The search combines a frequency domain matched filter (Bessel-weighted $\mathcal{F}$-statistic) with a hidden Markov model to track wandering of the neutron star spin frequency. No evidence of gravitational waves is found in the frequency range 60-650 Hz. Frequentist 95% confidence strain upper limits, $h_0^{95\%} = 4.0\times10^{-25}$, $8.3\times10^{-25}$, and $3.0\times10^{-25}$ for electromagnetically restricted source orientation, unknown polarization, and circular polarization, respectively, are reported at 106 Hz. They are $\leq 10$ times higher than the theoretical torque-balance limit at 106 Hz.
- We study the momentum space entanglement between different energy modes of interacting scalar fields propagating in general (D + 1)-dimensional flat space-time. As opposed to some of the recent works [1], we use Lorentz invariant normalized ground state to obtain the momentum space entanglement entropy. We show that the Lorenz invariant definition removes the spurious power-law behaviour obtained in the earlier works [1]. More specifically, we show that the cubic interacting scalar field in (1 + 1) dimensions leads to logarithmic divergence of the entanglement entropy and consistent with the results from real space entanglement calculations. We study the effects of the introduction of the Lorentz violating higher derivative terms in the presence of non-linear self inter- acting scalar field potential and show that the divergence structure of the entanglement entropy is improved in the presence of spatial higher derivative terms.
- Feb 09 2017 astro-ph.CO gr-qc arXiv:1702.02143v2We investigate the observational constraints on an interacting vacuum energy scenario with two different neutrino schemes (with and without a sterile neutrino) using the most recent data from CMB temperature and polarization anisotropy, baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO), type Ia supernovae from JLA sample and structure growth inferred from cluster counts. We find that inclusion of the galaxy clusters data with the minimal data combination CMB + BAO + JLA suggests an interaction in the dark sector, implying the decay of dark matter particles into dark energy, since the constraints obtained by including the galaxy clusters data yield a non-null and negative coupling parameter between the dark components at 99\% confidence level. We deduce that the current tensions on the parameters $H_0$ and $\sigma_8$ can be alleviated within the framework of the interacting as well as non-interacting vacuum energy models with sterile neutrinos.
- Dec 06 2016 astro-ph.CO gr-qc arXiv:1612.01081v2We perform a detailed comparison between the Logotropic model [P.H. Chavanis, Eur. Phys. J. Plus 130 (2015) 130] and the $\Lambda$CDM model. These two models behave similarly at large (cosmological) scales up to the present. Differences will appear only in the far future, in about $25\, {\rm Gyrs}$, when the Logotropic Universe becomes phantom while the $\Lambda$CDM Universe enters in the de Sitter era. However, the Logotropic model differs from the $\Lambda$CDM model at small (galactic) scales, where the latter encounters serious problems. Having a nonvanishing pressure, the Logotropic model can solve the cusp problem and the missing satellite problem of the $\Lambda$CDM model. In addition, it leads to dark matter halos with a constant surface density $\Sigma_0=\rho_0 r_h$, and can explain its observed value $\Sigma_0=141 \, M_{\odot}/{\rm pc}^2$ without adjustable parameter. This makes the logotropic model rather unique among all the models attempting to unify dark matter and dark energy. In this paper, we compare the Logotropic and $\Lambda$CDM models at the cosmological scale where they are very close to each other in order to determine quantitatively how much they differ. This comparison is facilitated by the fact that these models depend on only two parameters, the Hubble constant $H_0$ and the present fraction of dark matter $\Omega_{\rm m0}$. Using the latest observational data from Planck 2015+Lensing+BAO+JLA+HST, we find that the best fit values of $H_0$ and $\Omega_{\rm m0}$ are $H_0=68.30\, {\rm km}\, {\rm s}^{-1}\,{\rm Mpc}^{-1}$ and $\Omega_{\rm m0}=0.3014$ for the Logotropic model, and $H_0=68.02\, {\rm km}\, {\rm s}^{-1}\,{\rm Mpc}^{-1}$ and $\Omega_{\rm m0}=0.3049$ for the $\Lambda$CDM model. The difference between the two models appears at the percent level.
- Aug 09 2016 astro-ph.CO gr-qc arXiv:1608.02454v2We consider the possibility of an interaction in the dark sector in the presence of massive neutrinos, and study the observational constraints on three different scenarios of massive neutrinos using the most recent CMB anisotropy data in combination with type Ia supernovae, baryon acoustic oscillations, and Hubble parameter measurements. When a sterile neutrino is introduced in the interacting dark sector scenario in addition to the standard model prediction of neutrinos, we find that the coupling parameter, characterizing the interaction between dark matter and dark energy, is non-zero at 2$\sigma$ confidence level. The interaction model with sterile neutrino is also found to be a promising one to alleviate the current tension on Hubble constant. We do not find the evidence for a coupling in the dark sector when the possibility of a sterile neutrino is discarded.
- We study boson shells and boson stars in a theory of complex scalar field coupled to the $U(1)$ gauge field $A_{\mu}$ and Einstein gravity with the potential: $V(|\Phi|) := \frac{1}{2} m^{2} \left(|\Phi|+ a \right)^2$. This could be considered either as a theory of massive complex scalar field coupled to electromagnetic field and gravity in a conical potential or as a theory in the presence of a potential which is an overlap of a parabolic and a conical potential. Our theory has a positive cosmological constant $(\Lambda := 4 \pi G m^2 a^2)$. Boson stars are found to come in two types, having either ball-like or shell-like charge density. We have studied the properties of these solutions and have also determined their domains of existence for some specific values of the parameters of the theory. Similar solutions have also been obtained by Kleihaus, Kunz, Laemmerzahl and List, in a V-shaped scalar potential.
- We study boson stars in a theory of complex scalar field coupled to Einstein gravity with the potential: $V(|\Phi|) := m^{2} |\Phi|^2 +2 \lambda |\Phi|$ (where $m^2$ and $\lambda$ are positive constant parameters). This could be considered either as a theory of massive complex scalar field coupled to gravity in a conical potential or as a theory in the presence of a potential which is an overlap of a parabolic and a conical potential. We study our theory with positive as well as negative values of the cosmological constant $\Lambda$. Boson stars are found to come in two types, having either ball-like or shell-like charge density. We have studied the properties of these solutions and have also determined their domains of existence for some specific values of the parameters of the theory. Similar solutions have also been obtained by Hartmann, Kleihaus, Kunz, and Schaffer, in a V-shaped scalar potential.
- Dec 23 2015 gr-qc arXiv:1512.07152v1The motion of spinning test-masses in curved space-time is described with a covariant hamiltonian formalism. A large class of hamiltonians can be used with the model- independent Poisson-Dirac brackets, to obtain equations of motion. Here we apply it to the minimal hamiltonian and also to a non-minimal hamiltonian, describing the gravi- tational Stern-Gerlach force. And a note on ISCO has been added.
- Nov 18 2015 gr-qc arXiv:1511.05454v2We study the motion of neutral and charged spinning bodies in curved space-time in the test-particle limit. We construct equations of motion using a closed covariant Poisson-Dirac bracket formulation which allows for different choices of the hamiltonian. We derive conditions for the existence of constants of motion and apply the formalism to the case of spherically symmetric space-times. We show that the periastron of a spinning body in a stable orbit in a Schwarzschild or Reissner-Nordstrøm background not only precesses, but also varies radially. By analysing the stability conditions for circular motion we find the innermost stable circular orbit (ISCO) as a function of spin. It turns out that there is an absolute lower limit on the ISCOs for increasing prograde spin. Finally we establish that the equations of motion can also be derived from the Einstein equations using an appropriate energy-momentum tensor for spinning particles.
- Jul 17 2015 gr-qc astro-ph.CO arXiv:1507.04684v4Using 137,562 quasars in the redshift range $2.1\leq z\leq3.5$ from the Data Release 11 (DR11) of the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) of Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS)-III, the BOSS-SDSS collaboration estimated the expansion rate $H(z=2.34)=222\pm7$ km/s/Mpc of Universe, and reported that this value is in tension with the predictions of flat $\Lambda$CDM model at around 2.5$\sigma$ level. In this paper, we briefly describe some attempts made in the literature to relieve the tension, and show that the tension can naturally be alleviated in non-flat $\Lambda$CDM model with positive curvature. We also perform the observational consistency check by considering the constraints on the non-flat $\Lambda$CDM model from Planck,WP and BAO data. We find that the non-flat $\Lambda$CDM model constrained with Planck+WP data fits better to the line of sight measurement $H(z=2.34)=222\pm7$ km/s/Mpc, but only at the expense of still having a poor fit to the BAO transverse measurements.
- The thermodynamic entropy of an isolated system is given by its von Neumann entropy. Over the last few years, there is an intense activity to understand thermodynamic entropy from the principles of quantum mechanics. More specifically, is there a relation between the (von Neumann) entropy of entanglement between a system and some (separate) environment is related to the thermodynamic entropy? It is difficult to obtain the relation for many body systems, hence, most of the work in the literature has focused on small number systems. In this work, we consider black-holes --- that are simple yet macroscopic systems --- and show that a direct connection could not be made between the entropy of entanglement and the Hawking temperature. In this work, within the adiabatic approximation, we explicitly show that the Hawking temperature is indeed given by the rate of change of the entropy of entanglement across a black hole's horizon with regard to the system energy. This is yet another numerical evidence to understand the key features of black hole thermodynamics from the viewpoint of quantum information theory.
- Jan 21 2015 gr-qc arXiv:1501.04879v2The dynamics of spinning particles in curved space-time is discussed, emphasizing the hamiltonian formulation. Different choices of hamiltonians allow for the description of different gravitating systems. We give full results for the simplest case with minimal hamiltonian, constructing constants of motion including spin. The analysis is illustrated by the example of motion in Schwarzschild space-time. We also discuss a non-minimal extension of the hamiltonian giving rise to a gravitational equivalent of the Stern-Gerlach force. We show that this extension respects a large class of known constants of motion for the minimal case.
- Jan 08 2015 gr-qc arXiv:1501.01615v2In this paper, we calculate the effective gravitational mass of Ayón-Beato and Garcı́a regular (non-singular) static spherically symmetric asymptotically Minkowskian metric that is a solution to Einstein's equations coupled with a nonlinear electromagnetic field. The effective gravitational mass is negative, zero, or positive that depends on the ratio of magnitude of electric charge to the ADM mass and the ratio of the radial distance to the ADM mass. As expected, at large value of radial distance, our result gives effective gravitational mass of the Reissner-Nordström metric.
- We study an effective 4-dimensional scalar-tensor field theory, originated from an underlying brane-bulk warped geometry, to explore the scenario of inflation. It is shown that the inflaton potential naturally emerges from the radion energy-momentum tensor which in turn results into an inflationary model of the Universe on the visible brane that is consistent with the recent results from the Planck's experiment. The dynamics of modulus stabilization from the inflaton rolling condition is demonstrated. The implications of our results in the context of recent BICEP2 results are also discussed.
- Sep 18 2014 astro-ph.CO gr-qc arXiv:1409.4886v1The two point correlation function of the CMB temperature anisotropies is generally assumed to be statistically isotropic (SI). Deviations from this assumption could be traced to physical or observational artefacts and systematic effects. Measurement of non-vanishing power in the BipoSH spectra is a standard statistical technique to search for isotropy violations. Although this is a neat tool allowing a blind search for SI violations in the CMB sky, it is not easy to discern the cause of isotropy violation using this measure. In this article, we propose a novel technique of constructing orthogonal BipoSH estimators, which can be used to discern between models of isotropy violation.
- We study the clustering Generalized Chaplygin Gas (GCG) as a possible candidate for dark matter-dark energy unification. The vanishing speed of sound ($c_{s}^2 = 0$) for the GCG fluid can be obtained by incorporating higher derivative operator in the original K-essence Lagrangian. The evolution of the density fluctuations in the GCG+Baryon fluid is studied in the linear regime. The observational constraints on the model are obtained using latest data from SNIa, $H(z)$, BAO and also for the $f\sigma_{8}$ measurements. The matter power spectra for the allowed parameter values are well behaved without any unphysical features.
- In this work, we study an inflationary scenario in the presence of Generalized Chaplygin Gas (GCG). We show that in Einstein gravity, GCG is not a suitable candidate for inflation; but in a five dimensional brane world scenario, it can work as a viable inflationary model. We calculate the relevant quantities such as $n_{s}$, $r$ and $A_{s}$ related to the primordial scalar and tensor fluctuations, and using their recent bounds from Planck and BICEP2, we constrain the model parameters as well as the five-dimensional Planck mass. But as a slow-roll inflationary model with a power-law type scalar primordial power spectrum, GCG as an inflationary model can not resolve the tension between results from BICEP2 and Planck with a concordance $\Lambda$CDM Universe. We show that going beyond the concordance $\Lambda$CDM model and incorporating more general dark energy behaviour, this tension may be eased. We also obtain the constraints on the $n_{s}$ and $r$ and the GCG model parameters using Planck+WP+BICEP2 data considering the CPL dark energy behaviour.
- Apr 09 2014 gr-qc astro-ph.CO arXiv:1404.1910v2Chevallier-Polarski-Linder (CPL) parametrization for the equation of state of dark energy in terms of cosmic redshift or scale factor have been frequently studied in the literature. In this study, we consider cosmic time based CPL parametrization for the equation of state parameter of the effective cosmic fluid that fills the fabric of spatially flat and homogeneous Robertson-Walker spacetime in general relativity. The model exhibits two worthy features: (i) It fits the observational data from the latest $H(z)$ and Union 2.1 SN Ia compilations matching the success of $\Lambda$CDM model. (ii) It describes the evolution of the Universe from the matter-dominated phase to the recent accelerating phase similar to the $\Lambda$CDM model but leads to Big Rip end of the Universe contrary to the everlasting de Sitter expansion in the $\Lambda$CDM model. We investigate the matter and dark energy sources in the model, in particular, behavior of the dynamical dark energy responsible for the Big Rip end of Universe.
- Over the last three decades entanglement entropy has been obtained for quantum fields propagating in genus zero topologies (Spheres). For scalar fields propagating in these topologies, it has been shown that the entanglement entropy scales as area. In the last few years non-trivial topologies are increasingly relevant for different areas. For instance, in describing quantum phases, it has been realized that long-range entangled states are described by topological order. If quantum entanglement can plausibly provide explanation for these, it then imperative to obtain entanglement entropy in these topologies. In this work, using two different methods, we explicitly show that the entanglement entropy scales as area of the genus-1 geometry.
- Jul 19 2013 gr-qc astro-ph.CO arXiv:1307.4911v4In this paper, we consider a simple form of expansion history of Universe referred to as the hybrid expansion law - a product of power-law and exponential type of functions. The ansatz by construction mimics the power-law and de Sitter cosmologies as special cases but also provides an elegant description of the transition from deceleration to cosmic acceleration. We point out the Brans-Dicke realization of the cosmic history under consideration. We construct potentials for quintessence, phantom and tachyon fields, which can give rise to the hybrid expansion law in general relativity. We investigate observational constraints on the model with hybrid expansion law applied to late time acceleration as well as to early universe a la nucleosynthesis.
- May 23 2013 gr-qc astro-ph.CO arXiv:1305.5190v3The parametrizations $q=q_0+q_1 z$ and $q=q_0+q_1 (1-a/a_0)$ (Chevallier-Polarski-Linder parametrization) of deceleration parameter, which are linear in cosmic redshift $z$ and scale factor $a$, have been frequently utilized in the literature to study kinematics of Universe. In this paper, we follow a strategy that leads to these two well known parametrizations of deceleration parameter as well as an additional new parametrization $q=q_0+q_1(1-t/t_0)$, which is linear in cosmic time $t$. We study the features of this linearly time-varying deceleration parameter in contrast with the other two linear parametrizations. We investigate in detail the kinematics of the Universe by confronting the three models with the latest observational data. We further study the dynamics of the Universe by considering the linearly time-varying deceleration parameter model in comparison with the standard $\Lambda$CDM model. We also discuss future of the Universe in the context of the models under consideration.
- We study the possibility of explaining the late time acceleration with an axion field which is coupled with the dark matter sector of the energy budget of the Universe. The axion field arises from the Ramond-Ramond sector of the Type-IIB string theory. We study the background evolution of the Universe as well as the growth of the matter perturbation in the linear regime. We subsequently use the observational data from Sn-Ia, BAO measurements, measurements of the Hubble parameter as well as the observational data for the growth of the matter perturbation to constrain our model. Our results show that coupled axion models are allowed to have larger deviation from cosmological constant by the present observational data.
- Jul 25 2012 gr-qc astro-ph.CO arXiv:1207.5582v4In this paper, we study a cosmological model in general relativity within the framework of spatially flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker space-time filled with ordinary matter (baryonic), radiation, dark matter and dark energy, where the latter two components are described by Chevallier-Polarski-Linder equation of state parameters. We utilize the observational data sets from SNLS3, BAO and Planck+WMAP9+WiggleZ measurements of matter power spectrum to constrain the model parameters. We find that the current observational data offer tight constraints on the equation of state parameter of dark matter. We consider the perturbations and study the behavior of dark matter by observing its effects on CMB and matter power spectra. We find that the current observational data favor the cold dark matter scenario with the cosmological constant type dark energy at the present epoch.
- Jul 18 2012 astro-ph.CO gr-qc arXiv:1207.4024v2In this work, we consider a network of cosmic strings to explain possible deviation from \Lambda CDM behaviour. We use different observational data to constrain the model and show that a small but non zero contribution from the string network is allowed by the observational data which can result in a reasonable departure from \Lambda CDM evolution. But by calculating the Bayesian Evidence, we show that the present data still strongly favour the concordance \Lambda CDM model irrespective of the choice of the prior.
- Oct 12 2011 gr-qc arXiv:1110.2408v2Spatially homogeneous but totally anisotropic and non-flat Bianchi type II cosmological model has been studied in general relativity in the presence of two minimally interacting fluids; a perfect fluid as the matter fluid and a hypothetical anisotropic fluid as the dark energy fluid. The Einstein's field equations have been solved by applying two kinematical ansätze: we have assumed the variation law for the mean Hubble parameter that yields a constant value of deceleration parameter, and one of the components of the shear tensor has been considered proportional to the mean Hubble parameter. We have particularly dwelled on the accelerating models with non-divergent expansion anisotropy as the Universe evolves. Yielding anisotropic pressure, the fluid we consider in the context of dark energy, can produce results that can be produced in the presence of isotropic fluid in accordance with the \Lambda CDM cosmology. However, the derived model gives additional opportunities by being able to allow kinematics that cannot be produced in the presence of fluids that yield only isotropic pressure. We have obtained well behaving cases where the anisotropy of the expansion and the anisotropy of the fluid converge to finite values (include zero) in the late Universe. We have also showed that although the metric we consider is totally anisotropic, the anisotropy of the dark energy is constrained to be axially symmetric, as long as the overall energy momentum tensor possesses zero shear stress.
- In this paper, we show that the expansion history of the Universe in power-law cosmology essentially depends on two crucial parameters, namely the Hubble constant $H_{0}$ and deceleration parameter $q$. We find the constraints on these parameters from the latest $H(z)$ and SNe Ia data. At 1$\sigma$ level the constraints from $H(z)$ data are obtained as $q=-0.18_{-0.12}^{+0.12}$ and $H_{0}=68.43_{-2.80}^{+2.84}$ km s$^{-1}$ Mpc$^{-1}$ while the constraints from the SNe Ia data read as $q=-0.38_{-0.05}^{+0.05}$ and $H_{0}=69.18_{-0.54}^{+0.55}$ km s$^{-1}$ Mpc$^{-1}$. We also perform the joint test using $H(z)$ and SNe Ia data, which yields the constraints $q=-0.34_{-0.05}^{+0.05}$ and $H_{0}=68.93_{-0.52}^{+0.53}$ km s$^{-1}$ Mpc$^{-1}$. The estimates of $H_{0}$ are found to be in close agreement with some recent probes carried out in the literature. The analysis reveals that the observational data successfully describe the cosmic acceleration within the framework of power-law cosmology. We find that the power-law cosmology accommodates well the $H(z)$ and SNe Ia data. We also test the power-law cosmology using the primordial nucleosynthesis, which yields the constraints $q\gtrsim 0.72$ and $H_{0}\lesssim 41.49$ km s$^{-1}$ Mpc$^{-1}$. These constraints are found to be inconsistent with the ones derived from the $H(z)$ and SNe Ia data. We carry out the statefinder analysis, and find that the power-law cosmological models approach the standard $\Lambda$CDM model as $q\rightarrow -1$. Finally, we conclude that despite having several good features power-law cosmology is not a complete package for the cosmological purposes.
- Nov 01 2010 physics.gen-ph gr-qc arXiv:1010.6268v1The paper deals with a spatially homogeneous and anisotropic universe filled with perfect fluid and dark energy components. The two sources are assumed to interact minimally together with a special law of variation for the average Hubble's parameter in order to solve the Einstein's field equations. The law yields two explicit forms of the scale factor governing the Bianchi-V space-time and constant values of deceleration parameter. The role of dark energy with variable equation of state parameter has been studied in detail in the evolution of Bianchi-V universe. It has been found that dark energy dominates the Universe at the present epoch, which is consistent with the observations. The Universe achieves flatness after the dominance of dark energy. The physical behavior of the Universe has been discussed in detail.
- Oct 04 2010 gr-qc arXiv:1010.0681v3The present study deals with a spatially homogeneous and anisotropic Bianchi-II cosmological model representing massive strings. The energy-momentum tensor, as formulated by Letelier (1983), has been used to construct a massive string cosmological model for which the expansion scalar is proportional to one of the components of shear tensor. The Einstein's field equations have been solved by applying a variation law for generalized Hubble's parameter that yields a constant value of deceleration parameter in Bianchi-II space-time. A comparative study of accelerating and decelerating modes of the evolution of universe has been carried out in the presence of string scenario. The study reveals that massive strings dominate the early Universe. The strings eventually disappear from the Universe for sufficiently large times, which is in agreement with the current astronomical observations.
- Oct 04 2010 gr-qc arXiv:1010.0672v1The paper deals with a spatially homogeneous and isotropic FRW space-time filled with perfect fluid and dark energy components. The two sources are assumed to interact minimally, and therefore their energy momentum tensors are conserved separately. A special law of variation for the Hubble parameter proposed by Berman (1983) has been utilized to solve the field equations. The Berman's law yields two explicit forms of the scale factor governing the FRW space-time and constant values of deceleration parameter. The role of dark energy with variable equation of state parameter has been studied in detail in the evolution of FRW universe. It has been found that dark energy dominates the universe at the present epoch, which is consistent with the observations. The physical behavior of the universe is discussed in detail.
- We study the real time correlators of scalar glueball operators for Yang-Mills theory at finite temperature in flat space. The analytic structure of the frequency space propagator in perturbative field theory is seen to be qualitatively different to the strong coupling results that may be obtained from perturbations about AdS black hole spacetimes: we find branch cuts rather than poles. This difference appears to persist away from the strict zero and infinite coupling limits, possibly suggesting a phase transition in large N thermal N = 4 SYM theory as a function of the 't Hooft coupling.
- We solve the O(N) vector model at large N on a squashed three-sphere with a conformal mass term. Using the Klebanov-Polyakov version of the AdS_4/CFT_3 correspondence we match various aspects of the strongly coupled theory with the physics of the bulk AdS Taub-NUT and AdS Taub-Bolt geometries. Remarkably, we find that the field theory reproduces the behaviour of the bulk free energy as a function of the squashing parameter. The O(N) model is realised in a symmetric phase for all finite values of the coupling and squashing parameter, including when the boundary scalar curvature is negative.
- The energy and time scales during the inflationary stage of the universe calls for an out of equilibrium quantum field treatment. Moreover, the high energy densities involved make necessary the use of non-perturbative approaches as large N and Hartree methods. We start these lectures by introducing such non-perturbative out of equilibrium methods in cosmological universes. We discuss the renormalization procedure and the choice of initial conditions. We then study the nonlinear dynamics of quantum fields in matter and radiation dominated FRW and de Sitter universes. For a variety of initial conditions, we compute the evolution of the inflaton,its quantum fluctuations and the equation of state. We investigate the explosive particle production due to spinodal unstabilities and parametric amplification in FRW and de Sitter universes with and without symmetry breaking.We find that the particle production is sensitive to the expansion of the universe.For symmetry breaking scenarios, we determine generic late time fields behavior for FRW and deSitter cosmologies.We find that quantum fluctuations damp in FRW as the square of the scale factor while the order parameter approaches a minimum of the potential at the same rate.We con- sider an O(N) inflaton model coupled self-consistently to gravity in the semi- classical approximation for a `new inflation' scenario. We find that spinodal instabilities drive the growth of non-perturbatively large quantum fluctuations which shut off inflation. These fluctuations assemble with the inflaton zero mode yielding a new effective field that actually rolls down behaving classi- cally. We compute the amplitude and index for scalar density and tensor perturbations. In all models of this type the spinodal instabilities produce a `red' spectrum of primordial scalar density perturbations.
- We consider an O(N) model coupled self-consistently to gravity in the semiclassical approximation, where the field is subject to `new inflation' type initial conditions. We study the dynamics self-consistently and non-perturbatively with non-equilibrium field theory methods in the large N limit. We find that spinodal instabilities drive the growth of non-perturbatively large quantum fluctuations which shut off the inflationary growth of the scale factor. We find that a very specific combination of these large fluctuations plus the inflaton zero mode assemble into a new effective field. This new field behaves classically and it is the object which actually rolls down. We show how this reinterpretation saves the standard picture of how metric perturbations are generated during inflation and that the spinodal growth of fluctuations dominates the time dependence of the Bardeen variable for superhorizon modes during inflation. We compute the amplitude and index for the spectrum of scalar density and tensor perturbations and argue that in all models of this type the spinodal instabilities are responsible for a `red' spectrum of primordial scalar density perturbations. A criterion for the validity of these models is provided and contact with the reconstruction program is established validating some of the results within a non-perturbative framework. The decoherence aspects and the quantum to classical transition through inflation are studied in detail by following the full evolution of the density matrix and relating the classicality of cosmological perturbations to that of long-wavelength matter fluctuations.
- The physics of the inflationary universe requires the study of the out of equilibrium evolution of quantum fields in curved spacetime. We present the evolution for both the geometry and the matter (described by the quantum inflaton field) by means of the non-perturbative large N limit combined with semi-classical gravitational dynamics including the back-reaction of quantum fluctuations self-consistently for a new inflation scenario. We provide a criterion for the validity of the classical approximation and a full analysis of the case in which spinodal quantum fluctuations drive the evolution of the scale factor. Under carefully determined conditions, we show that the full field equations may be well approximated by those of a single composite field which obeys the classical equation of motion in all cases. The de Sitter stage is found to be followed by a matter dominated phase. We compute the spectrum of scalar density perturbations and argue that the spinodal instabilities are responsible for a `red' spectrum with more power at longer wavelengths. A criterion for the validity of these models is provided and contact with the reconstruction program is established.