results for au:Kosmala_M in:cs
Having accurate, detailed, and up-to-date information about wildlife location and behavior across broad geographic areas would revolutionize our ability to study, conserve, and manage species and ecosystems. Currently such data are mostly gathered manually at great expense, and thus are sparsely and infrequently collected. Here we investigate the ability to automatically, accurately, and inexpensively collect such data from motion sensor cameras. These camera traps enable pictures of wildlife to be collected inexpensively, unobtrusively, and at high-volume. However, identifying the animals, animal attributes, and behaviors in these pictures remains an expensive, time-consuming, manual task often performed by researchers, hired technicians, or crowdsourced teams of human volunteers. In this paper, we demonstrate that such data can be automatically extracted by deep neural networks (aka deep learning), which is a cutting-edge type of artificial intelligence. In particular, we use the existing human-labeled images from the Snapshot Serengeti dataset to train deep convolutional neural networks for identifying 48 species in 3.2 million images taken from Tanzania's Serengeti National Park. We train neural networks that automatically identify animals with over 92% accuracy. More importantly, we can choose to have our system classify only the images it is highly confident about, allowing valuable human time to be focused only on challenging images. In this case, our automatic animal identification system saves approximately ~8.2 years (at 40 hours per week) of human labeling effort (i.e. over 17,000 hours) while operating on a 3.2-million-image dataset at the same 96.6% accuracy level of crowdsourced teams of human volunteers. Those efficiency gains immediately highlight the importance of using deep neural networks to automate data extraction from camera trap images.