Dec 15 2017 cs.CV
This paper performs a comprehensive and comparative evaluation of the state of the art local features for the task of image based 3D reconstruction. The evaluated local features cover the recently developed ones by using powerful machine learning techniques and the elaborately designed handcrafted features. To obtain a comprehensive evaluation, we choose to include both float type features and binary ones. Meanwhile, two kinds of datasets have been used in this evaluation. One is a dataset of many different scene types with groundtruth 3D points, containing images of different scenes captured at fixed positions, for quantitative performance evaluation of different local features in the controlled image capturing situations. The other dataset contains Internet scale image sets of several landmarks with a lot of unrelated images, which is used for qualitative performance evaluation of different local features in the free image collection situations. Our experimental results show that binary features are competent to reconstruct scenes from controlled image sequences with only a fraction of processing time compared to use float type features. However, for the case of large scale image set with many distracting images, float type features show a clear advantage over binary ones.
Source separation (SS) aims to separate individual sources from an audio recording. Sound event detection (SED) aims to detect sound events from an audio recording. We propose a joint separation-classification (JSC) model trained only on weakly labelled audio data, that is, only the tags of an audio recording are known but the time of the events are unknown. First, we propose a separation mapping from the time-frequency (T-F) representation of an audio to the T-F segmentation masks the audio events. Second, a classification mapping is built from each T-F segmentation mask to the presence probability of each audio event. In the source separation stage, sources of audio events and time of sound events can be obtained from the T-F segmentation masks. The proposed method achieves an equal error rate (EER) of 0.14 in SED, outperforming deep neural network baseline of 0.29. Source separation SDR of 8.08 dB is obtained by using global weighted rank pooling (GWRP) as probability mapping, outperforming the global max pooling (GMP) based probability mapping giving SDR at 0.03 dB. Source code of our work is published.
Two of the main frameworks used for modeling information diffusions in the online are epidemic models and Hawkes point processes. The former consider information as a viral contagion which spreads into a population of online users, and employ tools initially developed in the field of epidemiology. The latter view individual broadcasts of information as events in a point process and they modulate the event rate according to observed (or assumed) social principles; they have been broadly used in fields such as finance and geophysics. Here, we study for the first time the connection between these two mature frameworks, and we find them to be equivalent. More precisely, the rate of events in the Hawkes model is identical to the rate of new infections in the Susceptible-Infected-Recovered (SIR) model when taking the expectation over recovery events -- which are unobserved in a Hawkes process. This paves the way to apply tools developed for one framework across the gap, to the other framework. We make three further contributions in this work. First, we propose HawkesN, an extension of the basic Hawkes model, in which we introduce the notion of finite maximum number of events that can occur. Second, we show HawkesN to explain real retweet cascades better than the current state-of-the-art Hawkes modeling. The size of the population can be learned while observing the cascade, at the expense of requiring larger amounts of training data. Third, we employ an SIR method based on Markov chains for computing the final size distribution for a partially observed cascade fitted with HawkesN. We propose an explanation to the generally perceived randomness of online popularity: the final size distribution for real diffusion cascades tends to have two maxima, one corresponding to large cascade sizes and another one around zero.
This paper investigate the classification of the Audio Set dataset. Audio Set is a large scale multi instance learning (MIL) dataset of sound clips. In MIL, a bag consists of several instances, and a bag is labelled positive if one or more instances in the audio clip is positive. Audio Set is a MIL dataset because an audio clip is labelled positive for a class if at least one frame contains the corresponding class. We tackle this MIL problem using an attention model and explain this attention model from a novel probabilistic perspective. We define a probability space on each bag. Each instance in a bag has a trainable probability measure for a class. Then the classification of a bag is the expectation of the classification of the instances in the bag with respect to the learned probability measure. Experimental results show that our proposed attention model modeled by fully connected deep neural network obtains mAP of 0.327 on Audio Set dataset, outperforming the Google's baseline of 0.314 and recurrent neural network of 0.325.
In this paper, we present a gated convolutional neural network and a temporal attention-based localization method for audio classification, which won the 1st place in the large-scale weakly supervised sound event detection task of Detection and Classification of Acoustic Scenes and Events (DCASE) 2017 challenge. The audio clips in this task, which are extracted from YouTube videos, are manually labeled with one or a few audio tags but without timestamps of the audio events, which is called as weakly labeled data. Two sub-tasks are defined in this challenge including audio tagging and sound event detection using this weakly labeled data. A convolutional recurrent neural network (CRNN) with learnable gated linear units (GLUs) non-linearity applied on the log Mel spectrogram is proposed. In addition, a temporal attention method is proposed along the frames to predicate the locations of each audio event in a chunk from the weakly labeled data. We ranked the 1st and the 2nd as a team in these two sub-tasks of DCASE 2017 challenge with F value 55.6\% and Equal error 0.73, respectively.
Sep 05 2017 cs.SD
In this technique report, we present a bunch of methods for the task 4 of Detection and Classification of Acoustic Scenes and Events 2017 (DCASE2017) challenge. This task evaluates systems for the large-scale detection of sound events using weakly labeled training data. The data are YouTube video excerpts focusing on transportation and warnings due to their industry applications. There are two tasks, audio tagging and sound event detection from weakly labeled data. Convolutional neural network (CNN) and gated recurrent unit (GRU) based recurrent neural network (RNN) are adopted as our basic framework. We proposed a learnable gating activation function for selecting informative local features. Attention-based scheme is used for localizing the specific events in a weakly-supervised mode. A new batch-level balancing strategy is also proposed to tackle the data unbalancing problem. Fusion of posteriors from different systems are found effective to improve the performance. In a summary, we get 61% F-value for the audio tagging subtask and 0.73 error rate (ER) for the sound event detection subtask on the development set. While the official multilayer perceptron (MLP) based baseline just obtained 13.1% F-value for the audio tagging and 1.02 for the sound event detection.
Mar 20 2017 cs.SD
Audio tagging aims to perform multi-label classification on audio chunks and it is a newly proposed task in the Detection and Classification of Acoustic Scenes and Events 2016 (DCASE 2016) challenge. This task encourages research efforts to better analyze and understand the content of the huge amounts of audio data on the web. The difficulty in audio tagging is that it only has a chunk-level label without a frame-level label. This paper presents a weakly supervised method to not only predict the tags but also indicate the temporal locations of the occurred acoustic events. The attention scheme is found to be effective in identifying the important frames while ignoring the unrelated frames. The proposed framework is a deep convolutional recurrent model with two auxiliary modules: an attention module and a localization module. The proposed algorithm was evaluated on the Task 4 of DCASE 2016 challenge. State-of-the-art performance was achieved on the evaluation set with equal error rate (EER) reduced from 0.13 to 0.11, compared with the convolutional recurrent baseline system.
Environmental audio tagging is a newly proposed task to predict the presence or absence of a specific audio event in a chunk. Deep neural network (DNN) based methods have been successfully adopted for predicting the audio tags in the domestic audio scene. In this paper, we propose to use a convolutional neural network (CNN) to extract robust features from mel-filter banks (MFBs), spectrograms or even raw waveforms for audio tagging. Gated recurrent unit (GRU) based recurrent neural networks (RNNs) are then cascaded to model the long-term temporal structure of the audio signal. To complement the input information, an auxiliary CNN is designed to learn on the spatial features of stereo recordings. We evaluate our proposed methods on Task 4 (audio tagging) of the Detection and Classification of Acoustic Scenes and Events 2016 (DCASE 2016) challenge. Compared with our recent DNN-based method, the proposed structure can reduce the equal error rate (EER) from 0.13 to 0.11 on the development set. The spatial features can further reduce the EER to 0.10. The performance of the end-to-end learning on raw waveforms is also comparable. Finally, on the evaluation set, we get the state-of-the-art performance with 0.12 EER while the performance of the best existing system is 0.15 EER.
Oct 07 2016 cs.SD
Audio tagging aims to assign one or several tags to an audio clip. Most of the datasets are weakly labelled, which means only the tags of the clip are known, without knowing the occurrence time of the tags. The labeling of an audio clip is often based on the audio events in the clip and no event level label is provided to the user. Previous works have used the bag of frames model assume the tags occur all the time, which is not the case in practice. We propose a joint detection-classification (JDC) model to detect and classify the audio clip simultaneously. The JDC model has the ability to attend to informative and ignore uninformative sounds. Then only informative regions are used for classification. Experimental results on the "CHiME Home" dataset show that the JDC model reduces the equal error rate (EER) from 19.0% to 16.9%. More interestingly, the audio event detector is trained successfully without needing the event level label.
Feb 16 2016 cs.CV
Binary features have been incrementally popular in the past few years due to their low memory footprints and the efficient computation of Hamming distance between binary descriptors. They have been shown with promising results on some real time applications, e.g., SLAM, where the matching operations are relative few. However, in computer vision, there are many applications such as 3D reconstruction requiring lots of matching operations between local features. Therefore, a natural question is that is the binary feature still a promising solution to this kind of applications? To get the answer, this paper conducts a comparative study of binary features and their matching methods on the context of 3D reconstruction in a recently proposed large scale mutliview stereo dataset. Our evaluations reveal that not all binary features are capable of this task. Most of them are inferior to the classical SIFT based method in terms of reconstruction accuracy and completeness with a not significant better computational performance.
This paper gives the minimum generating sets of three types of one generator $(1+u)$-quasi twisted (QT) codes over $F_2+uF_2$, $u^2=0$. Moreover, it discusses the generating sets and the lower bounds on the minimum Lee distance of a special class of $A_2$ type one generator $(1+u)$-QT codes. Some good (optimal or suboptimal) linear codes over $F_2$ are obtained by these types of one generator $(1+u)$-QT codes.