results for au:Kliuchnikov_V in:quant-ph

- Quantum computing exploits quantum phenomena such as superposition and entanglement to realize a form of parallelism that is not available to traditional computing. It offers the potential of significant computational speed-ups in quantum chemistry, materials science, cryptography, and machine learning. The dominant approach to programming quantum computers is to provide an existing high-level language with libraries that allow for the expression of quantum programs. This approach can permit computations that are meaningless in a quantum context; prohibits succinct expression of interaction between classical and quantum logic; and does not provide important constructs that are required for quantum programming. We present Q#, a quantum-focused domain-specific language explicitly designed to correctly, clearly and completely express quantum algorithms. Q# provides a type system, a tightly constrained environment to safely interleave classical and quantum computations; specialized syntax, symbolic code manipulation to automatically generate correct transformations of quantum operations, and powerful functional constructs which aid composition.
- Oct 15 2015 quant-ph arXiv:1510.03888v1We present an algorithm for efficiently approximating of qubit unitaries over gate sets derived from totally definite quaternion algebras. It achieves $\varepsilon$-approximations using circuits of length $O(\log(1/\varepsilon))$, which is asymptotically optimal. The algorithm achieves the same quality of approximation as previously-known algorithms for Clifford+T [arXiv:1212.6253], V-basis [arXiv:1303.1411] and Clifford+$\pi/12$ [arXiv:1409.3552], running on average in time polynomial in $O(\log(1/\varepsilon))$ (conditional on a number-theoretic conjecture). Ours is the first such algorithm that works for a wide range of gate sets and provides insight into what should constitute a "good" gate set for a fault-tolerant quantum computer.
- Exact synthesis is a tool used in algorithms for approximating an arbitrary qubit unitary with a sequence of quantum gates from some finite set. These approximation algorithms find asymptotically optimal approximations in probabilistic polynomial time, in some cases even finding the optimal solution in probabilistic polynomial time given access to an oracle for factoring integers. In this paper, we present a common mathematical structure underlying all results related to the exact synthesis of qubit unitaries known to date, including Clifford+T, Clifford-cyclotomic and V-basis gate sets, as well as gates sets induced by the braiding of Fibonacci anyons in topological quantum computing. The framework presented here also provides a means to answer questions related to the exact synthesis of unitaries for wide classes of other gate sets, such as Clifford+T+V and SU(2) level k anyons.
- Apr 15 2015 quant-ph arXiv:1504.03383v3A class of anyonic models for universal quantum computation based on weakly-integral anyons has been recently proposed. While universal set of gates cannot be obtained in this context by anyon braiding alone, designing a certain type of sector charge measurement provides universality. In this paper we develop a compilation algorithm to approximate arbitrary $n$-qutrit unitaries with asymptotically efficient circuits over the metaplectic anyon model. One flavor of our algorithm produces efficient circuits with upper complexity bound asymptotically in $O(3^{2\,n} \, \log{1/\varepsilon})$ and entanglement cost that is exponential in $n$. Another flavor of the algorithm produces efficient circuits with upper complexity bound in $O(n\,3^{2\,n} \, \log{1/\varepsilon})$ and no additional entanglement cost.
- Jan 21 2015 quant-ph arXiv:1501.04944v2We generalize an efficient exact synthesis algorithm for single-qubit unitaries over the Clifford+T gate set which was presented by Kliuchnikov, Maslov and Mosca. Their algorithm takes as input an exactly synthesizable single-qubit unitary--one which can be expressed without error as a product of Clifford and T gates--and outputs a sequence of gates which implements it. The algorithm is optimal in the sense that the length of the sequence, measured by the number of T gates, is smallest possible. In this paper, for each positive even integer $n$ we consider the "Clifford-cyclotomic" gate set consisting of the Clifford group plus a z-rotation by $\frac{\pi}{n}$. We present an efficient exact synthesis algorithm which outputs a decomposition using the minimum number of $\frac{\pi}{n}$ z-rotations. For the Clifford+T case $n=4$ the group of exactly synthesizable unitaries was shown to be equal to the group of unitaries with entries over the ring $\mathbb{Z}[e^{i\frac{\pi}{n}},1/2]$. We prove that this characterization holds for a handful of other small values of $n$ but the fraction of positive even integers for which it fails to hold is 100%.
- In a topological quantum computer, universality is achieved by braiding and quantum information is natively protected from small local errors. We address the problem of compiling single-qubit quantum operations into braid representations for non-abelian quasiparticles described by the Fibonacci anyon model. We develop a probabilistically polynomial algorithm that outputs a braid pattern to approximate a given single-qubit unitary to a desired precision. We also classify the single-qubit unitaries that can be implemented exactly by a Fibonacci anyon braid pattern and present an efficient algorithm to produce their braid patterns. Our techniques produce braid patterns that meet the uniform asymptotic lower bound on the compiled circuit depth and thus are depth-optimal asymptotically. Our compiled circuits are significantly shorter than those output by prior state-of-the-art methods, resulting in improvements in depth by factors ranging from 20 to 1000 for precisions ranging between $10^{-10}$ and $10^{-30}$.
- Aug 20 2013 quant-ph arXiv:1308.4134v1We consider quantum circuits composed of Clifford and T gates. In this context the T gate has a special status since it confers universal computation when added to the (classically simulable) Clifford gates. However it can be very expensive to implement fault-tolerantly. We therefore view this gate as a resource which should be used only when necessary. Given an n-qubit unitary U we are interested in computing a circuit that implements it using the minimum possible number of T gates (called the T-count of U). A related task is to decide if the T-count of U is less than or equal to m; we consider this problem as a function of N=2^n and m. We provide a classical algorithm which solves it using time and space both upper bounded as O(N^m poly(m,N)). We implemented our algorithm and used it to show that any Clifford+T circuit for the Toffoli or the Fredkin gate requires at least 7 T gates. This implies that the known 7 T gate circuits for these gates are T-optimal. We also provide a simple expression for the T-count of single-qubit unitaries.
- We describe a new method for approximating an arbitrary $n$ qubit unitary with precision $\varepsilon$ using a Clifford and T circuit with $O(4^{n}n(\log(1/\varepsilon)+n))$ gates. The method is based on rounding off a unitary to a unitary over the ring $\mathbb{Z}[i,1/\sqrt{2}]$ and employing exact synthesis. We also show that any $n$ qubit unitary over the ring $\mathbb{Z}[i,1/\sqrt{2}]$ with entries of the form $(a+b\sqrt{2}+ic+id\sqrt{2})/2^{k}$ can be exactly synthesized using $O(4^{n}nk)$ Clifford and T gates using two ancillary qubits. This new exact synthesis algorithm is an improvement over the best known exact synthesis method by B. Giles and P. Selinger requiring $O(3^{2^{n}}nk)$ elementary gates.
- May 24 2013 quant-ph arXiv:1305.5528v3We provide a non-deterministic quantum protocol that approximates the single qubit rotations R_x(2a^2 b^2)$ using R_x(2a) and R_x(2b) and a constant number of Clifford and T operations. We then use this method to construct a "floating point" implementation of a small rotation wherein we use the aforementioned method to construct the exponent part of the rotation and also to combine it with a mantissa. This causes the cost of the synthesis to depend more strongly on the relative (rather than absolute) precision required. We analyze the mean and variance of the \Tcount required to use our techniques and provide new lower bounds for the T-count for ancilla free synthesis of small single-qubit axial rotations. We further show that our techniques can use ancillas to beat these lower bounds with high probability. We also discuss the T-depth of our method and see that the vast majority of the cost of the resultant circuits can be shifted to parallel computation paths.
- We study optimal synthesis of Clifford circuits, and apply the results to peep-hole optimization of quantum circuits. We report optimal circuits for all Clifford operations with up to four inputs. We perform peep-hole optimization of Clifford circuits with up to 40 inputs found in the literature, and demonstrate the reduction in the number of gates by about 50%. We extend our methods to the optimal synthesis of linear reversible circuits, partially specified Clifford functions, and optimal Clifford circuits with five inputs up to input/output permutation. The results find their application in randomized benchmarking protocols, quantum error correction, and quantum circuit optimization.
- We present an algorithm, along with its implementation that finds T-optimal approximations of single-qubit Z-rotations using quantum circuits consisting of Clifford and T gates. Our algorithm is capable of handling errors in approximation down to size $10^{-15}$, resulting in optimal single-qubit circuit designs required for implementation of scalable quantum algorithms. Our implementation along with the experimental results are available in the public domain.
- We present an algorithm for building a circuit that approximates single qubit unitaries with precision \epsilon using O(log(1/\epsilon)) Clifford and T gates and employing up to two ancillary qubits. The algorithm for computing our approximating circuit requires an average of O(log^2(1/\epsilon)log log(1/\epsilon)) operations. We prove that the number of gates in our circuit saturates the lower bound on the number of gates required in the scenario when a constant number of ancillae are supplied, and as such, our circuits are asymptotically optimal. This results in significant improvement over the current state of the art for finding an approximation of a unitary, including the Solovay-Kitaev algorithm that requires O(log^3+\delta(1/\epsilon)) gates and does not use ancillae and the phase kickback approach that requires O(log^2(1/\epsilon)log log(1/\epsilon)) gates, but uses O(log^2(1/\epsilon)) ancillae.
- In this paper, we show the equivalence of the set of unitaries computable by the circuits over the Clifford and T library and the set of unitaries over the ring $\mathbb{Z}[\frac{1}{\sqrt{2}},i]$, in the single-qubit case. We report an efficient synthesis algorithm, with an exact optimality guarantee on the number of Hadamard and T gates used. We conjecture that the equivalence of the sets of unitaries implementable by circuits over the Clifford and T library and unitaries over the ring $\mathbb{Z}[\frac{1}{\sqrt{2}},i]$ holds in the $n$-qubit case.