results for au:Kimmel_S in:quant-ph

- Characterising quantum processes is a key task in and constitutes a challenge for the development of quantum technologies, especially at the noisy intermediate scale of today's devices. One method for characterising processes is randomised benchmarking, which is robust against state preparation and measurement (SPAM) errors, and can be used to benchmark Clifford gates. A complementing approach asks for full tomographic knowledge. Compressed sensing techniques achieve full tomography of quantum channels essentially at optimal resource efficiency. So far, guarantees for compressed sensing protocols rely on unstructured random measurements and can not be applied to the data acquired from randomised benchmarking experiments. It has been an open question whether or not the favourable features of both worlds can be combined. In this work, we give a positive answer to this question. For the important case of characterising multi-qubit unitary gates, we provide a rigorously guaranteed and practical reconstruction method that works with an essentially optimal number of average gate fidelities measured respect to random Clifford unitaries. Moreover, for general unital quantum channels we provide an explicit expansion into a unitary 2-design, allowing for a practical and guaranteed reconstruction also in that case. As a side result, we obtain a new statistical interpretation of the unitarity -- a figure of merit that characterises the coherence of a process. In our proofs we exploit recent representation theoretic insights on the Clifford group, develop a version of Collins' calculus with Weingarten functions for integration over the Clifford group, and combine this with proof techniques from compressed sensing.
- Authors note: After posting this manuscript, we were made aware of a number of previous works along very similar lines, such as Refs [1-5] in version 2 of this manuscript, amongst others. We had formulated this concept and arrived at our results independently, and regret that as a result we did not properly cite these works and failed to put our work in a proper context. We are grateful to the individuals who brought this to our attention, and we are gratified to find that our ideas, while not as new as we had believed, are at least of interest to the community. We are currently working on assessing how our results relate to these prior works. In the mean time, we remain proud of our work, and we present the manuscript in its original form. Original abstract: We introduce the concept of a quantum "seal" and investigate its feasibility. We define a seal as a state provided by Alice to Bob along with a set of instructions which Bob can follow in order to "break the seal" and read the classical message stored inside. We define two success criteria for a seal: the probability Bob can successfully read the message if he follows Alice's instructions without any further input must be high, and if Alice asks for the state back from Bob, the probability Alice can tell if Bob broke the seal without permission must be high. We prove that within the constraints of quantum mechanics these two criteria are mutually exclusive. Finally, we derive upper and lower bounds on the achievability of a probabilistic seal for various message lengths, and show that for a 1-bit message our bound is tight.
- We give a new upper bound on the quantum query complexity of deciding $st$-connectivity on certain classes of planar graphs, and show the bound is sometimes exponentially better than previous results. We then show Boolean formula evaluation reduces to deciding connectivity on just such a class of graphs. Applying the algorithm for $st$-connectivity to Boolean formula evaluation problems, we match the $O(\sqrt{N})$ bound on the quantum query complexity of evaluating formulas on $N$ variables, give a quadratic speed-up over the classical query complexity of a certain class of promise Boolean formulas, and show this approach can yield superpolynomial quantum/classical separations. These results indicate that this $st$-connectivity-based approach may be the "right" way of looking at quantum algorithms for formula evaluation.
- Feb 08 2017 quant-ph physics.atom-ph arXiv:1702.01763v1We demonstrate experimental implementation of robust phase estimation (RPE) to learn the phases of X and Y rotations on a trapped $\textrm{Yb}^+$ ion qubit. We estimate these phases with uncertainties less than $4\cdot10^{-4}$ radians using as few as 176 total experimental samples per phase, and our estimates exhibit Heisenberg scaling. Unlike standard phase estimation protocols, RPE neither assumes perfect state preparation and measurement, nor requires access to ancillae. We cross-validate the results of RPE with the more resource-intensive protocol of gate set tomography.
- Aug 02 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1608.00281v1We investigate the sample complexity of Hamiltonian simulation: how many copies of an unknown quantum state are required to simulate a Hamiltonian encoded by the density matrix of that state? We show that the procedure proposed by Lloyd, Mohseni, and Rebentrost [Nat. Phys., 10(9):631--633, 2014] is optimal for this task. We further extend their method to the case of multiple input states, showing how to simulate any Hermitian polynomial of the states provided. As applications, we derive optimal algorithms for commutator simulation and orthogonality testing, and we give a protocol for creating a coherent superposition of pure states, when given sample access to those states. We also show that this sample-based Hamiltonian simulation can be used as the basis of a universal model of quantum computation that requires only partial swap operations and simple single-qubit states.
- We study a quantum algorithm that consists of a simple quantum Markov process, and we analyze its behavior on restricted versions of Quantum 2-SAT. We prove that the algorithm solves this decision problem with high probability for n qubits, L clauses, and promise gap c in time O(n^2 L^2 c^-2). If the Hamiltonian is additionally polynomially gapped, our algorithm efficiently produces a state that has high overlap with the satisfying subspace. The Markov process we study is a quantum analogue of Schöning's probabilistic algorithm for k-SAT.
- We show that the quantum query complexity of evaluating NAND-tree instances with average choice complexity at most $W$ is $O(W)$, where average choice complexity is a measure of the difficulty of winning the associated two-player game. This generalizes a superpolynomial speedup over classical query complexity due to Zhan et al. [Zhan et al., ITCS 2012, 249-265]. We further show that the player with a winning strategy for the two-player game associated with the NAND-tree can win the game with an expected $\widetilde{O}(N^{1/4}\sqrt{{\cal C}(x)})$ quantum queries against a random opponent, where ${\cal C }(x)$ is the average choice complexity of the instance. This gives an improvement over the query complexity of the naive strategy, which costs $\widetilde{O}(\sqrt{N})$ queries. The results rely on a connection between NAND-tree evaluation and $st$-connectivity problems on certain graphs, and span programs for $st$-connectivity problems. Our results follow from relating average choice complexity to the effective resistance of these graphs, which itself corresponds to the span program witness size.
- We consider a variant of the phase retrieval problem, where vectors are replaced by unitary matrices, i.e., the unknown signal is a unitary matrix U, and the measurements consist of squared inner products |Tr(C*U)|^2 with unitary matrices C that are chosen by the observer. This problem has applications to quantum process tomography, when the unknown process is a unitary operation. We show that PhaseLift, a convex programming algorithm for phase retrieval, can be adapted to this matrix setting, using measurements that are sampled from unitary 4- and 2-designs. In the case of unitary 4-design measurements, we show that PhaseLift can reconstruct all unitary matrices, using a near-optimal number of measurements. This extends previous work on PhaseLift using spherical 4-designs. In the case of unitary 2-design measurements, we show that PhaseLift still works pretty well on average: it recovers almost all signals, up to a constant additive error, using a near-optimal number of measurements. These 2-design measurements are convenient for quantum process tomography, as they can be implemented via randomized benchmarking techniques. This is the first positive result on PhaseLift using 2-designs.
- We study the ability of efficient quantum verifiers to decide properties of exponentially large subsets given either a classical or quantum witness. We develop a general framework that can be used to prove that QCMA machines, with only classical witnesses, cannot verify certain properties of subsets given implicitly via an oracle. We use this framework to prove an oracle separation between QCMA and QMA using an ``in-place'' permutation oracle, making the first progress on this question since Aaronson and Kuperberg in 2007. We also use the framework to prove a particularly simple standard oracle separation between QCMA and AM.
- May 26 2015 quant-ph arXiv:1505.06686v1Typical quantum gate tomography protocols struggle with a self-consistency problem: the gate operation cannot be reconstructed without knowledge of the initial state and final measurement, but such knowledge cannot be obtained without well-characterized gates. A recently proposed technique, known as randomized benchmarking tomography (RBT), sidesteps this self-consistency problem by designing experiments to be insensitive to preparation and measurement imperfections. We implement this proposal in a superconducting qubit system, using a number of experimental improvements including implementing each of the elements of the Clifford group in single `atomic' pulses and custom control hardware to enable large overhead protocols. We show a robust reconstruction of several single-qubit quantum gates, including a unitary outside the Clifford group. We demonstrate that RBT yields physical gate reconstructions that are consistent with fidelities obtained by randomized benchmarking.
- Feb 11 2015 quant-ph arXiv:1502.02677v2An important step in building a quantum computer is calibrating experimentally implemented quantum gates to produce operations that are close to ideal unitaries. The calibration step involves estimating the systematic errors in gates and then using controls to correct the implementation. Quantum process tomography is a standard technique for estimating these errors, but is both time consuming, (when one only wants to learn a few key parameters), and is usually inaccurate without resources like perfect state preparation and measurement, which might not be available. With the goal of efficiently and accurately estimating specific errors using minimal resources, we develop a parameter estimation technique, which can gauge key systematic parameters (specifically, amplitude and off-resonance errors) in a universal single-qubit gate-set with provable robustness and efficiency. In particular, our estimates achieve the optimal efficiency, Heisenberg scaling, and do so without entanglement and entirely within a single-qubit Hilbert space. Our main theorem making this possible is a robust version of the phase estimation procedure of Higgins et al. [B. L. Higgins, New J. Phys. 11, 073023 (2009)].
- While powerful tools have been developed to analyze quantum query complexity, there are still many natural problems that do not fit neatly into the black box model of oracles. We create a new model that allows multiple oracles with differing costs. This model captures more of the difficulty of certain natural problems. We test this model on a simple problem, Search with Two Oracles, for which we create a quantum algorithm that we prove is asymptotically optimal. We further give some evidence, using a geometric picture of Grover's algorithm, that our algorithm is exactly optimal.
- Jun 11 2013 quant-ph arXiv:1306.2348v2We describe how randomized benchmarking can be used to reconstruct the unital part of any trace-preserving quantum map, which in turn is sufficient for the full characterization of any unitary evolution, or more generally, any unital trace-preserving evolution. This approach inherits randomized benchmarking's robustness to preparation, measurement, and gate imperfections, therefore avoiding systematic errors caused by these imperfections. We also extend these techniques to efficiently estimate the average fidelity of a quantum map to unitary maps outside of the Clifford group. The unitaries we consider correspond to large circuits commonly used as building blocks to achieve scalable, universal, and fault-tolerant quantum computation. Hence, we can efficiently verify all such subcomponents of a circuit-based universal quantum computer. In addition, we rigorously bound the time and sampling complexities of randomized benchmarking procedures, proving that the required non-linear estimation problem can be solved efficiently.
- The quantum query complexity of evaluating any read-once formula with n black-box input bits is Theta(sqrt(n)). However, the corresponding problem for read-many formulas (i.e., formulas in which the inputs have fanout) is not well understood. Although the optimal read-once formula evaluation algorithm can be applied to any formula, it can be suboptimal if the inputs have large fanout. We give an algorithm for evaluating any formula with n inputs, size S, and G gates using O(minn, sqrtS, n^1/2 G^1/4) quantum queries. Furthermore, we show that this algorithm is optimal, since for any n,S,G there exists a formula with n inputs, size at most S, and at most G gates that requires Omega(minn, sqrtS, n^1/2 G^1/4) queries. We also show that the algorithm remains nearly optimal for circuits of any particular depth k >= 3, and we give a linear-size circuit of depth 2 that requires Omega (n^5/9) queries. Applications of these results include a Omega (n^19/18) lower bound for Boolean matrix product verification, a nearly tight characterization of the quantum query complexity of evaluating constant-depth circuits with bounded fanout, new formula gate count lower bounds for several functions including PARITY, and a construction of an AC^0 circuit of linear size that can only be evaluated by a formula with Omega(n^2-epsilon) gates.
- Jan 05 2011 quant-ph arXiv:1101.0797v5We describe a method to upper bound the quantum query complexity of Boolean formula evaluation problems, using fundamental theorems about the general adversary bound. This nonconstructive method can give an upper bound on query complexity without producing an algorithm. For example, we describe an oracle problem which we prove (non-constructively) can be solved in $O(1)$ queries, where the previous best quantum algorithm uses a polylogarithmic number of queries. We then give an explicit $O(1)$-query algorithm for this problem based on span programs.
- Jan 05 2011 quant-ph arXiv:1101.0798v2We present an oracle problem, which we call the Repeated Randomness problem, that a quantum algorithm can solve in one query, while any classical algorithm requires $\Omega(\log n)$ queries, where the oracle function has $2^n$ inputs. This problem has connections to the parity problem introduced by Bernstein and Vazirani \citeBernstein1993 and to a variation of the NAND tree described by Zhan et al \citeZhan.
- Jan 05 2011 quant-ph arXiv:1101.0796v3We give a quantum algorithm for evaluating a class of boolean formulas (such as NAND trees and 3-majority trees) on a restricted set of inputs. Due to the structure of the allowed inputs, our algorithm can evaluate a depth $n$ tree using $O(n^{2+\log\omega})$ queries, where $\omega$ is independent of $n$ and depends only on the type of subformulas within the tree. We also prove a classical lower bound of $n^{\Omega(\log\log n)}$ queries, thus showing a (small) super-polynomial speed-up.
- Sep 15 2008 quant-ph arXiv:0809.2264v4For certain joint measurements on a pair of spatially separated particles, we ask how much entanglement is needed to carry out the measurement exactly. For a class of orthogonal measurements on two qubits with partially entangled eigenstates, we present upper and lower bounds on the entanglement cost. The upper bound is based on a recent result by D. Berry [Phys. Rev. A 75, 032349 (2007)]. The lower bound, based on the entanglement production capacity of the measurement, implies that for almost all measurements in the class we consider, the entanglement required to perform the measurement is strictly greater than the average entanglement of its eigenstates. On the other hand, we show that for any complete measurement in d x d dimensions that is invariant under all local Pauli operations, the cost of the measurement is exactly equal to the average entanglement of the states associated with the outcomes.