results for au:Jr_J in:cond-mat

- May 16 2018 cond-mat.stat-mech arXiv:1805.05892v1We investigate the dynamics of overdamped $D$-dimensional systems of particles repulsively interacting through short-ranged power-law potentials, $V(r)\sim r^{-\lambda}\;(\lambda/D>1)$. We show that such systems obey a non-linear diffusion equation, and that their stationary state extremizes a $q$-generalized nonadditive entropy. Here we focus on the dynamical evolution of these systems. Our first-principle $D=1,2$ many-body numerical simulations (based on Newton's law) confirm the predictions obtained from the time-dependent solution of the non-linear diffusion equation, and show that the one-particle space-distribution $P(x,t)$ appears to follow a compact-support $q$-Gaussian form, with $q=1-\lambda/D$. We also calculate the velocity distributions $P(v_x,t)$ and, interestingly enough, they follow the same $q$-Gaussian form (apparently precisely for $D=1$, and nearly so for $D=2$). The satisfactory match between the continuum description and the molecular dynamics simulations in a more general, time-dependent, framework neatly confirms the idea that the present dissipative systems indeed represent suitable applications of the $q$-generalized thermostatistical theory.
- Mar 22 2018 cond-mat.stat-mech arXiv:1803.07876v1The elastic backbone is the set of all shortest paths. We found a new phase transition at $p_{eb}$ above the classical percolation threshold at which the elastic backbone becomes dense. At this transition in $2d$ its fractal dimension is $1.750\pm 0.003$, and one obtains a novel set of critical exponents $\beta_{eb} = 0.50\pm 0.02$, $\gamma_{eb} = 1.97\pm 0.05$, and $\nu_{eb} = 2.00\pm 0.02$ fulfilling consistent critical scaling laws. Interestingly, however, the hyperscaling relation is violated. Using Binder's cumulant, we determine, with high precision, the critical probabilities $p_{eb}$ for the triangular and tilted square lattice for site and bond percolation. This transition describes a sudden rigidification as a function of density when stretching a damaged tissue.
- Feb 09 2018 cond-mat.str-el arXiv:1802.02815v1The magnetic structure of Ca$_2$MnReO$_6$ double perovskite is investigated by neutron powder diffraction and bulk magnetization, showing dominant non-collinear Mn magnetic moments [$4.35(7)$ $\mu_B$] that are orthogonally aligned with the small Re moments [$0.22(4)$ $\mu_B$]. $Ab$-initio electronic structure calculations show that the strong spin-orbit coupling for Re $5d$ electrons combined with a relatively modest on-site Coulomb repulsion ($U_{eff}^{Re} \gtrsim 0.6$ eV) is sufficient to render this material insulating. This is a rare example of spin-orbit assisted Mott insulator outside the realm of iridates, with remarkable magnetic properties.
- Nov 17 2017 physics.soc-ph cond-mat.stat-mech arXiv:1711.05894v1The increasing cost of electoral campaigns raises the need for effective campaign planning and a precise understanding of the return of such investment. Interestingly, despite the strong impact of elections on our daily lives, how this investment is translated into votes is still unknown. By performing data analysis and modeling, we show that top candidates spend more money \emphper vote than the less successful and poorer candidates, a sublinearity that discloses a diseconomy of scale. We demonstrate that such electoral diseconomy arises from the competition between candidates due to inefficient campaign expenditure. Our approach succeeds in two important tests. First, it reveals that the statistical pattern in the vote distribution of candidates can be explained in terms of the independently conceived, but similarly skewed distribution of money campaign. Second, using a heuristic argument, we are able to predict a turnout percentage for a given election of approximately 63\%. This result is in good agreement with the average turnout rate obtained from real data. Due to its generality, we expect that our approach can be applied to a wide range of problems concerning the adoption process in marketing campaigns.
- We present in this work an analysis of the damage imposed by the atom on the field state inside a lossy superconducting cavity. To access such effects, we propose two procedures to preserve a qubit of the decay effects of an imperfect quantum memory: the first by means of an quasi-instantaneous phase kick applied in the atom, and the second by means of controlled resonant and dispersive interactions. We immediately demonstrate that, in both procedures, the dwell time of the qubit in the cavity increases significantly, being expressively higher for the second. A relation between the inaccuracy of the preparation of the atomic beam and the quality of the cavity arises naturally from our calculations for each procedure. This result is unprecedented, and sets out the rules to increase the dwell time of the qubit.
- Relative Cooling Power Enhancement by Tuning Magneto-structural Stability in Ni-Mn-In Heusler AlloysOct 10 2017 cond-mat.mtrl-sci arXiv:1710.02522v6Off-stoichiometric Ni$_2$MnIn Heusler alloys have drawn recent attention due to their large magnetocaloric entropy change associated with the first-order magneto-structural transition. Here we present crystal structural, calorimetric and magnetic studies of three compositions. Temperature-dependent X-ray diffraction shows clear structural transition from a 6M modulated monoclinic to a L2$_1$ cubic. A significant enhancement of relative cooling power (RCP) was achieved by tuning the magnetic and structural stability through minor compositional changes, with the measured results quantitatively close to the prediction as a function of the ratio between the martensitic transition ($T_m$) temperature and austenite Curie temperature ($T_C$) although the maximal magnetic induced entropy change ($\Delta S_{max}$) reduction is observed in the same time. The results provided an evaluation guideline of RCPs as well as magnetic-induced entropy change in designing practical active materials.
- Sep 04 2017 q-bio.NC cond-mat.other arXiv:1709.00339v1When searching for a target within an image our brain can adopt different strategies, but which one does it choose? This question can be answered by tracking the motion of the eye while it executes the task. Following many individuals performing various search tasks we distinguish between two competing strategies. Motivated by these findings, we introduce a model that captures the interplay of the search strategies and allows us to create artificial eye-tracking trajectories, which could be compared to the experimental ones. Identifying the model parameters allows us to quantify the strategy employed in terms of ensemble averages, characterizing each experimental cohort. In this way we can discern with high sensitivity the relation between the visual landscape and the average strategy, disclosing how small variations in the image induce changes in the strategy.
- Aug 08 2017 cond-mat.mes-hall arXiv:1708.01801v1We investigate the electronic properties of $N$-layer black phosphorus by means of an analytical method based on a recently proposed tight-binding Hamiltonian involving $14$ hopping parameters. The method provides simple and accurate general expressions for the Hamiltonian of $N$-layer phosphorene, which are suitable for the study of electronic transport and optical properties of such systems, and the results show the features that emerge as the number of layers increases. In addition, we show that the $N$-layer problem can be translated into $N$ effective monolayer problems in the long wavelength approximation and, within this analytical picture, we obtain expressions for the energy gap and the effective masses for electrons and holes along the $N$-layer black phosphorus plane directions as function of the number of layers, as well as for the Landau levels as function of perpendicular magnetic field.
- Aug 03 2017 cond-mat.mes-hall arXiv:1708.00512v1Dielectric screening is greatly important to an accurate calculation of the exciton binding energies in two-dimensional materials. In this work, we calculate the dielectric function and 2D polarizability of multilayer (up to three) phosphorene sheets using Density Functional Theory. The 2D polarizabilities are then used in the dielectric screening of the excitonic interaction in multilayer phosphorene quantum dots. In the limit of large quantum dots, excitonic gaps are shown to exhibit very good agreement with state-of-the-art measurements of the optical gaps of multilayer phosphorene sheets deposited in different substrates.
- Jun 14 2017 cond-mat.stat-mech arXiv:1706.03853v1We investigate the properties of a two-state sandpile model subjected to a confining potential in two dimensions. From the microdynamical description, we derive a diffusion equation, and find a stationary solution for the case of a parabolic confining potential. By studying the systems at different confining conditions, we observe two scale-invariant regimes. At a given confining potential strength, the cluster size distribution takes the form of a power law. This regime corresponds to the situation in which the density at the center of the system approaches the critical percolation threshold. The analysis of the fractal dimension of the largest cluster frontier provides evidence that this regime is reminiscent of gradient percolation. By increasing further the confining potential, most of the particles coalesce in a giant cluster, and we observe a regime where the jump size distribution takes the form of a power law. The onset of this second regime is signaled by a maximum in the fluctuation of energy.
- May 15 2017 cond-mat.mtrl-sci arXiv:1705.04413v1We considered a generic case of pre-transitional materials with static stress-generating defects, dislocations and coherent nano-precipitates, at temperatures close but above the starting temperature of martensitic transformation, Ms. Using the Phase Field Microelasticity theory and 3D simulation, we demonstrated that the local stress generated by these defects produces equilibrium nano-size martensitic embryos (MEs) in pre-transitional state, these embryos being orientation variants of martensite. This is a new type of equilibrium: the thermoelastic equilibrium between the MEs and parent phase in which the total volume of MEs and their size are equilibrium internal thermodynamic parameters. This thermoelastic equilibrium exists only in presence of the stress-generating defects. Cooling the pre-transitional state towards Ms or applying the external stimuli, stress or magnetic field, results in a shift of the thermoelastic equilibrium provided by a reversible anhysteretic growth of MEs that results in a giant ME-generated macroscopic strain. In particular, this effect can be associated with the diffuse phase transformations observed in some ferroelectrics above the Curie point. It is shown that the ME-generated strain is giant and describes a superelasticity if the applied field is stress. It describes a super magnetostriction if the martensite (or austenite) are ferromagnetic and the applied field is a magnetic field. In general, the material with defects can be a multiferroic with a giant multiferroic response if the parent and martensitic phase have different ferroic properties. Finally the ME-generated strain may explain or, at least, contribute to the Invar and Elinvar effects that are typically observed in pre-transitional austenite. The thermoelastic equilibrium and all these effects exist only if the interaction between the defects and MEs is infinite-range.
- Mar 24 2017 cond-mat.mtrl-sci arXiv:1703.07945v1We report a large linear magnetoresistance in Cu$_{2-x}$Te, reaching $\Delta\rho/\rho(0)$ = 250\% at 2 K in a 9 T field. This is observed for samples with $x$ in the range 0.13 to 0.22, and the results are comparable to the effects observed in Ag$_2 X$ materials, although in this case the results appear for a much wider range of bulk carrier density. Examining the magnitude vs. crossover field from low-field quadratic to high-field linear behavior, we show that models based on classical transport behavior best explain the observed results. The effects are traced to misdirected currents due to topologically inverted behavior in this system, such that stable surface states provide the high mobility transport channels. The resistivity also crosses over to a $T^2$ dependence in the temperature range where the large linear MR appears, an indicator of electron-electron interaction effects within the surface states. Thus this is an example of a system in which these interactions dominate the low-temperature behavior of the surface states.
- Feb 03 2017 cond-mat.mes-hall arXiv:1702.00469v1We theoretically study a current switch that exploits the phase acquired by a charge carrier as it tunnels through a potential barrier in graphene. The system acts as an interferometer based on an armchair graphene quantum ring, where the phase difference between interfering electronic wave functions for each path can be controlled by tuning either the height or the width of a potential barrier in the ring arms. By varying the parameters of the potential barriers the interference can become completely destructive. We demonstrate how this interference effect can be used for developing a simple graphene-based logic gate with high on/off ratio
- The order parameter of a critical system defined in a layered parallel plate geometry subject to Neumann boundary conditions at the limiting surfaces is studied. We utilize a one-particle irreducible vertex parts framework in order to study the critical behavior of such a system. The renormalized vertex parts are defined at zero external quasi-momenta, which makes the analysis particularly simple. The distance between the boundary plates $L$ characterizing the finite size system direction perpendicular to the hyperplanes plays a similar role here in comparison with our recent unified treatment for Neumann and Dirichlet boundary conditions. Critical exponents are computed using diagrammatic expansion at least up to two-loop order and are shown to be identical to those from the bulk theory (limit $L \rightarrow \infty$).
- Aug 10 2016 cond-mat.dis-nn arXiv:1608.02613v2We investigate a model for fatigue crack growth in which damage accumulation is assumed to follow a power law of the local stress amplitude, a form which can be generically justified on the grounds of the approximately self-similar aspect of microcrack distributions. Our aim is to determine the relation between model ingredients and the Paris exponent governing subcritical crack-growth dynamics at the macroscopic scale, starting from a single small notch propagating along a fixed line. By a series of analytical and numerical calculations, we show that, in the absence of disorder, there is a critical damage-accumulation exponent $\gamma$, namely $\gamma_c=2$, separating two distinct regimes of behavior for the Paris exponent $m$. For $\gamma>\gamma_c$, the Paris exponent is shown to assume the value $m=\gamma$, a result which proves robust against the separate introduction of various modifying ingredients. Explicitly, we deal here with (i) the requirement of a minimum stress for damage to occur; (ii) the presence of disorder in local damage thresholds; (iii) the possibility of crack healing. On the other hand, in the regime $\gamma<\gamma_c$ the Paris exponent is seen to be sensitive to the different ingredients added to the model, with rapid healing or a high minimum stress for damage leading to $m=2$ for all $\gamma<\gamma_c$, in contrast with the linear dependence $m=6-2\gamma$ observed for very long characteristic healing times in the absence of a minimum stress for damage. Upon the introduction of disorder on the local fatigue thresholds, which leads to the possible appearance of multiple cracks along the propagation line, the Paris exponent tends to $m\approx 4$ for $\gamma\lesssim 2$, while retaining the behavior $m=\gamma$ for $\gamma\gtrsim 4$.
- Jul 01 2016 cond-mat.mes-hall arXiv:1606.09338v2We investigate the energy spectrum of single layer black phosphorene nanoribbons (BPN) by means of a low-energy expansion of a recently proposed tight-binding model that describes electron and hole bands close to the Fermi energy level. Using the continuum approach, we propose boundary conditions based on sublattice symmetries for BPN with zigzag and armchair edges and show that our results for the energy spectra exhibit good agreement with those obtained by using the five-parameter tight-binding model. We also explore the behaviour of the energy gap versus the nanoribbon width $W$. Our findings demonstrate that band gap of armchair BPNs scale as $1/W^2$, while zigzag BPNs exhibit a $1/W$ tendency. We analyse the different possible combinations of the zigzag edges that result two-fold degenerate and non-degenerate edge states. Furthermore, we obtain expressions for the wave functions and discuss the limit of validity of such analytical model.
- Jun 14 2016 cond-mat.mes-hall arXiv:1606.03654v1Electrostatic confinement of charge carriers in graphene is governed by Klein tunneling, a relativistic quantum process in which particle-hole transmutation leads to unusual anisotropic transmission at pn junction boundaries. Reflection and transmission at these novel potential barriers should affect the quantum interference of electronic wavefunctions near these boundaries. Here we report the use of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) to map the electronic structure of Dirac fermions confined by circular graphene pn junctions. These effective quantum dots were fabricated using a new technique involving local manipulation of defect charge within the insulating substrate beneath a graphene monolayer. Inside such graphene quantum dots we observe energy levels corresponding to quasi-bound states and we spatially visualize the quantum interference patterns of confined electrons. Dirac fermions outside these quantum dots exhibit Friedel oscillation-like behavior. Bolstered with a theoretical model describing relativistic particles in a harmonic oscillator potential, our findings yield new insight into the spatial behavior of electrostatically confined Dirac fermions.
- Mar 01 2016 cond-mat.stat-mech arXiv:1602.08948v1We study through Monte Carlo simulations and finite-size scaling analysis the nonequilibrium phase transitions of the majority-vote model taking place on spatially embedded networks. These structures are built from an underlying regular lattice over which long-range connections are randomly added according to the probability, $P_{ij}\sim{r^{-\alpha}}$, where $r_{ij}$ is the Manhattan distance between nodes $i$ and $j$, and the exponent $\alpha$ is a controlling parameter [J. M. Kleinberg, Nature 406, 845 (2000)]. Our results show that the collective behavior of this system exhibits a continuous order-disorder phase transition at a critical parameter, which is a decreasing function of the exponent $\alpha$. Precisely, considering the scaling functions and the critical exponents calculated, we conclude that the system undergoes a crossover among distinct universality classes. For $\alpha\le3$ the critical behavior is described by mean-field exponents, while for $\alpha\ge4$ it belongs to the Ising universality class. Finally, in the region where the crossover occurs, $3<\alpha<4$, the critical exponents are dependent on $\alpha$.
- Nanoscale control of rewriteable doping patterns in pristine graphene/boron nitride heterostructuresFeb 11 2016 cond-mat.mes-hall arXiv:1602.03245v1Nanoscale control of charge doping in two-dimensional (2D) materials permits the realization of electronic analogs of optical phenomena, relativistic physics at low energies, and technologically promising nanoelectronics. Electrostatic gating and chemical doping are the two most common methods to achieve local control of such doping. However, these approaches suffer from complicated fabrication processes that introduce contamination, change material properties irreversibly, and lack flexible pattern control. Here we demonstrate a clean, simple, and reversible technique that permits writing, reading, and erasing of doping patterns for 2D materials at the nanometer scale. We accomplish this by employing a graphene/boron nitride (BN) heterostructure that is equipped with a bottom gate electrode. By using electron transport and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), we demonstrate that spatial control of charge doping can be realized with the application of either light or STM tip voltage excitations in conjunction with a gate electric field. Our straightforward and novel technique provides a new path towards on-demand graphene pn junctions and ultra-thin memory devices.
- Jan 29 2016 cond-mat.mtrl-sci arXiv:1601.07644v1Fe2Al5 contains a Fe-Al matrix through which are threaded disordered one-dimensional chains of overlapping Al sites. We report magnetic, nuclear-magnetic-resonance (NMR), and specific-heat measurements addressing its magnetic and vibrational properties. The Curie-type susceptibility is found to be due to dilute moments, likely due to wrong-site Fe atoms. 27Al NMR shift and spin-lattice relaxation measurements confirm these to be indirectly coupled through a Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yoshida-type interaction. Specific-heat results indicate a large density of low-energy vibrational modes. These excitations generate a linear-T contribution to the specific heat, which however freezes out below about 10 K. These results are attributed to the presence of anharmonic vibrational modes associated with the disordered structural chains.
- Jan 29 2016 cond-mat.mtrl-sci arXiv:1601.07640v1We describe 27Al NMR experiments on Ba8AlxGe46-x type-I clathrates coupled with ab initio computational studies. For x=16, calculated spectra determined by the ab initio results gave good agreement with the measurements, with best-fitting configurations also corresponding to the computed lowest-energy atomic arrangements. Analysis of the NMR results showed that a distribution of Knight shifts dominates the central portion of the line. Computational results demonstrate that this stems from the large variation of carrier density on different sites. Al-deficient samples with x=12 and 13 exhibited a split central NMR peak, signaling two main local environments for Al ions, which we connected to the presence of vacancies. Modeling of the wide-line spectrum for x=12 indicates a configuration with more Al on the 24k site than for x=16. The results indicate the importance of nonbonding hybrids adjacent to the vacancies in the electronic structure near EF. We also address the static distortions from Pm-3n symmetry in these structures.
- Jan 05 2016 cond-mat.mes-hall arXiv:1601.00536v1We investigate the scattering of a wave packet describing low-energy electrons in graphene by a time-dependent finite step potential barrier. Our results demonstrate that, after Klein tunneling through the barrier, the electron acquires an extra energy which depends on the rate of change the barrier height in time. If such a rate is negative, the electron loses energy and ends up as a valence band state after leaving the barrier, which effectively behaves as a positively charged quasi-particle
- Dec 10 2015 cond-mat.str-el arXiv:1512.03011v1We report on XANES and EXAFS measurements of SmNiO3 from 20 K to 600 K and up to 38 GPa at the Ni K- and Sm L3- edges. A multiple component pre- Ni K-edge tail is understood originating from 1s transitions to 3d-4p states while a post-edge shoulder increases distinctively smooth, at about the insulator to metal phase transition (TIM), due to the reduction of electron-phonon interactions as the Ni 3d and O 2p band overlap triggers the metallic phase. This effect is concomitant with pressure induced Ni-O-Ni angle increments toward more symmetric Ni3+ octahedra of the rhombohedral R-3c space group. Room temperature pressure dependent Ni white line peak energies have an abrupt ~3.10+-0.04 GPa Pa valence discontinuity from non-equivalent Ni3+\delta + Ni3-\delta charge disproportionate net unresolved absorber turning at ~TIM into Ni3+ of the orthorhombic Pbnm metal oxide phase. At 20 K the overall white line response, still distinctive at TIM ~8.1+-0.6 GPa is much smoother due to localization. Octahedral bond contraction up to 38 GPa and at 300 K and 20 K show breaks in its monotonic increase at the different structural changes. The Sm L3-edge does not show distinctive behaviors either at 300 K or 20 K up about 35 GPa but the perovskite Sm cage, coordinated to eight oxygen atoms, undergoes strong uneven bond contractions at intermediate pressures where we found coexistence of octahedral and rhombohedral superexchange angle distortions. We found that the white line pressure dependent anomaly may be used as an accurate alternative for delineating pressure-temperature phase diagrams.
- Nov 26 2015 cond-mat.supr-con arXiv:1511.08135v1Typically the disorder that alters the interference of particle waves to produce Anderson localization is potential scattering from randomly placed impurities. Here we show that disorder in the form of random gauge fields that act directly on particle phases can also drive localization. We present evidence of a superfluid bose glass to insulator transition at a critical level of this gauge field disorder in a nano-patterned array of amorphous Bi islands. This transition shows signs of metallic transport near the critical point characterized by a resistance of order 0.5 h/4e^2 , indicative of a quantum phase transition. The critical disorder also depends on interisland coupling in agreement with recent Quantum Monte Carlo simulations. Finally, these experiments are uniquely connected to theory because they employ a method for controlling a disorder parameter that coincides directly with a term that appears in model Hamiltonians. This correspondence will enable further high fidelity comparisons between theoretical and experimental studies of disorder effects on quantum critical systems.
- We propose a modified Invasion Percolation (IP) model to simulate the infiltration of glue into a porous medium under gravity in 2D. Initially, the medium is saturated with air and then invaded by a fluid that has a hardening effect taking place from the interface towards the interior by contact with the air. To take into account that interfacial hardening, we use an IP model where capillary pressures of the growth sites are increased with time. In our model, if a site stays for a certain time at interface, it becomes a hard site and cannot be invaded anymore. That represents the glue interface becoming hard due to exposition with the air. Buoyancy forces are included in this system through the Bond number which represents the competition between the hydrostatic and capillary forces. We then compare our results with results from literature of non-hardening fluids in each regime of Bond number. We see that the invasion patterns change strongly with hardening while the non-hardening behavior remains basically not affected.
- Finite-size critical systems defined on a parallel plate geometry of finite extent along one single ($z$) direction with Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions at $z=0,L$ are analyzed in momentum space. We introduce a modified representation for the discrete eigenfunctions in a renormalized one-particle irreducible vertex part ($1PI$) scalar field-theoretic framework using either massless or massive fields. The appearance of multiplicities in the Feynman rules to construct diagrams due to this choice of representation of the basis functions is discussed along with the modified normalization conditions. For nonvanishing external quasi-momenta, Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions are shown to be unified within a single formalism. We examine the dimensional crossover regimes for these and show a correspondence with those from antiperiodic and periodic boundary conditions. It is demonstrated that finite-size effects for Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions do not require surface fields necessarily but are implemented nontrivially from the Feynman rules involving only bulk terms in the Lagrangian. As an application, the critical exponents $\eta$ and $\nu$ are evaluated at least up to two-loop level through diagrammatic means. We show that the critical indices are the same as those from the bulk (infinite) system irrespective of the boundary conditions.
- Jun 30 2015 cond-mat.mtrl-sci arXiv:1506.08351v1The non-stoichiometric Heusler alloy Ni$_{50}$Mn$_{36}$In$_{14}$ undergoes a martensitic phase transformation in the vicinity of 345 K, with the high temperature austenite phase exhibiting paramagnetic rather than ferromagnetic behavior, as shown in similar alloys with lower-temperature transformations. Suitably prepared samples are shown to exhibit a sharp transformation, a relatively small thermal hysteresis, and a large field-induced entropy change. We analyzed the magnetocaloric behavior both through magnetization and direct field-dependent calorimetry measurements. For measurements passing through the first-order transformation, an improved method for heat-pulse relaxation calorimetry was designed. The results provide a firm basis for the analytic evaluation of field-induced entropy changes in related materials. An analysis of the relative cooling power (RCP), based on the integrated field-induced entropy change and magnetizing behavior of the Mn spin system with ferromagnetic correlations, shows that a significant RCP may be obtained in these materials by tuning the magnetic and structural transformation temperatures through minor compositional changes or local order changes.
- Jun 23 2015 cond-mat.mtrl-sci arXiv:1506.06168v2Off-stoichiometric alloys based on Ni 2 MnIn have drawn attention due to the coupled first order magnetic and structural transformations, and the large magnetocaloric entropy associated with the transformations. Here we describe calorimetric and magnetic studies of four compositions. The results provide a direct measure of entropy changes contributions including at the first-order phase transitions, and thereby a determination of the maximum field-induced entropy change corresponding to the giant magnetocaloric effect. We find a large excess entropy change, attributed to magneto-elastic coupling, but only in compositions with no ferromagnetic order in the high-temperature austenite phase. Furthermore, a molecular field model corresponding to antiferromagnetism of the low-temperature phases is in good agreement, and nearly independent of composition, despite significant differences in overall magnetic response of these materials.
- Apr 10 2015 cond-mat.mes-hall arXiv:1504.02452v1In this work we introduce a low-energy Hamiltonian for single layer and bilayer black phosphorus that describes the electronic states at the vicinity of the gamma point. The model is based on a recently proposed tight-binding description for electron and hole bands close to the Fermi level. We calculate expressions for the Landau level spectrum as function of magnetic field and in the case of bilayer black phosphorus we investigate the effect of an external bias on the electronic band gap. The results showcase the highly anisotropic character of black phosphorus and in particular for bilayer BP, the presence of bias allows for a field-induced semiconductor-metal transition.
- Mar 20 2015 cond-mat.stat-mech arXiv:1503.05870v1Two dimensional space-filling bearings are dense packings of disks that can rotate without slip. We consider the entire first family of bearings for loops of size four and propose a hierarchical construction of their contact network. We provide analytic expressions for the clustering coefficient and degree distribution, revealing bipartite scale-free behavior with tunable degree exponent depending on the bearing parameters. We also analyze their average shortest path and percolation properties.
- Feb 11 2015 cond-mat.supr-con arXiv:1502.02749v2We isolated flux disorder effects on the transport at the critical point of the quantum magnetic field tuned Superconductor to Insulator transition (BSIT). The experiments employed films patterned into geometrically disordered hexagonal arrays. Spatial variations in the flux per unit cell, which grow in a perpendicular magnetic field, constitute flux disorder. The growth of flux disorder with magnetic field limited the number of BSITs exhibited by a single film due to flux matching effects. The critical metallic resistance at successive BSITs grew with flux disorder contrary to predictions of its universality. These results open the door for controlled studies of disorder effects on the universality class of an ubiquitous quantum phase transition.
- What is the best way to divide a rugged landscape? Since ancient times, watersheds separating adjacent water systems that flow, for example, toward different seas, have been used to delimit boundaries. Interestingly, serious and even tense border disputes between countries have relied on the subtle geometrical properties of these tortuous lines. For instance, slight and even anthropogenic modifications of landscapes can produce large changes in a watershed, and the effects can be highly nonlocal. Although the watershed concept arises naturally in geomorphology, where it plays a fundamental role in water management, landslide, and flood prevention, it also has important applications in seemingly unrelated fields such as image processing and medicine. Despite the far-reaching consequences of the scaling properties on watershed-related hydrological and political issues, it was only recently that a more profound and revealing connection has been disclosed between the concept of watershed and statistical physics of disordered systems. This review initially surveys the origin and definition of a watershed line in a geomorphological framework to subsequently introduce its basic geometrical and physical properties. Results on statistical properties of watersheds obtained from artificial model landscapes generated with long-range correlations are presented and shown to be in good qualitative and quantitative agreement with real landscapes.
- Dec 16 2014 cond-mat.soft arXiv:1412.4594v1When water molecules are confined to nanoscale spacings, such as in the nanometer size pores of activated carbon fiber (ACF), their freezing point gets suppressed down to very low temperatures ($\sim$ 150 K), leading to a metastable liquid state with remarkable physical properties. We have investigated the ambient pressure diffusive dynamics of water in microporous Kynol™ACF-10 (average pore size $\sim$11.6 Å, with primarily slit-like pores) from temperature $T=$ 280 K in its stable liquid state down to $T=$ 230 K into the metastable supercooled phase. The observed characteristic relaxation times and diffusion coefficients are found to be respectively higher and lower than those in bulk water, indicating a slowing down of the water mobility with decreasing temperature. The observed temperature-dependent average relaxation time $<\tau>$ when compared to previous findings indicate that it is the size of the confining pores - not their shape - that primarily affects the dynamics of water for pore sizes larger than 10 Å. The experimental observations are compared to complementary molecular dynamics simulations of a model system, in which we studied the diffusion of water within the 11.6 Å gap of two parallel graphene sheets. We find generally a reasonable agreement between the observed and calculated relaxation times at the low momentum transfer $Q$ ($Q\le 0.9$ Å${^{-1}}$). At high $Q$ however, where localized dynamics becomes relevant, this ideal system does not satisfactorily reproduce the measurements. The best agreement is obtained for the diffusion parameter $D$ associated with the hydrogen-site when a representative stretched exponential function, rather than the standard bi-modal exponential model, is used to parameterize the self-correlation function $I(Q,t)$.
- Dec 08 2014 cond-mat.mes-hall cond-mat.mtrl-sci arXiv:1412.1878v1Defects play a key role in determining the properties of most materials and, because they tend to be highly localized, characterizing them at the single-defect level is particularly important. Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) has a history of imaging the electronic structure of individual point defects in conductors, semiconductors, and ultrathin films, but single-defect electronic characterization at the nanometer-scale remains an elusive goal for intrinsic bulk insulators. Here we report the characterization and manipulation of individual native defects in an intrinsic bulk hexagonal boron nitride (BN) insulator via STM. Normally, this would be impossible due to the lack of a conducting drain path for electrical current. We overcome this problem by employing a graphene/BN heterostructure, which exploits graphene's atomically thin nature to allow visualization of defect phenomena in the underlying bulk BN. We observe three different defect structures that we attribute to defects within the bulk insulating boron nitride. Using scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS), we obtain charge and energy-level information for these BN defect structures. In addition to characterizing such defects, we find that it is also possible to manipulate them through voltage pulses applied to our STM tip.
- Dec 05 2014 cond-mat.str-el arXiv:1412.1773v1The discovery of superconductivity in the 122 iron selenide materials above 30 K necessitates an understanding of the underlying magnetic interactions. We present a combined experimental and theoretical investigation of magnetic and semiconducting Ce$_{2}$O$_{2}$FeSe$_{2}$ composed of chains of edge-linked iron selenide tetrahedra. The combined neutron diffraction and inelastic scattering study and density functional calculations confirm the ferromagnetic nature of nearest-neighbour Fe -- Se -- Fe interactions in the ZrCuSiAs-related iron oxyselenide Ce$_{2}$O$_{2}$FeSe$_{2}$. Inelastic measurements provide an estimate of the strength of nearest-neighbor Fe -- Fe and Fe -- Ce interactions. These are consistent with density functional theory calculations, which reveal that correlations in the Fe--Se sheets of Ce$_{2}$O$_{2}$FeSe$_{2}$ are weak. The Fe on-site repulsion $U_{Fe}$ is comparable to that reported for oxyarsenides and K$_{1-x}$Fe$_{2-y}$Se$_{2}$, which are parents to iron-based superconductors.
- Fabrication and Characterization of an Amperometric Glucose Sensor on a Flexible Polyimide SubstrateNov 25 2014 cond-mat.mtrl-sci arXiv:1411.6167v2This study details the use of printing and other additive processes to fabricate a novel amperometric glucose sensor. The sensor was fabricated using a Au coated 12.7 micron polyimide film as a starting material, where micro-contact printing, electrochemical plating and chloridization, electrohydrodynamic jet (e-jet) printing, and spin coating were used to pattern, deposit, print, and coat functional materials, respectively. We have found that e-jet printing was effective for the deposition and patterning of glucose oxidase inks between ~5 to 1000 micron in width, and we have demonstrated that the enzyme was still active after printing. The thickness of the permselective layer was optimized to obtain a linear response to glucose concentration up to 32 mM. For these sensors no response to acetaminophen, a common interfering compound, was observed.
- Oct 17 2014 astro-ph.SR cond-mat.stat-mech physics.comp-ph physics.flu-dyn physics.plasm-ph arXiv:1410.4542v1Solar flares stem from the reconnection of twisted magnetic field lines in the solar photosphere. The energy and waiting time distributions of these events follow complex patterns that have been carefully considered in the past and that bear some resemblance with earthquakes and stockmarkets. Here we explore in detail the tangling motion of interacting flux tubes anchored in the plasma and the energy ejections resulting when they recombine. The mechanism for energy accumulation and release in the flow is reminiscent of self-organized criticality. From this model we suggest the origin for two important and widely studied properties of solar flare statistics, including the time-energy correlations. We first propose that the scale-free energy distribution of solar flares is largely due to the twist exerted by the vorticity of the turbulent photosphere. Second, the long-range temporal and time-energy correlations appear to arise from the tube-tube interactions. The agreement with satellite measurements is encouraging.
- Jul 14 2014 cond-mat.stat-mech physics.comp-ph arXiv:1407.2960v1We investigate the metallic breakdown of a substrate on which highly conducting particles are adsorbed and desorbed with a probability that depends on the local electric field. We find that, by tuning the relative strength $q$ of this dependence, the breakdown can change from continuous to explosive. Precisely, in the limit in which the adsorption probability is the same for any finite voltage drop, we can map our model exactly onto the $q$-state Potts model and thus the transition to a jump occurs at $q=4$. In another limit, where the adsorption probability becomes independent of the local field strength, the traditional bond percolation model is recovered. Our model is thus an example of a possible experimental realization exhibiting a truly discontinuous percolation transition.
- Jun 13 2014 cond-mat.mes-hall arXiv:1406.3132v2Using transport measurements, we investigate multicomponent quantum Hall (QH) ferromagnetism in dual-gated rhombohedral trilayer graphene (r-TLG), in which the real spin, orbital pseudospin and layer pseudospins of the lowest Landau level form spontaneous ordering. We observe intermediate quantum Hall plateaus, indicating a complete lifting of the degeneracy of the zeroth Landau level (LL) in the hole-doped regime. In charge neutral r-TLG, the orbital degeneracy is broken first, and the layer degeneracy is broken last and only the in presence of an interlayer potential U. In the phase space of U and filling factor, we observe an intriguing hexagon pattern, which is accounted for by a model based on crossings between symmetry-broken LLs.
- Apr 03 2014 cond-mat.stat-mech arXiv:1404.0632v1We investigate the behavior of a two-state sandpile model subjected to a confining potential in one and two dimensions. From the microdynamical description of this simple model with its intrinsic exclusion mechanism, it is possible to derive a continuum nonlinear diffusion equation that displays singularities in both the diffusion and drift terms. The stationary-state solutions of this equation, which maximizes the Fermi-Dirac entropy, are in perfect agreement with the spatial profiles of time-averaged occupancy obtained from model numerical simulations in one as well as in two dimensions. Surprisingly, our results also show that, regardless of dimensionality, the presence of a confining potential can lead to the emergence of typical attributes of critical behavior in the two-state sandpile model, namely, a power-law tail in the distribution of avalanche sizes.
- Because of its large density-of-states and the 2\pi Berry phase near its low-energy band-contact points, neutral bilayer graphene (BLG) at zero magnetic field (B) is susceptible to chiral-symmetry breaking, leading to a variety of gapped spontaneous quantum Hall states distinguished by valley and spin-dependent quantized Hall conductivities. Among these, the layer antiferromagnetic state, which has quantum valley Hall (QVH) effects of opposite sign for opposite spins, appears to be the thermodynamic ground state. Though other gapped states have not been observed experimentally at B=0, they can be explored by exploiting their adiabatic connection to quantum Hall states with the same total Hall conductivity \sigmaH. In this paper, by using a magnetic field to select filling factor \nu=2 states with \sigmaH=2e^2/h, we demonstrate the presence of a quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) state for the majority spin, and a Kekulé state with spontaneous valley coherence and a quantum valley Hall state for the minority spin in BLG. By providing the first spectroscopic mapping of spontaneous Hall states at \nu=2, our results shed further light on the rich set of competing ordered states in BLG.
- Feb 27 2014 cond-mat.mes-hall cond-mat.str-el arXiv:1402.6413v1Due to their unique electron dispersion and lack of a Fermi surface, Coulomb interactions in undoped two-dimensional Dirac systems, such as single, bi- and tri-layer graphene, can be marginal or relevant. Relevant interactions can result in spontaneous symmetry breaking, which is responsible for a large class of physical phenomena ranging from mass generation in high energy physics to correlated states such as superconductivity and magnetism in condensed matter. Here, using transport measurements, we show that rhombohedral-stacked trilayer graphene (r-TLG) offers a simple, yet novel and tunable, platform for study of various phases with spontaneous or field-induced broken symmetries. Here, we show that, contrary to predictions by tight-binding calculations, rhombohedral-stacked trilayer graphene (r-TLG) is an intrinsic insulator, with a giant interaction-induced gap ∆~42meV. This insulating state is a spontaneous layer antiferromagnetic with broken time reversal symmetry, and can be suppressed by increasing charge density n, an interlayer potential, a parallel magnetic field, or a critical temperature Tc~38K. This gapped collective state can be explored for switches with low input power and high on/off ratio.
- Feb 20 2014 cond-mat.mes-hall cond-mat.mtrl-sci arXiv:1402.4563v1The design of stacks of layered materials in which adjacent layers interact by van der Waals forces[1] has enabled the combination of various two-dimensional crystals with different electrical, optical and mechanical properties, and the emergence of novel physical phenomena and device functionality[2-8]. Here we report photo-induced doping in van der Waals heterostructures (VDHs) consisting of graphene and boron nitride layers. It enables flexible and repeatable writing and erasing of charge doping in graphene with visible light. We demonstrate that this photo-induced doping maintains the high carrier mobility of the graphene-boron nitride (G/BN) heterostructure, which resembles the modulation doping technique used in semiconductor heterojunctions, and can be used to generate spatially-varying doping profiles such as p-n junctions. We show that this photo-induced doping arises from microscopically coupled optical and electrical responses of G/BN heterostructures, which includes optical excitation of defect transitions in boron nitride, electrical transport in graphene, and charge transfer between boron nitride and graphene.
- Sep 12 2013 cond-mat.mtrl-sci arXiv:1309.2892v1The antiferromagnetic (AFM) phase transition temperature T_N of EuTiO_3 has been studied as a function of pressure p. The data reveal a nonlinear dependence of T_N on p with T_N increasing with increasing pressure. The exchange interactions exhibit an analogous dependence on p as T_N (if the absolute value of the nearest neighbor interaction is considered) and there is evidence that the AFM transition is robust with increasing pressure. The corresponding Weiss temperature \Theta_W remains anomalous since it always exhibits positive values. The data are analyzed within the Bloch power law model and provide excellent agreement with experiment.
- The small-world property is known to have a profound effect on the navigation efficiency of complex networks [J. M. Kleinberg, Nature 406, 845 (2000)]. Accordingly, the proper addition of shortcuts to a regular substrate can lead to the formation of a highly efficient structure for information propagation. Here we show that enhanced flow properties can also be observed in these complex topologies. Precisely, our model is a network built from an underlying regular lattice over which long-range connections are randomly added according to the probability, $P_{ij}\sim r_{ij}^{-\alpha}$, where $r_{ij}$ is the Manhattan distance between nodes $i$ and $j$, and the exponent $\alpha$ is a controlling parameter. The mean two-point global conductance of the system is computed by considering that each link has a local conductance given by $g_{ij}\propto r_{ij}^{-\delta}$, where $\delta$ determines the extent of the geographical limitations (costs) on the long-range connections. Our results show that the best flow conditions are obtained for $\delta=0$ with $\alpha=0$, while for $\delta \gg 1$ the overall conductance always increases with $\alpha$. For $\delta\approx 1$, $\alpha=d$ becomes the optimal exponent, where $d$ is the topological dimension of the substrate. Interestingly, this exponent is identical to the one obtained for optimal navigation in small-world networks using decentralized algorithms.
- Aug 07 2013 cond-mat.mtrl-sci cond-mat.mes-hall arXiv:1308.1182v1We develop two types of graphene devices based on nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS), that allows transport measurement in the presence of in situ strain modulation. Different mobility and conductance responses to strain were observed for single layer and bilayer samples. These types of devices can be extended to other 2D membranes such as MoS2, providing transport, optical or other measurements with in situ strain.
- Jul 29 2013 cond-mat.soft physics.geo-ph arXiv:1307.6978v2Transverse dunes, which form under unidirectional winds and have fixed profile in the direction perpendicular to the wind, occur on all celestial objects of our solar system where dunes have been detected. Here we perform a numerical study of the average turbulent wind flow over a transverse dune by means of computational fluid dynamics simulations. We find that the length of the zone of recirculating flow at the dune lee --- the \emseparation bubble --- displays a surprisingly strong dependence on the wind shear velocity, $u_{\ast}$: it is nearly independent of $u_{\ast}$ for shear velocities within the range between $0.2\,$m$$s and $0.8\,$m$$s but increases linearly with $u_{\ast}$ for larger shear velocities. Our calculations show that transport in the direction opposite to dune migration within the separation bubble can be sustained if $u_{\ast}$ is larger than approximately $0.39\,$m$$s, whereas a larger value of $u_{\ast}$ (about $0.49\,$m$$s) is required to initiate this reverse transport.
- Jul 12 2013 cond-mat.soft arXiv:1307.3238v1We investigate through non-equilibrium molecular dynamic simulations the flow of core-softened fluids inside nanotubes. Our results reveal a anomalous increase of the overall mass flux for nanotubes with sufficiently smaller radii. This is explained in terms of a transition from a single-file type of flow to the movement of an ordered-like fluid as the nanotube radius increases. The occurrence of a global minimum in the mass flux at this transition reflects the competition between the two characteristics length scales of the core-softened potential. Moreover, by increasing further the radius, another substantial change in the flow behavior, which becomes more evident at low temperatures, leads to a local minimum in the overall mass flux. Microscopically, this second transition results from the formation of a double-layer of flowing particles in the confined nanotube space. These special nano-fluidic features of core-softened particles closely resemble the enhanced flow behavior observed for liquid water inside carbon nanotubes.
- Global synchronization in a complex network of oscillators emerges from the interplay between its topology and the dynamics of the pairwise interactions among its numerous components. When oscillators are spatially separated, however, a time delay appears in the interaction which might obstruct synchronization. Here we study the synchronization properties of interconnected networks of oscillators with a time delay between networks and analyze the dynamics as a function of the couplings and communication lag. We discover a new breathing synchronization regime, where two groups appear in each network synchronized at different frequencies. Each group has a counterpart in the opposite network, one group is in phase and the other in anti-phase with their counterpart. For strong couplings, instead, networks are internally synchronized but a phase shift between them might occur. The implications of our findings on several socio-technical and biological systems are discussed.
- Apr 18 2013 cond-mat.stat-mech arXiv:1304.4872v1We investigate transport properties of percolating clusters generated by irreversible cooperative sequential adsorption (CSA) on square lattices with Arrhenius rates given by ki= q^(ni), where ni is the number of occupied neighbors of the site i, and q a controlling parameter. Our results show a dependence of the prefactors on q and a strong finite size effect for small values of this parameter, both impacting the size of the backbone and the global conductance of the system. These results might be pertinent to practical applications in processes involving adsorption of particles.
- Mar 18 2013 cond-mat.mes-hall cond-mat.str-el arXiv:1303.3649v2Landau level gaps are important parameters for understanding electronic interactions and symmetry-broken processes in bilayer graphene (BLG). Here we present transport spectroscopy measurements of LL gaps in double-gated suspended BLG with high mobilities in the quantum Hall regime. By using bias as a spectroscopic tool, we measure the gap ∆ for the quantum Hall (QH) state at filling factor \nu=\pm4 and -2. The single-particle gap for \nu=4 scales linearly with magnetic field B and is independent of the out-of-plane electric field E. For the symmetry-broken \nu=-2 state, the measured values of gap are 1.1 meV/T and 0.17 meV/T for singly-gated geometry and dual-gated geometry at E=0, respectively. The difference between the two values arises from the E-dependence of the gap, suggesting that the \nu=-2 state is layer polarized. Our studies provide the first measurements of the gaps of the broken symmetry QH states in BLG with well-controlled E, and establish a robust method that can be implemented for studying similar states in other layered materials.
- Jan 28 2013 cond-mat.supr-con arXiv:1301.6159v1A Cooper pair insulator (CPI) phase emerges near the superconductor-insulator transitions of a number of strongly-disordered thin film systems. Much recent study has focused on a mechanism driving the underlying Cooper pair localization. We present data showing that a CPI phase develops in amorphous Pb$_{0.9}$Bi$_{0.1}$ films deposited onto nano-porous anodized aluminum oxide surfaces just as it has been shown to develop for a-Bi films. This result confirms the assertion that the CPI phase emerges due to the structure of the substrate. It supports the picture that nanoscale film thickness variations induced by the substrate drive the localization. Moreover, it implies that the CPI phase can be induced in any superconducting material that can be deposited onto this surface.
- Jan 28 2013 cond-mat.supr-con arXiv:1301.6155v2We present investigations of the superconductor to insulator transition (SIT) of uniform a-Bi films using a technique sensitive to Cooper pair phase coherence. The films are perforated with a nanohoneycomb array of holes to form a multiply connected geometry and subjected to a perpendicular magnetic field. Film magnetoresistances on the superconducting side of the SIT oscillate with a period dictated by the superconducting flux quantum and the areal hole density. The oscillations disappear close to the SIT critical point to leave a monotonically rising magnetoresistance that persists in the insulating phase. These observations indicate that the Cooper pair phase coherence length, which is infinite in the superconducting phase, collapses to a value less than the interhole spacing at this SIT. This behavior is inconsistent with the gradual reduction of the phase coherence length expected for a bosonic, phase fluctuation driven SIT. This result starkly contrasts with previous observations of oscillations persisting in the insulating phase of other films implying that there must be at least two distinct classes of disorder tuned SITs.
- Bearings are mechanical dissipative systems that, when perturbed, relax toward a synchronized (bearing) state. Here we find that bearings can be perceived as physical realizations of complex networks of oscillators with asymmetrically weighted couplings. Accordingly, these networks can exhibit optimal synchronization properties through fine tuning of the local interaction strength as a function of node degree [Motter, Zhou, and Kurths, Phys. Rev. E 71, 016116 (2005)]. We show that, in analogy, the synchronizability of bearings can be maximized by counterbalancing the number of contacts and the inertia of their constituting rotor disks through the mass-radius relation, $m\sim r^{\alpha}$, with an optimal exponent $\alpha=\alpha_{\times}$ which converges to unity for a large number of rotors. Under this condition, and regardless of the presence of a long-tailed distribution of disk radii composing the mechanical system, the average participation per disk is maximized and the energy dissipation rate is homogeneously distributed among elementary rotors.
- Jan 16 2013 cond-mat.mes-hall arXiv:1301.3354v1We investigate the magnetic interface states of graphene quantum dots that contain p-n junctions. Within a tight-binding approach, we consider rectangular quantum dots in the presence of a perpendicular magnetic ?field containing p-n, as well as p-n-p and n-p-n junctions. The results show the interplay between the edge states associated with the zigzag terminations of the sample and the snake states that arise at the p-n junction, due to the overlap between electron and hole states at the potential interface. Remarkable localized states are found at the crossing of the p-n junction with the zigzag edge having a dumb-bell shaped electron distribution. The results are presented as function of the junction parameters and the applied magnetic flux.
- Dec 24 2012 q-bio.NC cond-mat.dis-nn arXiv:1212.5550v1The movement of the eyes has been the subject of intensive research as a way to elucidate inner mechanisms of cognitive processes. A cognitive task that is rather frequent in our daily life is the visual search for hidden objects. Here we investigate through eye-tracking experiments the statistical properties associated with the search of target images embedded in a landscape of distractors. Specifically, our results show that the twofold process of eye movement, composed of sequences of fixations (small steps) intercalated by saccades (longer jumps), displays characteristic statistical signatures. While the saccadic jumps follow a log normal distribution of distances, which is typical of multiplicative processes, the lengths of the smaller steps in the fixation trajectories are consistent with a power-law distribution. Moreover, the present analysis reveals a clear transition between a directional serial search to an isotropic random movement as the difficulty level of the searching task is increased.
- Dec 14 2012 cond-mat.str-el quant-ph arXiv:1212.3020v5Recent experiments show oscillations of dominant period h/2e in conductance vs. magnetic flux of charge density wave (CDW) rings above 77 K, revealing macroscopically observable quantum behavior. The time-correlated soliton tunneling model discussed here is based on coherent, Josephson-like tunneling of microscopic quantum solitons of charge 2e. The model interprets the CDW threshold electric field as a Coulomb blockade threshold for soliton pair creation, often much smaller than the classical depinning field but with the same impurity dependence (e.g., ~ ni^2 for for weak pinning). This picture draws upon the theory of time-correlated single-electron tunneling to interpret CDW dynamics above threshold. Similar to Feynman's derivation of the Josephson current-phase relation for a superconducting tunnel junction, the picture treats the Schr?odinger equation as an emergent classical equation to describe the time-evolution of Josephson-coupled order parameters related to soliton dislocation droplets. Vector or time-varying scalar potentials can affect the order parameter phases to enable magnetic quantum interference in CDW rings or lead to interesting behavior in response to oscillatory electric fields. The ability to vary both magnitudes and phases is an aspect important to future applications in quantum computing.
- Nov 01 2012 cond-mat.supr-con arXiv:1210.8314v1We report in-field kinetic energy results in the temperature region closely below the transition temperature of two differently prepared polycrystalline samples of the superconducting cuprate SmBa$_{\text{2}}$Cu$_{\text{3}}$O$_{7-\delta}$. The kinetic energy was determined from magnetization measurements performed above the irreversibility line defined by the splitting between the curves obtained according the ZFC and FC prescriptions. The results are analyzed in the intermediate field regime where the London approximation can be used for describing the magnetization. From the analysis, estimations were carried out for the penetration depth and the upper critical field of the studied samples.The difference between the kinectic energy magnitudes for the two studied samples is ascribed to effects from granularity.
- Oct 25 2012 cond-mat.mes-hall cond-mat.str-el arXiv:1210.6592v2We present low temperature transport measurements on dual-gated suspended trilayer graphene in the quantum Hall (QH) regime. We observe QH plateaus at filling factors \nu=-8, -2, 2, 6, and 10, in agreement with the full-parameter tight binding calculations. In high magnetic fields, odd-integer plateaus are also resolved, indicating almost complete lifting of the 12-fold degeneracy of the lowest Landau levels (LL). Under an out-of-plane electric field E, we observe degeneracy breaking and transitions between QH plateaus. Interestingly, depending on its direction, E selectively breaks the LL degeneracies in the electron-doped or hole-doped regimes. Our results underscore the rich interaction-induced phenomena in trilayer graphene.
- Aug 27 2012 cond-mat.stat-mech arXiv:1208.5048v1We investigate through a Generalized Langevin formalism the phenomenon of anomalous diffusion for asymptotic times, and we generalized the concept of the diffusion exponent. A method is proposed to obtain the diffusion coefficient analytically through the introduction of a time scaling factor $\lambda$. We obtain as well an exact expression for $\lambda$ for all kinds of diffusion. Moreover, we show that $\lambda$ is a universal parameter determined by the diffusion exponent. The results are then compared with numerical calculations and very good agreement is observed. The method is general and may be applied to many types of stochastic problem.
- Jul 26 2012 cond-mat.mes-hall arXiv:1207.5843v1Double-gated graphene devices provide an important platform for understanding electrical and optical properties of graphene. Here we present transport measurements of single layer, bilayer and trilayer graphene devices with suspended top gates. In zero magnetic fields, we observe formation of pnp junctions with tunable polarity and charge densities, as well as a tunable band gap in bilayer graphene and a tunable band overlap in trilayer graphene. In high magnetic fields, the devices' conductance are quantized at integer and fractional values of conductance quantum, and the data are in good agreement with a model based on edge state equilibration at pn interfaces.
- It is delightful to observe the emergence of synchronization in the blinking of fireflies to attract partners and preys. Other charming examples of synchronization can also be found in a wide range of phenomena such as, e.g., neurons firing, lasers cascades, chemical reactions, and opinion formation. However, in many situations the formation of a coherent state is not pleasant and should be mitigated. For example, the onset of synchronization can be the root of epileptic seizures, traffic congestion in communication networks, and the collapse of constructions. Here we propose the use of contrarians to suppress undesired synchronization. We perform a comparative study of different strategies, either requiring local or total knowledge of the system, and show that the most efficient one solely requires local information. Our results also reveal that, even when the distribution of neighboring interactions is narrow, significant improvement in mitigation is observed when contrarians sit at the highly connected elements. The same qualitative results are obtained for artificially generated networks as well as two real ones, namely, the Routers of the Internet and a neuronal network.
- Jul 13 2012 cond-mat.mtrl-sci cond-mat.dis-nn arXiv:1207.2979v1We obtain the Paris law of fatigue crack propagation in a disordered solid using a fuse network model where the accumulated damage in each resistor increases with time as a power law of the local current amplitude. When a resistor reaches its fatigue threshold, it burns irreversibly. Over time, this drives cracks to grow until the system is fractured in two parts. We study the relation between the macroscopic exponent of the crack growth rate -- entering the phenomenological Paris law -- and the microscopic damage-accumulation exponent, $\gamma$, under the influence of disorder. The way the jumps of the growing crack, $\Delta a$, and the waiting-time between successive breaks, $\Delta t$, depend on the type of material, via $\gamma$, are also investigated. We find that the averages of these quantities, $<\Delta a>$ and $<\Delta t>/<t_r>$, scale as power laws of the crack length $a$, $<\Delta a> \propto a^{\alpha}$ and $<\Delta t>/<t_r> \propto a^{-\beta}$, where $<t_r>$ is the average rupture time. Strikingly, our results show, for small values of $\gamma$, a decrease in the exponent of the Paris law in comparison with the homogeneous case, leading to an increase in the lifetime of breaking materials. For the particular case of $\gamma=0$, when fatigue is exclusively ruled by disorder, an analytical treatment confirms the results obtained by simulation.
- We investigate the role of disorder on the fracturing process of heterogeneous materials by means of a two-dimensional fuse network model. Our results in the extreme disorder limit reveal that the backbone of the fracture at collapse, namely the subset of the largest fracture that effectively halts the global current, has a fractal dimension of $1.22 \pm 0.01$. This exponent value is compatible with the universality class of several other physical models, including optimal paths under strong disorder, disordered polymers, watersheds and optimal path cracks on uncorrelated substrates, hulls of explosive percolation clusters, and strands of invasion percolation fronts. Moreover, we find that the fractal dimension of the largest fracture under extreme disorder, $d_f=1.86 \pm 0.01$, is outside the statistical error bar of standard percolation. This discrepancy is due to the appearance of trapped regions or cavities of all sizes that remain intact till the entire collapse of the fuse network, but are always accessible in the case of standard percolation. Finally, we quantify the role of disorder on the structure of the largest cluster, as well as on the backbone of the fracture, in terms of a distinctive transition from weak to strong disorder characterized by a new crossover exponent.
- We show that a direct connection can be drawn, based on fundamental quantum principles, between the Morse potential, extensively used as an empirical description for the atomic interaction in diatomic molecules, and the harmonic potential. This is conceptually achieved here through a non-additive translation operator, whose action leads to a perfect equivalence between the quantum harmonic oscillator in deformed space and the quantum Morse oscillator in regular space. In this way, our theoretical approach provides a distinctive first principle rationale for anharmonicity, therefore revealing a possible quantum origin for several related properties as, for example, the dissociation energy of diatomic molecules and the deformation of cubic metals.
- Mar 15 2012 cond-mat.stat-mech physics.comp-ph arXiv:1203.3038v2We study the corrections to scaling for the mass of the watershed, the bridge line, and the optimal path crack in two and three dimensions. We disclose that these models have numerically equivalent fractal dimensions and leading correction-to-scaling exponents. We conjecture all three models to possess the same fractal dimension, namely, $d_f=1.2168\pm0.0005$ in 2D and $d_f=2.487\pm0.003$ in 3D, and the same exponent of the leading correction, $\Omega=0.9\pm0.1$ and $\Omega=1.0\pm0.1$, respectively. The close relations between watersheds, optimal path cracks in the strong disorder limit, and bridge lines are further supported by either heuristic or exact arguments.
- Feb 16 2012 cond-mat.mes-hall cond-mat.str-el arXiv:1202.3212v1Bilayer graphene (BLG) at the charge neutrality point (CNP) is strongly susceptible to electronic interactions, and expected to undergo a phase transition into a state with spontaneous broken symmetries. By systematically investigating a large number of singly- and doubly-gated bilayer graphene (BLG) devices, we show that an insulating state appears only in devices with high mobility and low extrinsic doping. This insulating state has an associated transition temperature Tc~5K and an energy gap of ~3 meV, thus strongly suggesting a gapped broken symmetry state that is destroyed by very weak disorder. The transition to the intrinsic broken symmetry state can be tuned by disorder, out-of-plane electric field, or carrier density.
- Feb 14 2012 cond-mat.soft physics.geo-ph arXiv:1202.2842v3Sand-moving winds blowing from a constant direction in an area of high sand availability form transverse dunes, which have a fixed profile in the direction orthogonal to the wind. Here we show, by means of a linear stability analysis, that transverse dunes are intrinsically unstable. Any along-axis perturbation on a transverse dune amplify in the course of dune migration due to the combined effect of two main factors, namely: the lateral transport through avalanches along the dune's slip-face, and the scaling of dune migration velocity with the inverse of the dune height. Our calculations provide a quantitative explanation for recent observations from experiments and numerical simulations, which showed that transverse dunes moving on the bedrock cannot exist in a stable form and decay into a chain of crescent-shaped barchans.
- Dec 09 2011 cond-mat.supr-con arXiv:1112.1866v1We first review evidence for the Cooper pair insulator (CPI) phase in amorphous nanohoneycomb (NHC) films. We then extend our analysis of superconducting islands induced by film thickness variations in NHC films to examine the evolution of island sizes through the magnetic field-driven SIT. Finally, using the islanding picture, we present a plausible model for the appearance and behavior of the CPI phase in amorphous NHC films.
- Dec 05 2011 cond-mat.stat-mech arXiv:1112.0557v1Despite original claims of a first-order transition in the product rule model proposed by Achlioptas et al. [Science 323, 1453 (2009)], recent studies indicate that this percolation model, in fact, displays a continuous transition. The distinctive scaling properties of the model at criticality, however, strongly suggest that it should belong to a different universality class than ordinary percolation. Here we introduce a generalization of the product rule that reveals the effect of non-locality on the critical behavior of the percolation process. Precisely, pairs of unoccupied bonds are chosen according to a probability that decays as a power-law of their Manhattan distance, and only that bond connecting clusters whose product of their sizes is the smallest, becomes occupied. Interestingly, our results for two-dimensional lattices at criticality shows that the power-law exponent of the product rule has a significant influence on the finite-size scaling exponents for the spanning cluster, the conducting backbone, and the cutting bonds of the system. In all three cases, we observe a continuous variation from ordinary to (non-local) explosive percolation exponents.