results for au:Iadecola_T in:cond-mat

- It is well-known that spontaneous symmetry breaking in one spatial dimension is thermodynamically forbidden at finite energy density. Here we show that mirror-symmetric disorder in an interacting quantum system can invert this paradigm, yielding spontaneous breaking of mirror symmetry only at finite energy density and giving rise to "mirror-glass" order. The mirror-glass transition, which is driven by a finite density of interacting excitations, is enabled by many-body localization, and appears to occur simultaneously with the localization transition. This counterintuitive manifestation of localization-protected order can be viewed as a quantum analog of inverse freezing, a phenomenon that occurs, e.g., in certain models of classical spin glasses.
- Protected zero modes in quantum physics traditionally arise in the context of ground states of many-body Hamiltonians. Here we study the case where zero-modes exist in the center of a reflection-symmetric many-body spectrum, giving rise to the notion of a protected "infinite-temperature" degeneracy. For a certain class of nonintegrable spin chains, we show that the number of zero modes is determined by a chiral index that grows exponentially with system size. We propose a dynamical protocol, feasible in ongoing experiments in Rydberg atom quantum simulators, to detect these many-body zero modes and their protecting spectral reflection symmetry.
- We show that time-reflection symmetry in periodically driven (Floquet) quantum systems enables an inherently nonequilibrium phenomenon structurally similar to quantum-mechanical sypersymmetry. In particular, we find Floquet analogues of the Witten index that place lower bounds on the degeneracies of states with quasienergies $0$ and $\pi$. Moreover, we show that in some cases time reflection symmetry can also interchange fermions and bosons, leading to fermion/boson pairs with opposite quasienergy. We provide a simple class of disordered, interacting, and ergodic Floquet models with an exponentially large number of states at quasienergies $0$ and $\pi$, which are robust as long as the time-reflection symmetry is preserved. Floquet supersymmetry manifests itself in the evolution of certain local observables as a period-doubling effect with dramatic finite-size scaling, providing a clear signature for experiments.
- Mar 13 2017 cond-mat.str-el arXiv:1703.03418v2Starting from an array of interacting fermionic quantum wires, we construct a family of non-Abelian topologically ordered states of matter in three spatial dimensions (3D). These states of matter inherit their non-Abelian topological properties from the $su(2)^{\,}_{k}$ conformal field theories that characterize the constituent interacting quantum wires in the decoupled limit. Thus, the resulting topological phases can be viewed as 3D generalizations of the (bosonic) $su(2)^{\,}_{k}$ Read-Rezayi sequence of fractional quantum Hall states. Focusing in detail on the $su(2)^{\,}_{2}$ case, we first review how to determine the nature of the non-Abelian topological order (in particular, the topological degeneracy on the torus) in the two-dimensional (2D) case, before generalizing this approach to the 3D case. We also investigate the 2D boundary of the 3D phases, and show for the $su(2)^{\,}_{2}$ case that there are anomalous gapless surface states protected by an analog of time-reversal symmetry, similar to the massless Dirac surface states of the noninteracting 3D topological insulator.
- We present a dynamical mechanism leading to dissipationless conductance, whose quantized value is controllable, in a (3+1)-dimensional electronic system. The mechanism is exemplified by a theory of Weyl fermions coupled to a Higgs field--also known as an axion insulator. We show that the insertion of an axial gauge flux can induce vortex lines in the Higgs field, similarly to the development of vortices in a superconductor upon the insertion of magnetic flux. We further show that the necessary axial gauge flux can be generated using Rashba spin-orbit coupling or a magnetic field. Vortex lines in the Higgs field are known to bind chiral fermionic modes, each of which serves as a one-way channel for electric charge with conductance $e^2/h$. Combining these elements, we present a physical picture, the "topological coaxial cable," illustrating how the value of the quantized conductance could be controlled in such an axion insulator.
- Jan 07 2016 cond-mat.str-el cond-mat.mes-hall arXiv:1601.00981v2Coupled-wire constructions have proven to be useful tools to characterize Abelian and non-Abelian topological states of matter in two spatial dimensions. In many cases, their success has been complemented by the vast arsenal of other theoretical tools available to study such systems. In three dimensions, however, much less is known about topological phases. Since the theoretical arsenal in this case is smaller, it stands to reason that wire constructions, which are based on one-dimensional physics, could play a useful role in developing a greater microscopic understanding of three-dimensional topological phases. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive strategy, based on the geometric arrangement of commuting projectors in the toric code, to generate and characterize coupled-wire realizations of strongly-interacting three-dimensional topological phases. We show how this method can be used to construct pointlike and linelike excitations, and to determine the topological degeneracy. We also point out how, with minor modifications, the machinery already developed in two dimensions can be naturally applied to study the surface states of these systems, a fact that has implications for the study of surface topological order. Finally, we show that the strategy developed for the construction of three-dimensional topological phases generalizes readily to arbitrary dimensions, vastly expanding the existing landscape of coupled-wire theories. Throughout the paper, we discuss $\mathbb{Z}^{\,}_m$ topological order in three and four dimensions as a concrete example of this approach, but the approach itself is not limited to this type of topological order.
- Many topological phenomena first proposed and observed in the context of electrons in solids have recently found counterparts in photonic and acoustic systems. In this work, we demonstrate that non-Abelian Berry phases can arise when coherent states of light are injected into "topological guided modes" in specially-fabricated photonic waveguide arrays. These modes are photonic analogues of topological zero modes in electronic systems. Light traveling inside spatially well-separated topological guided modes can be braided, leading to the accumulation of non-Abelian phases, which depend on the order in which the guided beams are wound around one another. Notably, these effects survive the limit of large photon occupation, and can thus also be understood as wave phenomena arising directly from Maxwell's equations, without resorting to the quantization of light. We propose an optical interference experiment as a direct probe of this non-Abelian braiding of light.
- Mar 30 2015 cond-mat.str-el cond-mat.quant-gas arXiv:1503.07871v4Symmetry-protected topological (SPT) phases of matter have been the focus of many recent theoretical investigations, but controlled mechanisms for engineering them have so far been elusive. In this work, we demonstrate that by driving interacting spin systems periodically in time and tuning the available parameters, one can realize lattice models for bosonic SPT phases in the limit where the driving frequency is large. We provide concrete examples of this construction in one and two dimensions, and discuss signatures of these phases in stroboscopic measurements of local observables.
- Feb 19 2015 cond-mat.mes-hall cond-mat.stat-mech arXiv:1502.05047v3Floquet topological insulators are noninteracting quantum systems that, when driven by a time-periodic field, are described by effective Hamiltonians whose bands carry nontrivial topological invariants. A longstanding question concerns the possibility of selectively populating one of these effective bands, thereby maximizing the system's resemblance to a static topological insulator. We study such Floquet systems coupled to a zero-temperature thermal reservoir that provides dissipation. We find that the resulting electronic steady states are generically characterized by a finite density of excitations above the effective ground state, even when the driving has a small amplitude and/or large frequency. We discuss the role of reservoir engineering in mitigating this problem.
- Dec 19 2014 cond-mat.stat-mech cond-mat.mes-hall arXiv:1412.5599v2Open quantum systems, when driven by a periodic field, can relax to effective statistical ensembles that resemble their equilibrium counterparts. We consider a class of problems in which a periodically- driven quantum system is allowed to exchange both energy and particles with a thermal reservoir. We demonstrate that, even for noninteracting systems, effective equilibration to the grand canonical ensemble requires both fine tuning the system-bath coupling and selecting a sufficiently simple driving protocol. We study a tractable subclass of these problems in which the long-time steady state of the system can be determined analytically, and demonstrate that the system effectively thermalizes with fine tuning, but does not thermalize for general values of the system-bath couplings. When the driven system does not thermalize, it supports a tunable persistent current in the steady state without external bias. We compute this current analytically for two examples of interest: 1) a driven double quantum dot, where the current is interpreted as a DC electrical current, and 2) driven Dirac fermions in graphene, where it is interpreted as a valley current.
- Oct 23 2014 cond-mat.str-el arXiv:1410.5828v1We review various features of interacting Abelian topological phases of matter in two spatial dimensions, placing particular emphasis on fractional Chern insulators (FCIs) and fractional topological insulators (FTIs). We highlight aspects of these systems that challenge the intuition developed from quantum Hall physics - for instance, FCIs are stable in the limit where the interaction energy scale is much larger than the band gap, and FTIs can possess fractionalized excitations in the bulk despite the absence of gapless edge modes.
- We consider manifestations of topological order in time-reversal-symmetric fractional topological liquids (TRS-FTLs), defined on planar surfaces with holes. We derive a formula for the topological ground state degeneracy of such a TRS-FTL, which applies to cases where the edge modes on each boundary are fully gapped by appropriate backscattering terms. The degeneracy is exact in the limit of infinite system size, and is given by $q^{N^{\,}_{\mathrm{h}}}$, where $N^{\,}_{\mathrm{h}}$ is the number of holes and $q$ is an integer that is determined by the topological field theory. When the degeneracy is lifted by finite-size effects, the holes realize a system of $N^{\,}_{\mathrm{h}}$ coupled spin-like $q$-state degrees of freedom. In particular, we provide examples where $\mathbb Z^{\,}_{q}$ quantum clock models are realized on the low-energy manifold of states. We also investigate the possibility of measuring the topological ground state degeneracy with calorimetry, and briefly revisit the notion of topological order in $s$-wave BCS superconductors.
- Nov 22 2013 cond-mat.mes-hall arXiv:1311.5231v3We illustrate the possibility of realizing band gaps in graphene-like systems that fall outside the existing classification of gapped Dirac Hamiltonians in terms of masses. As our primary example we consider a band gap arising due to time-dependent distortions of the honeycomb lattice. By means of an exact, invertible, and transport-preserving mapping to a time-independent Hamiltonian, we show that the system exhibits Chern-insulating phases with quantized Hall conductivities $\pm e^2/h$. The chirality of the corresponding gapless edge modes is controllable by both the frequency of the driving and the manner in which sublattice symmetry is broken by the dynamical lattice modulations. Finally, we discuss a promising possible realization of this physics in photonic lattices.
- Driven condensed matter systems consistently pose substantial challenges to theoretical understanding. Progress in the study of such systems has been achieved using the Floquet formalism, but certain aspects of this approach are not well understood. In this paper, we consider the exceptionally simple case of the rotating KekulĂ© mass in graphene through the lens of Floquet theory. We show that the fact that this problem is gauge-equivalent to a time-independent problem implies that the "quasi-energies" of Floquet theory correspond to a continuous symmetry of the full time-dependent Lagrangian. We use the conserved Noether charge associated with this symmetry to recover notions of equilibrium statistical mechanics.
- Feb 13 2013 cond-mat.mes-hall hep-th arXiv:1302.2841v2Controlling the properties of materials by driving them out of equilibrium is an exciting prospect that has only recently begun to be explored. In this paper we give a striking theoretical example of such materials design: a tunable gap in monolayer graphene is generated by exciting a particular optical phonon. We show that the system reaches a steady state whose transport properties are the same as if the system had a static electronic gap, controllable by the driving amplitude. Moreover, the steady state displays topological phenomena: there are chiral edge currents, which circulate a fractional charge e/2 per rotation cycle, with frequency set by the optical phonon frequency.