results for au:Huang_Y in:quant-ph

- Feb 21 2018 quant-ph arXiv:1802.07194v1Recently, an efficient quantum algorithm for linear systems of equations introduced by Harrow, Hassidim, and Lloyd, has received great concern from the academic community. However, the error and complexity analysis for this algorithm seems so complicated that it may not be applicable to other filter functions for other tasks. In this note, a concise proof is proposed. We hope that it may inspire some novel HHL-based algorithms that can compute $F(A)|b\rangle$ for any computable $F$.
- Chaotic dynamics in closed local quantum systems scrambles quantum information, which is manifested quantitatively in the decay of the out-of-time-ordered correlators (OTOC) of local operators. How is information scrambling affected when the system is coupled to the environment and suffers from dissipation? In this paper, we address this question by defining a dissipative version of OTOC and numerically study its behavior in a prototypical chaotic quantum chain in the presence of dissipation. We find that dissipation leads to not only the overall decay of the scrambled information due to leaking, but also structural changes so that the `information light cone' can only reach a finite distance even when the effect of overall decay is removed. Based on this observation we conjecture a modified version of the Lieb-Robinson bound in dissipative systems.
- Jan 16 2018 quant-ph arXiv:1801.04418v1We perform decoy-state quantum key distribution between a low-Earth-orbit satellite and multiple ground stations located in Xinglong, Nanshan, and Graz, which establish satellite-to-ground secure keys with ~kHz rate per passage of the satellite Micius over a ground station. The satellite thus establishes a secure key between itself and, say, Xinglong, and another key between itself and, say, Graz. Then, upon request from the ground command, Micius acts as a trusted relay. It performs bitwise exclusive OR operations between the two keys and relays the result to one of the ground stations. That way, a secret key is created between China and Europe at locations separated by 7600 km on Earth. These keys are then used for intercontinental quantum-secured communication. This was on the one hand the transmission of images in a one-time pad configuration from China to Austria as well as from Austria to China. Also, a videoconference was performed between the Austrian Academy of Sciences and the Chinese Academy of Sciences, which also included a 280 km optical ground connection between Xinglong and Beijing. Our work points towards an efficient solution for an ultralong-distance global quantum network, laying the groundwork for a future quantum internet.
- Jan 10 2018 quant-ph arXiv:1801.02729v1Quantum entanglement, the essential resource for quantum information processing, has rich dynamics under different environments. Probing different entanglement dynamics typically requires exquisite control of complicated system-environment coupling in real experimental systems. Here, by a simple control of the effective solid-state spin bath in a diamond sample, we observe rich entanglement dynamics, including the conventional asymptotic decay as well as the entanglement sudden death, a term coined for the phenomenon of complete disappearance of entanglement after a short finite time interval. Furthermore, we observe counter-intuitive entanglement rebirth after its sudden death in the same diamond sample by tuning an experimental parameter, demonstrating that we can conveniently control the non-Markovianity of the system-environment coupling through a natural experimental knob. Further tuning of this experimental knob can make the entanglement dynamics completely coherent under the same environmental coupling. Probing of entanglement dynamics, apart from its fundamental interest, may find applications in quantum information processing through control of the environmental coupling.
- Dec 19 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1712.06557v1We present the first experimental confirmation of the existence, predicted by quantum mechanics, of stronger-than-binary correlations. These are correlations which cannot be explained under the assumption that the occurrence of a particular outcome of an $n \ge 3$-outcome measurement is due to a two-step process in which, in the first step, some classical mechanism precludes $n-2$ of the outcomes and, in the second step, a binary measurement generates the outcome. Our experiment uses pairs of photonic qutrits distributed between two laboratories where randomly chosen three-outcome measurements are performed. We report a violation by 9.3 standard deviations of the optimal inequality for nonsignaling binary correlations.
- Nov 29 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1711.10101v1Resolution of the century-long paradox on Maxwell's demon reveals a deep connection between information theory and thermodynamics. Although initially introduced as a thought experiment, Maxwell's demon can now be implemented in several physical systems, leading to intriguing test of information-thermodynamic relations. Here, we report experimental realization of a quantum version of Maxwell's demon using solid state spins where the information acquiring and feedback operations by the demon are achieved through conditional quantum gates. A unique feature of this implementation is that the demon can start in a quantum superposition state or in an entangled state with an ancilla observer. Through quantum state tomography, we measure the entropy in the system, demon, and the ancilla, showing the influence of coherence and entanglement on the result. A quantum implementation of Maxwell's demon adds more controllability to this paradoxical thermal machine and may find applications in quantum thermodynamics involving microscopic systems.
- Nov 10 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1711.03317v1Recently, the problem of the infinite spherical well was solved by the group-theoretical method to resolve all the peculiarities in the currently accepted solution [DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.18172.44162 (Researchgate, 2017)]. With a view to further justifying the group-theoretical method, the problem is first studied from the viewpoint of classical mechanics. Then the radial probability densities predicted by classical mechanics are compared with those predicted from solutions of the problem obtained by the group-theoretical method. The comparisons clearly indicate the convergence of predictions of quantum mechanics and classical mechanics in the limit of large eigen-energies. Therefore, the group-theoretical method is justified as the right way to solve the problem of the infinite spherical well.
- Nov 01 2017 quant-ph physics.optics arXiv:1710.11208v1With exotic propagation properties, optical Airy beams have been well studied for innovative applications in communications, biomedical imaging, micromachining, and so on. Here we extend those studies to the quantum domain, creating quantum correlated photons in finite-energy Airy transverse modes via spontaneous parametric down conversion and sub-sequential spatial light modulation. Through two-photon coincidence measurements, we verify their Airy spatial wavefunctions, propagation along a parabolic trajectory, and that the spatial modulation does not introduce any observable degradation of quantum correlation between the photons. These results suggest the feasibility of using spatially structured photons for practically advantageous quantum applications.
- Oct 24 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1710.07951v1Quantum secure direct communication (QSDC) is an important quantum communication branch, which realizes the secure information transmission directly without encryption and decryption processes. Recently, two table-top experiments have demonstrated the principle of QSDC. Here, we report the first long-distance QSDC experiment, including the security test, information encoding, fiber transmission and decoding. After the fiber transmission of 0.5 km, quantum state fidelities of the two polarization entangled Bell states are 91% and 88%, respectively, which are used for information coding. We theoretically analyze the performance of the QSDC system based on current optical communication technologies, showing that QSDC over fiber links of several tens kilometers could be expected. It demonstrates the potential of long-distance QSDC and supports its future applications on quantum communication networks.
- Oct 02 2017 cond-mat.mes-hall quant-ph arXiv:1709.10331v3In this paper, we derive the exact master equation to investigate the decoherence dynamics of Majorana zero modes in the Kitaev model, a 1D $p\,$-wave spinless topological superconducting chain (TSC), that is disturbed by charge fluctuations through gate controls. The exact master equation is derived by extending Feynman-Vernon influence functional approach to fermionic open systems involving pairing excitations. We obtain the exact master equations for the zero-energy bogoliubon in the TSC, and then transfer it into the master equation for Majorana zero modes. Within this exact master equation formalism, we can describe in detail the non-Markovian decoherence dynamics of zero-energy bogolibons as well as the Majorana zero modes under local perturbations. We find that at zero temperature, there is a zero-energy localized bound state which is not the original zero-energy bogoliubon or the original Majorana zero mode but a localized bound state of Majorana zero mode after the charge fluctuation is taken into account. It is this zero-energy localized bound state that protects Majorana zero modes from decoherence, as a long-time non-Markovain memory effect. However, for the environment at finite temperature, the zero-energy localized bound state cannot be formed when Majorana zero modes are locally perturbed, and decoherence is inevitable.
- In the Sachdev-Ye-Kitaev model, we argue that the entanglement entropy of any eigenstate (including the ground state) obeys a volume law, whose coefficient can be calculated analytically from the energy and subsystem size. We expect that the argument applies to a broader class of chaotic models with all-to-all interactions.
- Sep 25 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1709.07657v2We study the dynamics of the Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick (LMG) model with finite number of spins. In the thermodynamic limit, the ground state of the LMG model with isotropic Hamiltonian in broken phase breaks to a mean-field ground state with a certain direction. However, when the spins number $N$ is finite, the exact ground state is always unique and is not given by a classical mean-field ground state. Here we prove that for $N$ is large but finite, through a tiny external perturbation, a localized state which is close to a mean-field ground state can be prepared, which mimics a spontaneous symmetry breaking (SSB). Besides, we find the localized in-plane spin polarization oscillates with two different frequencies $\sim O(1/N)$, and the lifetime of the localized state is long enough to exhibit this oscillation. We numerically test the analytical results and find that they agree with each other very well. Finally, we link the phenomena to quantum time crystals and quasicrystals.
- In systems governed by "chaotic" local Hamiltonians, we conjecture the universality of eigenstate entanglement (defined as the average entanglement entropy of all eigenstates) by proposing an exact formula for its dependence on the subsystem size. This formula is derived from an analytical argument based on a plausible assumption, and is supported by numerical simulations.
- Jul 12 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1707.03178v1The hybrid quantum network, a universal form of quantum network which is aimed for quantum communication and distributed quantum computation, is that the quantum nodes in it are realized with different physical systems. This universal form of quantum network can combine the advantages and avoid the inherent defects of the different physical system. However, one obstacle standing in the way is the compatible photonic quantum interface. One possible solution is using non-degenerate, narrow-band, entangled photon pairs as the photonic interface. Here, for the first time, we generate nondegenrate narrow-band polarization-entangled photon pairs in cavity-enhanced spontaneous parametric down-conversion process. The bandwidths and central wavelengths of the signal and idler photons are 9 MHz at 935 nm and 9.5 MHz at 880 nm, which are compatible with trapped ion system and solid-state quantum memory system. The entanglement of the photon source is certified by quantum state tomography, showing a fidelity of 89.6% between the generated quantum state with a Bell state. Besides, a strong violation against Bell inequality with 2.36+/-0.03 further confirms the entanglement property of the photon pairs. Our method is suitable for the hybrid quantum network and will take a big step in this field.
- Quantum key distribution (QKD) uses individual light quanta in quantum superposition states to guarantee unconditional communication security between distant parties. In practice, the achievable distance for QKD has been limited to a few hundred kilometers, due to the channel loss of fibers or terrestrial free space that exponentially reduced the photon rate. Satellite-based QKD promises to establish a global-scale quantum network by exploiting the negligible photon loss and decoherence in the empty out space. Here, we develop and launch a low-Earth-orbit satellite to implement decoy-state QKD with over kHz key rate from the satellite to ground over a distance up to 1200 km, which is up to 20 orders of magnitudes more efficient than that expected using an optical fiber (with 0.2 dB/km loss) of the same length. The establishment of a reliable and efficient space-to-ground link for faithful quantum state transmission constitutes a key milestone for global-scale quantum networks.
- Jun 26 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1706.07646v1We propose a generic quantum algorithm, sequential Hamiltonian algorithm, and prove rigorously that our algorithm is as efficient as quantum circuit algorithm. Our quantum algorithm consists of a series of Hamiltonians, $H_0, H_1, H_2, \cdots, H_j, H_{j+1}, \cdots, H_\fl$, where $H_0$ has a simple and easy-to-construct ground state and the ground state of $H_\fl$ is the solution. The algorithm works by adiabatically switching on and off the Hamiltonians in sequence. The time complexity of our algorithm is determined by both the number of Hamiltonians $\fl$ and the minimum energy gap during the adiabatic switchings. We give an analytical example where our algorithm has an exponential speed-up over the usual quantum adiabatic algorithm $H(s)=(1-s)H_0+sH_\fl$. A heuristic understanding of this speed-up is offered.
- Jun 13 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1706.03313v2We experimentally demonstrate room-temperature storage of quantum entanglement using two nuclear spins weakly coupled to the electronic spin carried by a single nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond. We realize universal quantum gate control over the three-qubit spin system and produce entangled states encoded within the decoherence-free subspace of the two nuclear spins. By injecting arbitrary collective noise, we demonstrate that the decoherence-free entangled state has coherence time longer than that of other entangled states by an order of magnitude in our experiment.
- May 25 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1705.08635v2We study the directional amplification of an optical probe field in a three-mode optomechanical system, where the mechanical resonator interacts with two linearly-coupled optical cavities and the cavities are driven by strong optical pump fields. The optical probe field is injected into one of the cavity modes, and at the same time, the mechanical resonator is subject to a mechanical drive with the driving frequency equal to the frequency difference between the optical probe and pump fields. We show that the transmission of the probe field can be amplified in one direction and de-amplified in the opposite direction. This directional amplification or de-amplification results from the constructive or destruction interference between different transmission paths in this three-mode optomechanical system.
- Chaotic dynamics in quantum many-body systems scrambles local information so that at late times it can no longer be accessed locally. This is reflected quantitatively in the out-of-time-ordered correlator of local operators which is expected to decay to zero with time. However, for systems of finite size, out-of-time-ordered correlators do not decay exactly to zero and we show in this paper that the residue value can provide useful insights into the chaotic dynamics. In particular, we show that when energy is conserved, the late-time saturation value of out-of-time-ordered correlators for generic traceless local operators scales inverse polynomially with the system size. This is in contrast to the inverse exponential scaling expected for chaotic dynamics without energy conservation. We provide both analytical arguments and numerical simulations to support this conclusion.
- Apr 14 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1704.03960v1Realizing long distance entanglement swapping with independent sources in the real-world condition is important for both future quantum network and fundamental study of quantum theory. Currently, demonstration over a few of tens kilometer underground optical fiber has been achieved. However, future applications demand entanglement swapping over longer distance with more complicated environment. We exploit two independent 1-GHz-clock sequential time-bin entangled photon-pair sources, develop several automatic stability controls, and successfully implement a field test of entanglement swapping over more than 100-km optical fiber link including coiled, underground and suspended optical fibers. Our result verifies the feasibility of such technologies for long distance quantum network and for many interesting quantum information experiments.
- Mar 30 2017 quant-ph physics.optics arXiv:1703.09830v2When overlapping in an optical medium with nonlinear susceptibility, light waves can interact with each other, changing their phases, wavelengths, shapes, and so on. Such nonlinear effects, discovered over a half century ago, have given rise to a breadth of important applications. Applying to quantum-mechanical signals, however, they face fundamental challenges arising from the multimode nature of the interacting electromagnetic fields, such as phase noises and Raman scattering. Quantum Zeno blockade allows strong interaction of light waves without them physically overlapping, thus providing a viable solution for those challenges, as indicated in recent bulk-optics experiments. Here, we report on the observation of quantum Zeno blockade on chip, where a light wave is modulated by another in a distinct "interaction-free" manner. For quantum applications, we also verify its operations on a single-photon level. Our results promise a scalable platform for overcoming several grand challenges faced by nonlinear optics and quantum information processing, enabling, e.g., manipulation and interaction of quantum signals without decoherence.
- Mar 16 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1703.04630v1The Gottesman-Knill theorem established that stabilizer states and operations can be efficiently simulated classically. For qudits with dimension three and greater, stabilizer states and Clifford operations have been found to correspond to positive discrete Wigner functions and dynamics. We present a discrete Wigner function-based simulation algorithm for odd-$d$ qudits that has the same time and space complexity as the Aaronson-Gottesman algorithm. We show that the efficiency of both algorithms is due to the harmonic evolution in the symplectic structure of discrete phase space. The differences between the Wigner function algorithm and Aaronson-Gottesman are likely due only to the fact that the Weyl-Heisenberg group is not in $SU(d)$ for $d=2$ and that qubits have state-independent contextuality. This may provide a guide for extending the discrete Wigner function approach to qubits.
- Feb 15 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1702.04130v1High-quality entangled photon pairs generated via spontaneous parametric down-conversion have made great contributions to the modern quantum information science and the fundamental tests of quantum mechanics. However, the quality of the entangled states decreases sharply when moving from biphoton to multiphoton experiments, mainly due to the lack of interactions between photons. Here, for the first time, we generate a four-photon Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state with a fidelity of $98\%$, which is even comparable to the best fidelity of biphoton entangled states. Thus, it enables us to demonstrate an ultrahigh-fidelity entanglement swapping---the key ingredient in various quantum information tasks. Our results push the fidelity of multiphoton entanglement generation to a new level and would be useful in some demanding tasks, e.g., we successfully demonstrate the genuine multipartite nonlocality of the observed state in the nonsignaling scenario by violating a novel Hardy-like inequality, which requires very high state-fidelity.
- Dec 20 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1612.05649v2We give a path integral formulation of the time evolution of qudits of odd dimension. This allows us to consider semiclassical evolution of discrete systems in terms of an expansion of the propagator in powers of $\hbar$. The largest power of $\hbar$ required to describe the evolution is a traditional measure of classicality. We show that the action of the Clifford operators on stabilizer states can be fully described by a single contribution of a path integral truncated at order $\hbar^0$ and so are "classical," just like propagation of Gaussians under harmonic Hamiltonians in the continuous case. Such operations have no dependence on phase or quantum interference. Conversely, we show that supplementing the Clifford group with gates necessary for universal quantum computation results in a propagator consisting of a finite number of semiclassical path integral contributions truncated at order $\hbar^1$ , a number that nevertheless scales exponentially with the number of qudits. The same sum in continuous systems has an infinite number of terms at order $\hbar^1$.
- Dec 19 2016 cond-mat.str-el quant-ph arXiv:1612.05358v1The continuous imaginary-time quantum Monte Carlo method with the worm update algorithm is applied to explore the ground state properties of the spin-1/2 Heisenberg model with antiferromagnetic (AF) coupling $J>0$ and ferromagnetic (F) coupling $J^{\prime}<0$ along zigzag and armchair directions, respectively, on honeycomb lattice. It is found that by enhancing the F coupling $J^{\prime}$ between zigzag AF chains, the system is smoothly crossover from one-dimensional zigzag spin chains to a two-dimensional magnetic ordered state. In absence of an external field, the system is in a stripe order phase. In presence of uniform and staggered fields, the uniform and staggered out-of-plane magnetizations appear while the stripe order keeps in $xy$ plane, and a second-order quantum phase transition (QPT) at a critical staggered field is observed. The critical exponents of correlation length for QPTs induced by a staggered field for the cases with $J>0$, $J^{\prime}<0$ and $J<0$, $J^{\prime}>0$ are obtained to be $\nu=0.677(2)$ and $0.693(0)$, respectively, indicating that both cases belong to O(3) universality. The scaling behavior in a staggered field is analyzed, and the ground state phase diagrams in the plane of coupling ratio and staggered field are presented for two cases. The temperature dependence of susceptibility and specific heat of both systems in external magnetic fields is also discussed.
- Nov 23 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1611.07328v1A major obstacle to attain the fundamental precision limit of the phase estimation in an interferometry is the identification and implementation of the optimal measurement. Here we demonstrate that this can be accomplished by the use of three conventional measurements among interferometers with Bayesian estimation techniques. Conditions that hold for the precision limit to be attained with these measurements are obtained by explicitly calculating the Fisher information. Remarkably, these conditions are naturally satisfied in most interferometric experiments. We apply our results to an experiment of atomic spectroscopy and examine robustness of phase sensitivity for the two-axis counter-twisted state suffering from detection noise.
- Important properties of a quantum system are not directly measurable, but they can be disclosed by how fast the system changes under controlled perturbations. In particular, asymmetry and entanglement can be verified by reconstructing the state of a quantum system. Yet, this usually requires experimental and computational resources which increase exponentially with the system size. Here we show how to detect metrologically useful asymmetry and entanglement by a limited number of measurements. This is achieved by studying how they affect the speed of evolution of a system under a unitary transformation. We show that the speed of multiqubit systems can be evaluated by measuring a set of local observables, providing exponential advantage with respect to state tomography. Indeed, the presented method requires neither the knowledge of the state and the parameter-encoding Hamiltonian nor global measurements performed on all the constituent subsystems. We implement the detection scheme in an all-optical experiment.
- Laplacian eigenmap algorithm is a typical nonlinear model for dimensionality reduction in classical machine learning. We propose an efficient quantum Laplacian eigenmap algorithm to exponentially speed up the original counterparts. In our work, we demonstrate that the Hermitian chain product proposed in quantum linear discriminant analysis (arXiv:1510.00113,2015) can be applied to implement quantum Laplacian eigenmap algorithm. While classical Laplacian eigenmap algorithm requires polynomial time to solve the eigenvector problem, our algorithm is able to exponentially speed up nonlinear dimensionality reduction.
- Oct 04 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1610.00232v1Cluster state plays a crucial role in the one-way quantum computation. Here, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a new scheme to prepare an ultrahigh-fidelity four-photon linear cluster state via spontaneous parametric down-conversion process. The state fidelity is measured to be $0.9517\pm0.0027$. Our scheme can be directly extended to more photons to generate N-qubit linear cluster state. Furthermore, our scheme is optimal for generating photonic linear cluster states in the sense of achieving the maximal success probability and having the simplest strategy. The key idea is that the photon pairs are prepared in some special non-maximally entangled states instead of the normal Bell states. To generate a 2N-qubit linear cluster state from N pairs of entangled photons, only (N-1) Hong-Ou-Mandel interferences are needed and a success probability of $(\frac{1}{4})^{N-1}$ is achieved.
- Aug 09 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1608.02108v1In this paper, we report an experiment about the device-independent tests of classical and quantum entropy based on a recent proposal [Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 110501 (2015)], in which the states are encoded on the polarization of a biphoton system and measured by the state tomography technology. We also theoretically obtained the minimal quantum entropy for three widely used linear dimension witnesses. The experimental results agree well with the theoretical analysis, demonstrating that lower entropy is needed in quantum systems than that in classical systems under given values of the dimension witness.
- Jul 20 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1607.05367v1With the recent development of optomechanics, the vibration in solids, involving collective motion of trillions of atoms, gradually enters into the realm of quantum control. Built on the recent remarkable progress in optical control of motional states of diamonds, here we report an experimental demonstration of quantum teleportation from light beams to vibrational states of a macroscopic diamond under ambient conditions. Through quantum process tomography, we demonstrate average teleportation fidelity (90.6+/- 1.0)%, clearly exceeding the classical limit of 2/3. The experiment pushes the target of quantum teleportation to the biggest object so far, with interesting implications for optomechanical quantum control and quantum information science.
- Jul 18 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1607.04380v1Single-photon stimulated four wave mixing (StFWM) processes have great potential for photonic quantum information processing, compatible with optical communication technologies and integrated optoelectronics. In this paper, we demonstrate single-photon StFWM process in a piece of optical fiber, with seeded photons generated by spontaneous four wave mixing process (SpFWM). The effect of the single-photon StFWM is confirmed by time-resolved four-photon coincidence measurement and variation of four-photon coincidence counts under different seed-pump delays. According to the experiment results, the potential performance of quantum cloning machine based on the process is analyzed.
- Jun 27 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1606.07794v2Quantum frequency conversion (QFC) of photonic signals preserves quantum information while simultaneously changing the signal wavelength. A common application of QFC is to translate the wavelength of a signal compatible with the current fiber-optic infrastructure to a shorter wavelength more compatible with high quality single-photon detectors and optical memories. Recent work has investigated the use of QFC to manipulate and measure specific temporal modes (TMs) through tailoring of the pump pulses. Such a scheme holds promise for multidimensional quantum state manipulation that is both low loss and re-programmable on a fast time scale. We demonstrate the first QFC temporal mode sorting system in a four-dimensional Hilbert space, achieving a conversion efficiency and mode separability as high as 92% and 0.84, respectively. A 20-GHz pulse train is projected onto 6 different TMs, including superposition states, and mode separability with weak coherent signals is verified via photon counting. Such ultrafast high-dimensional photonic signals could enable long-distance quantum communication with high rates.
- Jun 27 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1606.07503v1Teleportation of an entangled state, known as entanglement swapping, plays an essential role in quantum communication and network.Here we report a field-test entanglement swapping experiment with two independent telecommunication band entangled photon-pair sources over the optical fibre network of Hefei city. The two sources are located at two nodes 12 km apart and the Bell-state measurement is performed in a third location which is connected to the two source nodes with 14.7 km and 10.6 km optical fibres. An average visibility of 79.9+/-4.8% is observed in our experiment, which is high enough to infer a violation of Bell inequality. With the entanglement swapping setup, we demonstrate a source independent quantum key distribution, which is also immune to any attack against detection in the measurement site.
- May 10 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1605.02339v3As one of the most intriguing intrinsic properties of quantum world, quantum superposition provokes great interests in its own generation. Oszmaniec [Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 110403 (2016)] have proven that though a universal quantum machine that creates superposition of arbitrary two unknown states is physically impossible, a probabilistic protocol exists in the case of two input states have nonzero overlaps with the referential state. Here we report a heralded quantum machine realizing superposition of arbitrary two unknown photonic qubits as long as they have nonzero overlaps with the horizontal polarization state $|H\rangle$. A total of 11 different qubit pairs are chosen to test this protocol by comparing the reconstructed output state with theoretical expected superposition of input states. We obtain the average fidelity as high as 0.99, which shows the excellent reliability of our realization. This realization not only deepens our understanding of quantum superposition but also has significant applications in quantum information and quantum computation, e.g., generating non-classical states in the context of quantum optics and realizing information compression by coherent superposition of results of independent runs of subroutines in a quantum computation.
- Mar 31 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1603.09119v2We investigate both theoretically and experimentally the dynamics of entanglement and non-locality for two qubits immersed in a global pure dephasing environment. We demonstrate the existence of a class of states for which entanglement is forever frozen during the dynamics, even if the state of the system does evolve. At the same time non-local correlations, quantified by the violation of the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) inequality, either undergo sudden death or are trapped during the dynamics.
- Mar 29 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1603.08254v2We experimentally show that nonlocality can be produced from single-particle contextuality by using two-particle correlations which do not violate any Bell inequality by themselves. This demonstrates that nonlocality can come from an \em a priori different simpler phenomenon, and connects contextuality and nonlocality, the two critical resources for, respectively, quantum computation and secure communication. From the perspective of quantum information, our experiment constitutes a proof of principle that quantum systems can be used simultaneously for both quantum computation and secure communication.
- Jan 11 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1601.01774v3We extend the non-Hermitian one-dimensional quantum walk model [Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 065703 (2009)] by taking the dephasing effect into account. We prove that the feature of topological transition does not change even when dephasing between the sites within units is present. The potential experimental observation of our theoretical results in the circuit QED system consisting of superconducting qubit coupled to a superconducting resonator mode is discussed and numerically simulated. The results clearly show a topological transition in quantum walk and display the robustness of such a system to the decay and dephasing of qubits. We also discuss how to extend this model to higher dimension in the circuit QED system.
- Nov 13 2015 quant-ph arXiv:1511.03893v1Mach-Zehnder interferometer, a powerful tool for a wide variety of measurements, has been realized with Bose-Einstein condensates in recent experiments. In this report, we propose and analyze a realizable scheme for performing a Heisenberg-limited Mach-Zehnder interferometry with dipolar spin-1 condensate. Based upon adiabatic processes of sweeping the transverse magnetic field, we demonstrate a perfect phase transition, which accomplishes the beam splitter, phase shifter and recombiner as for a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. The attractive dipolar interaction ensures the existence of a path-entangled state which enhances the phase measurement precision to the Heisenberg limit. We also discuss the spin-$1$ squeezing induced in the adiabatic passage and show that the squeezing parameter attains its minimal value near the point of saturation field.
- Oct 09 2015 quant-ph arXiv:1510.02199v1In a hybrid quantum network, linking two kinds of quantum nodes through photonic channels requires excellent matching of central frequency and bandwidth between both nodes and their interfacing photons. However, pre-existing photon sources can not fulfill this requirement. Using a novel conjoined double-cavity strategy, we report the generation of nondegenerate narrow-band photon pairs by cavity-enhanced spontaneous parametric down-conversion. The central frequencies and bandwidths of the signal and idler photons are independently set to match with trapped ions and solid-state quantum memories. With this source we achieve the bandwidths and central frequencies of 4 MHz at 935 nm and 5 MHz at 880 nm for the signal and idler photons respectively, with a normalized spectrum brightness of 4.9/s/MHz/mW. Due to the ability of being independently locked to two different wavelenghts, the conjoined double-cavity is universally suitable for hybrid quantum network consisting of various quantum nodes.
- Oct 06 2015 cond-mat.str-el quant-ph arXiv:1510.01303v3We propose an efficient algorithm for the ground state of frustration-free one-dimensional gapped Hamiltonians. This algorithm is much simpler than the original one by Landau et al., and thus may be easily accessible to a general audience in the community. We present all the details in two pages.
- Hastings established exponential decay of correlations for ground states of gapped quantum many-body systems. A ground state of a (geometrically) local Hamiltonian with spectral gap $\epsilon$ has correlation length $\xi$ upper bounded as $\xi=O(1/\epsilon)$. In general this bound cannot be improved. Here we study the scaling of the correlation length as a function of the spectral gap in frustration-free local Hamiltonians, and we prove a tight bound $\xi=O(1/\sqrt\epsilon)$ in this setting. This highlights a fundamental difference between frustration-free and frustrated systems near criticality. The result is obtained using an improved version of the combinatorial proof of correlation decay due to Aharonov, Arad, Vazirani, and Landau.
- Aug 24 2015 quant-ph arXiv:1508.05248v1Since the first quantum ghost imaging (QGI) experiment in 1995, many QGI schemes have been put forward. However, the position-position or momentum-momentum correlation required in these QGI schemes cannot be distributed over optical fibers, which limits their large geographical applications. In this paper, we propose and demonstrate a scheme for long distance QGI utilizing frequency correlated photon pairs. In this scheme, the frequency correlation is transformed to the correlation between the illuminating position of one photon and the arrival time of the other photon, by which QGI can be realized in the time domain. Since frequency correlation can be preserved when the photon pairs are distributed over optical fibers, this scheme provides a way to realize long-distance QGI over large geographical scale. In the experiment, long distance QGI over 50 km optical fibers has been demonstrated.
- Aug 20 2015 cond-mat.dis-nn quant-ph arXiv:1508.04756v1An efficient numerical method is developed using the matrix product formalism for computing the properties at finite energy densities in one-dimensional (1D) many-body localized (MBL) systems. Arguing that any efficient (possibly quantum) algorithm can only have a polynomially small energy resolution, we propose a (rigorous) polynomial-time (classical) algorithm that outputs a diagonal density operator supported on a microcanonical ensemble of an inverse polynomial bandwidth. The proof uses no other conditions for MBL but assumes that the effect of any local perturbation (e.g., injecting conserved charges) is restricted to a region whose radius grows logarithmically with time. A non-optimal version of this algorithm efficiently simulates the quantum phase estimation algorithm in 1D MBL systems; a heuristic version of the algorithm can be easily coded and used to, e.g., detect energy-tuned dynamical quantum phase transitions between MBL phases. We extend the algorithm to two and higher spatial dimensions using the projected entangled pair formalism.
- Aug 06 2015 quant-ph physics.optics arXiv:1508.00988v1To construct a quantum network with many end users, it is critical to have a cost-efficient way to distribute entanglement over different network ends. We demonstrate an entanglement access network, where the expensive resource, the entangled photon source at the telecom wavelength and the core communication channel, is shared by many end users. Using this cost-efficient entanglement access network, we report experimental demonstration of a secure multiparty computation protocol, the privacy-preserving secure sum problem, based on the network quantum cryptography.
- Jul 10 2015 quant-ph arXiv:1507.02500v1We propose a new dark-state cooling method of trapped ion systems in the Lamb-Dicke limit. With application of microwave dressing the ion, we can obtain two electromagnetically induced transparency structures. The heating effects caused by the carrier and the blue sideband transition vanish due to the EIT effects and the final mean phonon numbers can be much less than the recoil limit. Our scheme is robust to fluctuations of microwave power and laser intensities which provides a broad cooling bandwidth to cool motional modes of a linear ion chain. Moreover, it is more suitable to cool four-level ions on a large-scale ion chip.
- May 22 2015 quant-ph arXiv:1505.05734v3The Kibble-Zurek mechanism is the paradigm to account for the nonadiabatic dynamics of a system across a continuous phase transition. Its study in the quantum regime is hindered by the requisite of ground state cooling. We report the experimental quantum simulation of critical dynamics in the transverse-field Ising model by a set of Landau-Zener crossings in pseudo-momentum space, that can be probed with high accuracy using a single trapped ion. We test the Kibble-Zurek mechanism in the quantum regime in the momentum space and find the measured scaling of excitations is in accordance with the theoretical prediction.
- May 05 2015 cond-mat.str-el quant-ph arXiv:1505.00772v1We study the problem of computing energy density in one-dimensional quantum systems. We show that the ground-state energy per site or per bond can be computed in time (i) independent of the system size and subexponential in the desired precision if the ground state satisfies area laws for the Renyi entanglement entropy (this is the first rigorous formulation of the folklore that area laws imply efficient matrix-product-state algorithms); (ii) independent of the system size and polynomial in the desired precision if the system is gapped. As a by-product, we prove that in the presence of area laws (or even an energy gap) the ground state can be approximated by a positive semidefinite matrix product operator of bond dimension independent of the system size and subpolynomial in the desired precision of local properties.
- May 01 2015 physics.optics quant-ph arXiv:1504.08048v1We examine a Kerr phase gate in a semiconductor quantum well structure based on the tunnelling interference effect. We show that there exist a specific signal field detuning, at which the absorption/amplification of the probe field will be eliminated with the increase of the tunnelling interference. Simultaneously, the probe field will acquire a -\pi phase shift at the exit of the medium. We demonstrate with numerical simulations that a complete 180^∘phase rotation for the probe field at the exit of the medium is achieved, which may result in many applications in information science and telecommunication.
- Apr 29 2015 quant-ph arXiv:1504.07572v2Many quantum information tasks rely on entanglement, which is used as a resource, for example, to enable efficient and secure communication. Typically, noise, accompanied by loss of entanglement, reduces the efficiency of quantum protocols. We develop and demonstrate experimentally a superdense coding scheme with noise, where the decrease of entanglement in Alice's encoding state does not reduce the efficiency of the information transmission. Having almost fully dephased classical two-photon polarization state at the time of encoding with concurrence $0.163\pm0.007$, we reach values of mutual information close to $1.52\pm 0.02$ ($1.89\pm 0.05$) with 3-state (4-state) encoding. This high efficiency relies both on non-Markovian features, that Bob exploits just before his Bell-state measurement, and on very high visibility ($99.6\%\pm0.1\%$) of the Hong-Ou-Mandel interference within the experimental set-up. Our proof-of-principle results with measurements on mutual information pave the way for exploiting non-Markovianity to improve the efficiency and security of quantum information processing tasks.
- Feb 26 2015 cond-mat.mes-hall quant-ph arXiv:1502.07098v1In the context of a charge qubit under continuous monitoring by a single electron transistor, we propose an unraveling of the generalized quantum Markovian master equation into an ensemble of individual quantum trajectories for stochastic point process. A suboptimal feedback algorism is implemented into individual quantum trajectories to protect a desired pure state. Coherent oscillations of the charge qubit could be maintained in principle for an arbitrarily long time in case of sufficient feedback strength. The effectiveness of the feedback control is also reflected in the detector's noise spectrum. The signal-to-noise ratio rises significantly with increasing feedback strength such that it could even exceed the Korotkov-Averin bound in quantum measurement, manifesting almost ideal quantum coherent oscillations of the qubit. The proposed unraveling and feedback protocol may open up the prospect to sustain ideal coherent oscillations of a charge qubit in quantum computation algorithms.
- Feb 05 2015 quant-ph arXiv:1502.01098v1We show that the perfect commutation graph is the sufficient tight condition for admitting the noncontextual description of each observable set satisfying it in the yes-no question scenario. With this condition, we propose a method for proving the monogamy relation between two informationtheoretic contextuality inequalities by decomposing the total commutation graph into perfect subgraphs. The results offer a powerful tool to investigate the contextuality and to understand quantum information theory. This theoretical work can be experimentally verified in current laboratorial technology.
- A (deterministic) polynomial-time algorithm is proposed for approximating the ground state of (general) one-dimensional gapped Hamiltonians. Let $\epsilon,n,\eta$ be the energy gap, the system size, and the desired precision, respectively. Neglecting $\epsilon$-dependent subpolynomial (in $n$) and constant factors, the running time of the algorithm is $n^{O(1)}$ for $\eta=n^{-O(1)}$.
- May 09 2014 cond-mat.dis-nn quant-ph arXiv:1405.1817v2Entanglement properties of excited eigenstates (or of thermal mixed states) are difficult to study with conventional analytical methods. We approach this problem for random spin chains using a recently developed real-space renormalization group technique for excited states ("RSRG-X"). For the random $XX$ and quantum Ising chains, which have logarithmic divergences in the entanglement entropy of their (infinite-randomness) critical ground states, we show that the entanglement entropy of excited eigenstates retains a logarithmic divergence while the mutual information of thermal mixed states does not. However, in the $XX$ case the coefficient of the logarithmic divergence extends from the universal ground-state value to a universal interval due to the degeneracy of excited eigenstates. These models are noninteracting in the sense of having free-fermion representations, allowing strong numerical checks of our analytical predictions.
- Apr 15 2014 quant-ph physics.bio-ph arXiv:1404.3380v2We investigate the dynamics of entanglement in the excitation transfer through a chain of interacting molecules. In the case of two-molecule coupled to noisy environments we show that entanglement can be further enhanced if the distance between the molecules is oscillating. Our results demonstrate that motional effect plays a constructive role on quantum entanglement in the dynamics of excitation transfer. This mechanism might provide useful guideline for designing artificial systems to battle against decoherence.
- Mar 19 2014 quant-ph arXiv:1403.4261v1Recently, a series of different measures quantifying memory effects in the quantum dynamics of open systems has been proposed. Here, we derive a mathematical representation for the non-Markovianity measure based on the exchange of information between the open system and its environment which substantially simplifies its numerical and experimental determination, and fully reveals the locality and universality of non-Markovianity in the quantum state space. We further illustrate the application of this representation by means of an all-optical experiment which allows the measurement of the degree of memory effects in a photonic quantum process with high accuracy.
- Mar 11 2014 quant-ph arXiv:1403.1917v2In this Letter, the generation of 1.5 \mum discrete frequency entangled two-photon state is realized based on a piece of commercial polarization maintaining fiber (PMF). It is connected with a polarization beam splitter to realize a modified Sagnac fiber loop (MSFL). Correlated two-photon states are generated through spontaneous four wave-mixing process along the two propagation directions of the MSFL, and output from the MSFL with orthogonal polarizations. The quantum interference of them is realized through a 45\deg polarization collimation between polarization axes of PMFs inside and outside the MSFL, while the phase difference of them is controlled by the polarization state of the pump light. The frequency entangled property of the two-photon state is demonstrated by a spatial quantum beating experiment with a fringe visibility of (98.2+/-1.3)%, without subtracting the accidental coincidence counts. The proposed scheme generates 1.5 \mum discrete frequency entangled two-photon state in a polarization maintaining way, which is desired in practical quantum light sources.
- Mar 04 2014 cond-mat.str-el quant-ph arXiv:1403.0327v4An area law is proved for the Renyi entanglement entropy of possibly degenerate ground states in one-dimensional gapped quantum systems. Suppose in a chain of $n$ spins the ground states of a local Hamiltonian with energy gap $\epsilon$ are constant-fold degenerate. Then, the Renyi entanglement entropy $R_\alpha(0<\alpha<1)$ of any ground state across any cut is upper bounded by $\tilde O(\alpha^{-3}/\epsilon)$, and any ground state can be well approximated by a matrix product state of subpolynomial bond dimension $2^{\tilde O(\epsilon^{-1/4}\log^{3/4}n)}$.
- Constraint satisfaction problems are a central pillar of modern computational complexity theory. This survey provides an introduction to the rapidly growing field of Quantum Hamiltonian Complexity, which includes the study of quantum constraint satisfaction problems. Over the past decade and a half, this field has witnessed fundamental breakthroughs, ranging from the establishment of a "Quantum Cook-Levin Theorem" to deep insights into the structure of 1D low-temperature quantum systems via so-called area laws. Our aim here is to provide a computer science-oriented introduction to the subject in order to help bridge the language barrier between computer scientists and physicists in the field. As such, we include the following in this survey: (1) The motivations and history of the field, (2) a glossary of condensed matter physics terms explained in computer-science friendly language, (3) overviews of central ideas from condensed matter physics, such as indistinguishable particles, mean field theory, tensor networks, and area laws, and (4) brief expositions of selected computer science-based results in the area. For example, as part of the latter, we provide a novel information theoretic presentation of Bravyi's polynomial time algorithm for Quantum 2-SAT.
- Jan 17 2014 quant-ph cond-mat.str-el arXiv:1401.3820v3Topological quantum states cannot be created from product states with local quantum circuits of constant depth and are in this sense more entangled than topologically trivial states, but how entangled are they? Here we quantify the entanglement in one-dimensional topological states by showing that local quantum circuits of linear depth are necessary to generate them from product states. We establish this linear lower bound for both bosonic and fermionic one-dimensional topological phases and use symmetric circuits for phases with symmetry. We also show that the linear lower bound can be saturated by explicitly constructing circuits generating these topological states. The same results hold for local quantum circuits connecting topological states in different phases.
- The origins of the cosmological constant are discussed from the perspective of the imaginary-time field theory. The concept of the thermal time, which is related to the Tolman-Ehrehfest relation, and the conformal invariance of the actions are applied to account for the relation between the scale factor of the FRW metric and the temperature of the vacuum. Finite values of the cosmological constant from the DeWitt-Schwinger representation and the Casimir effect with a large separation between two plates are derived. The induced energy density is found to be uniform over the space and independent of the evolution of the universe, and the equation of state ratio is indeed $w=-1$. From the point of view presented here, the largest discrepancy of the vacuum energy between the theoretical and the experimental sides can be conciliated. And the value of the cosmological constant corresponds to a characteristic temperature of vacuum determined by the history of the universe.
- Some of the well-known effects regarding the vacuum are revisited under the formalism of the imaginary-time field theory. From these effects, they could imply the existence of one thermal vacuum in different circumstances. The imaginary-time hamiltonian of the vacuum is found to provide not only exact distribution functions in the calculations of the Casimir effect and the Van der Waals force but also cutoff functions. The thermal bath for the Unruh effect is constructed from the imaginary-time Green function. From the field theory in the curved space-time, field quantizations are defined according to different vacuum states and lead to the Hawking radiation; the introduced conformal invariance agree with the formalism of the imaginary-time field theory. The induced Green functions in the curved space-time are in accordance with those from the picture given from the thermal vacuum.
- Oct 24 2013 quant-ph arXiv:1310.6227v2We demonstrate controlled entanglement routing between bunching and antibunching path-entangled two-photon states in an unbalanced Mach-Zehnder interferometer (UMZI), in which the routing process is controlled by the relative phase difference in the UMZI. Regarding bunching and antibunching path-entangled two-photon states as two virtual ports, we can consider the UMZI as a controlled entanglement router, which bases on the coherent manipulation of entanglement. Half of the entanglement within the input two-photon state is coherently routed between the two virtual ports, while the other is lost due to the time distinguishability introduced by the UMZI. Pure bunching or antibunching path entangled two-photon states are obtained based on this controlled entanglement router. The results show that we can employ the UMZI as general entanglement router for practical quantum information application.
- Sep 03 2013 physics.atom-ph quant-ph arXiv:1309.0445v2We propose a simplest detector of harmonic vibrations with micro amplitudes and low frequencies, i.e. the detector consisting of one atomic beam. Here the atomic beam is induced by a plane harmonic wave and has a classical collective harmonic vibrations, which vibrant directions are perpendicular to the wave vectors of atomic beam. Compared with the detector consisting of atomic Mach-Zehnder interferometer, the new detector has two advantages: (1) it is suitable for the detection of the harmonic vibrations induced either by a longitudinal plane harmonic wave or by a transverse plane harmonic wave; (2) the quantum noise fluctuation of the atomic beam is exactly zero.
- Jul 30 2013 quant-ph arXiv:1307.7207v1In this paper, the generation of polarization entangled photon pairs at 1.5 \mum is experimentally demonstrated utilizing a polarization maintaining all-fiber loop, consisting of a piece of commercial polarization maintaining fiber and a polarization beam splitter/combiner with polarization maintaining fiber pigtails. A quantum state tomography measurement is performed to analyze the entanglement characteristic of the generated quantum state. In the experiment, a polarization entangled Bell state is generated with a entanglement fidelity of 0.97+/-0.03 and a purity of 0.94+/-0.03 demonstrating that the proposed scheme can realize polarization entangled photon pair generation with polarization maintaining property which is desired in applications of quantum communication and quantum information.
- Jul 24 2013 quant-ph cond-mat.str-el arXiv:1307.6034v2We study the scaling of quantum discord (a measure of quantum correlation beyond entanglement) in spin models analytically and systematically. We find that at finite temperature the block scaling of quantum discord satisfies an area law for any two-local Hamiltonian. We show that generically and heuristically the two-site scaling of quantum discord is similar to that of correlation functions. In particular, at zero temperature it decays exponentially and polynomially in gapped and gapless (critical) systems, respectively; at finite temperature it decays exponentially in both gapped and gapless systems. We compute the two-site scaling of quantum discord in the XXZ chain, the XY chain (in a magnetic field), and the transverse field Ising chain at zero temperature.
- Jun 05 2013 quant-ph arXiv:1306.0642v1We study the dephasing-assisted precision of parameter estimation (PPE) enhancement in atom interferometer under dynamical decoupling (DD) pulses. Through calculating spin squeezing (SS) and quantum Fisher information (QFI), we find that dephasing noise can improve PPE by inducing SS, and the DD pulses can maximize the improvement. It is indicated that in the presence of DD pulses, the dephasing-induced SS can reach the limit of \textquotedblleft one-axis twisting\textquotedblright model, $\xi^2\simeq N^{-2/3}$ with $\xi^2$ being the SS parameter and N the number of atoms. In particular, we find that the DD pulses can amplify the dephasing-induced QFI by a factor of $\simeq N/2$ compared with the noise-free case, which means that under the control of DD pulses, the dephasing noise can enhance the PPE to the scale of $\sqrt{2}/N$, the same order of magnitude of Heisenberg limit (1/N).
- Jun 04 2013 quant-ph arXiv:1306.0228v2Quantum discord is a measure of quantum correlation beyond entanglement. Computing quantum discord for simple quantum states is a basic problem. An analytical formula of quantum discord for two-qubit X states is first claimed in [Ali, Rau, and Alber, Phys. Rev. A 81, 042105 (2010)], but later found to be not always correct. I observe numerically that the formula is valid with worst-case absolute error 0.0021. For symmetric two-qubit X states, I give a counterexample to the analytical formula derived in [F. F. Fanchini et al., Phys. Rev. A 81, 052107 (2010)], but observe that the formula is valid with worst-case absolute error 0.0006. The formula has been used in many research papers. The results in all these works are approximately correct, even if they may not be exactly correct.
- We study the computational complexity of quantum discord (a measure of quantum correlation beyond entanglement), and prove that computing quantum discord is NP-complete. Therefore, quantum discord is computationally intractable: the running time of any algorithm for computing quantum discord is believed to grow exponentially with the dimension of the Hilbert space so that computing quantum discord in a quantum system of moderate size is not possible in practice. As by-products, some entanglement measures (namely entanglement cost, entanglement of formation, relative entropy of entanglement, squashed entanglement, classical squashed entanglement, conditional entanglement of mutual information, and broadcast regularization of mutual information) and constrained Holevo capacity are NP-hard/NP-complete to compute. These complexity-theoretic results are directly applicable in common randomness distillation, quantum state merging, entanglement distillation, superdense coding, and quantum teleportation; they may offer significant insights into quantum information processing. Moreover, we prove the NP-completeness of two typical problems: linear optimization over classical states and detecting classical states in a convex set, providing evidence that working with classical states is generically computationally intractable.
- Mar 25 2013 quant-ph arXiv:1303.5666v1Realizing optical-nonlinear effects at a single-photon level is a highly desirable but also extremely challenging task, because of both fundamental and practical difficulties. We present an avenue to surmounting these difficulties by exploiting quantum Zeno blockade in nonlinear optical systems. Considering specifically a lithium-niobate microresonator, we find that a deterministic phase gate can be realized between single photons with near-unity fidelity. Supported by established techniques for fabricating and operating such devices, our approach can provide an enabling tool for all-optical applications in both classical and quantum domains.