results for au:Huang_L in:cs

- Jul 18 2017 cs.CV arXiv:1707.04677v1This paper aims at task-oriented action prediction, i.e., predicting a sequence of actions towards accomplishing a specific task under a certain scene, which is a new problem in computer vision research. The main challenges lie in how to model task-specific knowledge and integrate it in the learning procedure. In this work, we propose to train a recurrent long-short term memory (LSTM) network for handling this problem, i.e., taking a scene image (including pre-located objects) and the specified task as input and recurrently predicting action sequences. However, training such a network usually requires large amounts of annotated samples for covering the semantic space (e.g., diverse action decomposition and ordering). To alleviate this issue, we introduce a temporal And-Or graph (AOG) for task description, which hierarchically represents a task into atomic actions. With this AOG representation, we can produce many valid samples (i.e., action sequences according with common sense) by training another auxiliary LSTM network with a small set of annotated samples. And these generated samples (i.e., task-oriented action sequences) effectively facilitate training the model for task-oriented action prediction. In the experiments, we create a new dataset containing diverse daily tasks and extensively evaluate the effectiveness of our approach.
- Jul 05 2017 cs.CL arXiv:1707.01066v1Most previous event extraction studies have relied heavily on features derived from annotated event mentions, thus cannot be applied to new event types without annotation effort. In this work, we take a fresh look at event extraction and model it as a grounding problem. We design a transferable neural architecture, mapping event mentions and types jointly into a shared semantic space using structural and compositional neural networks, where the type of each event mention can be determined by the closest of all candidate types . By leveraging (1)~available manual annotations for a small set of existing event types and (2)~existing event ontologies, our framework applies to new event types without requiring additional annotation. Experiments on both existing event types (e.g., ACE, ERE) and new event types (e.g., FrameNet) demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach. \textitWithout any manual annotations for 23 new event types, our zero-shot framework achieved performance comparable to a state-of-the-art supervised model which is trained from the annotations of 500 event mentions.
- Jul 05 2017 cs.CL arXiv:1707.01075v1Slot Filling (SF) aims to extract the values of certain types of attributes (or slots, such as person:cities\_of\_residence) for a given entity from a large collection of source documents. In this paper we propose an effective DNN architecture for SF with the following new strategies: (1). Take a regularized dependency graph instead of a raw sentence as input to DNN, to compress the wide contexts between query and candidate filler; (2). Incorporate two attention mechanisms: local attention learned from query and candidate filler, and global attention learned from external knowledge bases, to guide the model to better select indicative contexts to determine slot type. Experiments show that this framework outperforms state-of-the-art on both relation extraction (16\% absolute F-score gain) and slot filling validation for each individual system (up to 8.5\% absolute F-score gain).
- Recent advances in imaging sensors and digital light projection technology have facilitated a rapid progress in 3D optical sensing, enabling 3D surfaces of complex-shaped objects to be captured with improved resolution and accuracy. However, due to the large number of projection patterns required for phase recovery and disambiguation, the maximum fame rates of current 3D shape measurement techniques are still limited to the range of hundreds of frames per second (fps). Here, we demonstrate a new 3D dynamic imaging technique, Micro Fourier Transform Profilometry ($\mu$FTP), which can capture 3D surfaces of transient events at up to 10,000 fps based on our newly developed high-speed fringe projection system. Compared with existing techniques, $\mu$FTP has the prominent advantage of recovering an accurate, unambiguous, and dense 3D point cloud with only two projected patterns. Furthermore, the phase information is encoded within a single high-frequency fringe image, thereby allowing motion-artifact-free reconstruction of transient events with temporal resolution of 50 microseconds. To show $\mu$FTP's broad utility, we use it to reconstruct 3D videos of 4 transient scenes: vibrating cantilevers, rotating fan blades, bullet fired from a toy gun, and balloon's explosion triggered by a flying dart, which were previously difficult or even unable to be captured with conventional approaches.
- Support Vector Machine is one of the most classical approaches for classification and regression. Despite being studied for decades, obtaining practical algorithms for SVM is still an active research problem in machine learning. In this paper, we propose a new perspective for SVM via saddle point optimization. We provide an algorithm which achieves $(1-\epsilon)$-approximations with running time $\tilde{O}(nd+n\sqrt{d / \epsilon})$ for both separable (hard margin SVM) and non-separable cases ($\nu$-SVM ), where $n$ is the number of points and $d$ is the dimensionality. To the best of our knowledge, the current best algorithm for hard margin SVM achieved by Gilbert algorithm~\citegartner2009coresets requires $O(nd / \epsilon )$ time. Our algorithm improves the running time by a factor of $\sqrt{d}/\sqrt{\epsilon}$. For $\nu$-SVM, besides the well known quadratic programming approach which requires $\Omega(n^2 d)$ time~\citejoachims1998making,platt199912, no better algorithm is known. In the paper, we provide the first nearly linear time algorithm for $\nu$-SVM. We also consider the distributed settings and provide distributed algorithms with low communication cost via saddle point optimization. Our algorithms require $\tilde{O}(k(d +\sqrt{d/\epsilon}))$ communication cost where $k$ is the number of clients, almost matching the theoretical lower bound.
- We investigate the problem of stochastic network optimization in the presence of imperfect state prediction and non-stationarity. Based on a novel distribution-accuracy curve prediction model, we develop the predictive learning-aided control (PLC) algorithm, which jointly utilizes historic and predicted network state information for decision making. PLC is an online algorithm that requires zero a-prior system statistical information, and consists of three key components, namely sequential distribution estimation and change detection, dual learning, and online queue-based control. Specifically, we show that PLC simultaneously achieves good long-term performance, short-term queue size reduction, accurate change detection, and fast algorithm convergence. In particular, for stationary networks, PLC achieves a near-optimal $[O(\epsilon)$, $O(\log(1/\epsilon)^2)]$ utility-delay tradeoff. For non-stationary networks, \plc obtains an $[O(\epsilon), O(\log^2(1/\epsilon)$ $+ \min(\epsilon^{c/2-1}, e_w/\epsilon))]$ utility-backlog tradeoff for distributions that last $\Theta(\frac{\max(\epsilon^{-c}, e_w^{-2})}{\epsilon^{1+a}})$ time, where $e_w$ is the prediction accuracy and $a=\Theta(1)>0$ is a constant (the Backpressue algorithm \citeneelynowbook requires an $O(\epsilon^{-2})$ length for the same utility performance with a larger backlog). Moreover, PLC detects distribution change $O(w)$ slots faster with high probability ($w$ is the prediction size) and achieves an $O(\min(\epsilon^{-1+c/2}, e_w/\epsilon)+\log^2(1/\epsilon))$ convergence time. Our results demonstrate that state prediction (even imperfect) can help (i) achieve faster detection and convergence, and (ii) obtain better utility-delay tradeoffs.
- We consider the stochastic composition optimization problem proposed in \citewang2017stochastic, which has applications ranging from estimation to statistical and machine learning. We propose the first ADMM-based algorithm named com-SVR-ADMM, and show that com-SVR-ADMM converges linearly for strongly convex and Lipschitz smooth objectives, and has a convergence rate of $O( \log S/S)$, which improves upon the $O(S^{-4/9})$ rate in \citewang2016accelerating when the objective is convex and Lipschitz smooth. Moreover, com-SVR-ADMM possesses a rate of $O(1/\sqrt{S})$ when the objective is convex but without Lipschitz smoothness. We also conduct experiments and show that it outperforms existing algorithms.
- Although hash function learning algorithms have achieved great success in recent years, most existing hash models are off-line, which are not suitable for processing sequential or online data. To address this problem, this work proposes an online hash model to accommodate data coming in stream for online learning. Specifically, a new loss function is proposed to measure the similarity loss between a pair of data samples in hamming space. Then, a structured hash model is derived and optimized in a passive-aggressive way. Theoretical analysis on the upper bound of the cumulative loss for the proposed online hash model is provided. Furthermore, we extend our online hashing from a single-model to a multi-model online hashing that trains multiple models so as to retain diverse online hashing models in order to avoid biased update. The competitive efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed online hash models are verified through extensive experiments on several large-scale datasets as compared to related hashing methods.
- Many of the existing methods for learning joint embedding of images and text use only supervised information from paired images and its textual attributes. Taking advantage of the recent success of unsupervised learning in deep neural networks, we propose an end-to-end learning framework that is able to extract more robust multi-modal representations across domains. The proposed method combines representation learning models (i.e., auto-encoders) together with cross-domain learning criteria (i.e., Maximum Mean Discrepancy loss) to learn joint embeddings for semantic and visual features. A novel technique of unsupervised-data adaptation inference is introduced to construct more comprehensive embeddings for both labeled and unlabeled data. We evaluate our method on Animals with Attributes and Caltech-UCSD Birds 200-2011 dataset with a wide range of applications, including zero and few-shot image recognition and retrieval, from inductive to transductive settings. Empirically, we show that our framework improves over the current state of the art on many of the considered tasks.
- Feb 27 2017 cs.DS arXiv:1702.07435v1In recent years, the capacitated center problems have attracted a lot of research interest. Given a set of vertices $V$, we want to find a subset of vertices $S$, called centers, such that the maximum cluster radius is minimized. Moreover, each center in $S$ should satisfy some capacity constraint, which could be an upper or lower bound on the number of vertices it can serve. Capacitated $k$-center problems with one-sided bounds (upper or lower) have been well studied in previous work, and a constant factor approximation was obtained. We are the first to study the capacitated center problem with both capacity lower and upper bounds (with or without outliers). We assume each vertex has a uniform lower bound and a non-uniform upper bound. For the case of opening exactly $k$ centers, we note that a generalization of a recent LP approach can achieve constant factor approximation algorithms for our problems. Our main contribution is a simple combinatorial algorithm for the case where there is no cardinality constraint on the number of open centers. Our combinatorial algorithm is simpler and achieves better constant approximation factor compared to the LP approach.
- Ensemble learning has been widely employed by mobile applications, ranging from environmental sensing to activity recognitions. One of the fundamental issue in ensemble learning is the trade-off between classification accuracy and computational costs, which is the goal of ensemble pruning. During crowdsourcing, the centralized aggregator releases ensemble learning models to a large number of mobile participants for task evaluation or as the crowdsourcing learning results, while different participants may seek for different levels of the accuracy-cost trade-off. However, most of existing ensemble pruning approaches consider only one identical level of such trade-off. In this study, we present an efficient ensemble pruning framework for personalized accuracy-cost trade-offs via multi-objective optimization. Specifically, for the commonly used linear-combination style of the trade-off, we provide an objective-mixture optimization to further reduce the number of ensemble candidates. Experimental results show that our framework is highly efficient for personalized ensemble pruning, and achieves much better pruning performance with objective-mixture optimization when compared to state-of-art approaches.
- It is known that certain structures of the signal in addition to the standard notion of sparsity (called structured sparsity) can improve the sample complexity in several compressive sensing applications. Recently, Hegde et al. proposed a framework, called approximation-tolerant model-based compressive sensing, for recovering signals with structured sparsity. Their framework requires two oracles, the head- and the tail-approximation projection oracles. The two oracles should return approximate solutions in the model which is closest to the query signal. In this paper, we consider two structured sparsity models and obtain improved projection algorithms. The first one is the tree sparsity model, which captures the support structure in the wavelet decomposition of piecewise-smooth signals. We propose a linear time $(1-\epsilon)$-approximation algorithm for head-approximation projection and a linear time $(1+\epsilon)$-approximation algorithm for tail-approximation projection. The best previous result is an $\tilde{O}(n\log n)$ time bicriterion approximation algorithm (meaning that their algorithm may return a solution of sparsity larger than $k$) by Hegde et al. Our result provides an affirmative answer to the open problem mentioned in the survey of Hegde and Indyk. As a corollary, we can recover a constant approximate $k$-sparse signal. The other is the Constrained Earth Mover Distance (CEMD) model, which is useful to model the situation where the positions of the nonzero coefficients of a signal do not change significantly as a function of spatial (or temporal) locations. We obtain the first single criterion constant factor approximation algorithm for the head-approximation projection. The previous best known algorithm is a bicriterion approximation. Using this result, we can get a faster constant approximation algorithm with fewer measurements for the recovery problem in CEMD model.
- OR multi-access channel is a simple model where the channel output is the Boolean OR among the Boolean channel inputs. We revisit this model, showing that employing Bloom filter, a randomized data structure, as channel inputs achieves its capacity region with joint decoding and the symmetric sum rate of $\ln 2$ bits per channel use without joint decoding. We then proceed to the "many-access" regime where the number of potential users grows without bound, treating both activity recognition and message transmission problems, establishing scaling laws which are optimal within a constant factor, based on Bloom filter channel inputs.
- Jan 10 2017 cs.OH arXiv:1701.01771v1This research was to design a 2.4 GHz class E Power Amplifier (PA) for health care, with 0.18um Semiconductor Manufacturing International Corporation CMOS technology by using Cadence software. And also RF switch was designed at cadence software with power Jazz 180nm SOI process. The ultimate goal for such application is to reach high performance and low cost, and between high performance and low power consumption design. This paper introduces the design of a 2.4GHz class E power amplifier and RF switch design. PA consists of cascade stage with negative capacitance. This power amplifier can transmit 16dBm output power to a 50\Omega load. The performance of the power amplifier and switch meet the specification requirements of the desired.
- Jan 06 2017 cs.CL arXiv:1701.01126v1Deep learning techniques are increasingly popular in the textual entailment task, overcoming the fragility of traditional discrete models with hard alignments and logics. In particular, the recently proposed attention models (Rocktäschel et al., 2015; Wang and Jiang, 2015) achieves state-of-the-art accuracy by computing soft word alignments between the premise and hypothesis sentences. However, there remains a major limitation: this line of work completely ignores syntax and recursion, which is helpful in many traditional efforts. We show that it is beneficial to extend the attention model to tree nodes between premise and hypothesis. More importantly, this subtree-level attention reveals information about entailment relation. We study the recursive composition of this subtree-level entailment relation, which can be viewed as a soft version of the Natural Logic framework (MacCartney and Manning, 2009). Experiments show that our structured attention and entailment composition model can correctly identify and infer entailment relations from the bottom up, and bring significant improvements in accuracy.
- We develop a framework to uncover and analyze dynamical anomalies from massive, nonlinear and non-stationary time series data. The framework consists of three steps: preprocessing of massive data sets to eliminate erroneous data segments, application of the empirical mode decomposition and Hilbert transform paradigm to obtain the fundamental components embedded in the time series at distinct time scales, and statistical/scaling analysis of the components. As a case study, we apply our framework to detecting and characterizing high frequency oscillations (HFOs) from a big database of rat EEG recordings. We find a striking phenomenon: HFOs exhibit on-off intermittency that can be quantified by algebraic scaling laws. Our framework can be generalized to big data-related problems in other fields such as large-scale sensor data and seismic data analysis.
- Dec 21 2016 cs.CL arXiv:1612.06475v1Parsing accuracy using efficient greedy transition systems has improved dramatically in recent years thanks to neural networks. Despite striking results in dependency parsing, however, neural models have not surpassed state-of-the-art approaches in constituency parsing. To remedy this, we introduce a new shift-reduce system whose stack contains merely sentence spans, represented by a bare minimum of LSTM features. We also design the first provably optimal dynamic oracle for constituency parsing, which runs in amortized O(1) time, compared to O(n^3) oracles for standard dependency parsing. Training with this oracle, we achieve the best F1 scores on both English and French of any parser that does not use reranking or external data.
- Many standard robotic platforms are equipped with at least a fixed 2D laser range finder and a monocular camera. Although those platforms do not have sensors for 3D depth sensing capability, knowledge of depth is an essential part in many robotics activities. Therefore, recently, there is an increasing interest in depth estimation using monocular images. As this task is inherently ambiguous, the data-driven estimated depth might be unreliable in robotics applications. In this paper, we have attempted to improve the precision of monocular depth estimation by introducing 2D planar observation from the remaining laser range finder without extra cost. Specifically, we construct a dense reference map from the sparse laser range data, redefining the depth estimation task as estimating the distance between the real and the reference depth. To solve the problem, we construct a novel residual of residual neural network, and tightly combine the classification and regression losses for continuous depth estimation. Experimental results suggest that our method achieves considerable promotion compared to the state-of-the-art methods on both NYUD2 and KITTI, validating the effectiveness of our method on leveraging the additional sensory information. We further demonstrate the potential usage of our method in obstacle avoidance where our methodology provides comprehensive depth information compared to the solution using monocular camera or 2D laser range finder alone.
- Oct 31 2016 cs.DC arXiv:1610.09190v1This paper presents a distributed search engine based on semantic P2P Networks. The user's computers join the domains in which user wants to share information in semantic P2P networks which is domain specific virtual tree (VIRGO ). Each user computer contains search engine which indexes the domain specific information on local computer or Internet. We can get all search information through P2P message provided by all joined computers. By companies' effort, we have implemented a prototype of distributed search engine, which demonstrates easily retrieving domain-related information provided by joined computers .
- Oct 31 2016 cs.CR arXiv:1610.09231v1This paper presents an integrity checker of JAVA P2P distributed system with auto source code composition. JAVA distributed system must guarantee the integrity of program itself and the system components of JAVA virtual machine against attackers, hackers, spies, cheaters, conspirators, etc. There are lots of trusted computing methods to guarantee the integrity of the system. We here present a novel method using just-in-time auto source code composition to generate autocheck class for integrity measure and encrypt of integrity reporting. By companies' effort, we have implemented and use it in DSCloud platform.
- In this work, we propose a multi-layer market for vehicle-to-grid energy trading. In the macro layer, we consider a double auction mechanism, under which the utility company act as an auctioneer and energy buyers and sellers interact. This double auction mechanism is strategy-proof and converges asymptotically. In the micro layer, the aggregators, which are the sellers in the macro layer, are paid with commissions to sell the energy of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) and to maximize their utilities. We analyze the interaction between the macro and micro layers and study some simplified cases. Depending on the elasticity of supply and demand, the utility is analyzed under different scenarios. Simulation results show that our approach can significantly increase the utility of PHEVs.
- Sep 06 2016 cs.NI arXiv:1609.01101v1The aim of our work is to evaluate the performance of non-beacon IEEE 802.15.4 networks with acknowledgement (ACK) mode and retransmission limits in a finer time unit. Moreover, we predict network performance parameters using backpropagation artificial neural networks (BP-ANNs) with respect to a given quality of service for real-world applications. Therefore, our proposed methods can assist the deployment of a star network with its performance specified in a more practical way. First, the discrete time Markov chain model and M/M/1/k queue are used to describe the full unslotted carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance (CSMA/CA) algorithm in a non-beacon network. Considering MAC buffer size, unsaturated traffic, and saturated traffic, we build three analytical models to derive eight important performance metrics, e.g., throughput, delay, and reliability. In addition, extensive simulation results show the accuracy of the analytical models in throughput and reliability. Finally, we use the analytical data to train the BP-ANNs models to predict the key parameters such as node number and delay. All results from the simulation data used to test the BP-ANNs show the accuracy these models. Thus, these methods and results can be used to deploy star networks in application environments.
- Consider statistical learning (e.g. discrete distribution estimation) with local $\epsilon$-differential privacy, which preserves each data provider's privacy locally, we aim to optimize statistical data utility under the privacy constraints. Specifically, we study maximizing mutual information between a provider's data and its private view, and give the exact mutual information bound along with an attainable mechanism: $k$-subset mechanism as results. The mutual information optimal mechanism randomly outputs a size $k$ subset of the original data domain with delicate probability assignment, where $k$ varies with the privacy level $\epsilon$ and the data domain size $d$. After analysing the limitations of existing local private mechanisms from mutual information perspective, we propose an efficient implementation of the $k$-subset mechanism for discrete distribution estimation, and show its optimality guarantees over existing approaches.
- Jul 25 2016 cs.LG arXiv:1607.06657v4We propose a novel support vector regression approach called e-Distance Weighted Support Vector Regression (e-DWSVR).e-DWSVR specifically addresses two challenging issues in support vector regression: first, the process of noisy data; second, how to deal with the situation when the distribution of boundary data is different from that of the overall data. The proposed e-DWSVR optimizes the minimum margin and the mean of functional margin simultaneously to tackle these two issues. In addition, we use both dual coordinate descent (CD) and averaged stochastic gradient descent (ASGD) strategies to make e-DWSVR scalable to large scale problems. We report promising results obtained by e-DWSVR in comparison with existing methods on several benchmark datasets.
- Jul 19 2016 cs.CG arXiv:1607.04989v2Solving geometric optimization problems over uncertain data have become increasingly important in many applications and have attracted a lot of attentions in recent years. In this paper, we study two important geometric optimization problems, the $k$-center problem and the $j$-flat-center problem, over stochastic/uncertain data points in Euclidean spaces. For the stochastic $k$-center problem, we would like to find $k$ points in a fixed dimensional Euclidean space, such that the expected value of the $k$-center objective is minimized. For the stochastic $j$-flat-center problem, we seek a $j$-flat (i.e., a $j$-dimensional affine subspace) such that the expected value of the maximum distance from any point to the $j$-flat is minimized. We consider both problems under two popular stochastic geometric models, the existential uncertainty model, where the existence of each point may be uncertain, and the locational uncertainty model, where the location of each point may be uncertain. We provide the first PTAS (Polynomial Time Approximation Scheme) for both problems under the two models. Our results generalize the previous results for stochastic minimum enclosing ball and stochastic enclosing cylinder.
- Jun 22 2016 cs.CL arXiv:1606.06406v1Recently, neural network approaches for parsing have largely automated the combination of individual features, but still rely on (often a larger number of) atomic features created from human linguistic intuition, and potentially omitting important global context. To further reduce feature engineering to the bare minimum, we use bi-directional LSTM sentence representations to model a parser state with only three sentence positions, which automatically identifies important aspects of the entire sentence. This model achieves state-of-the-art results among greedy dependency parsers for English. We also introduce a novel transition system for constituency parsing which does not require binarization, and together with the above architecture, achieves state-of-the-art results among greedy parsers for both English and Chinese.
- May 10 2016 cs.OH arXiv:1605.02455v1The objective of this research was to design a 2.4 GHz class AB Power Amplifier, with 0.18 um SMIC CMOS technology by using Cadence software, for health care applications. The ultimate goal for such application is to minimize the trade-offs between performance and cost, and between performance and low power consumption design. The performance of the power amplifier meets the specification requirements of the desired.
- Phase retrieval has been mainly considered in the presence of Gaussian noise. However, the performance of the algorithms proposed under the Gaussian noise model severely degrades when grossly corrupted data, i.e., outliers, exist. This paper investigates techniques for phase retrieval in the presence of heavy-tailed noise -- which is considered a better model for situations where outliers exist. An $\ell_p$-norm ($0<p<2$) based estimator is proposed for fending against such noise, and two-block inexact alternating optimization is proposed as the algorithmic framework to tackle the resulting optimization problem. Two specific algorithms are devised by exploring different local approximations within this framework. Interestingly, the core conditional minimization steps can be interpreted as iteratively reweighted least squares and gradient descent. Convergence properties of the algorithms are discussed, and the Cramér-Rao bound (CRB) is derived. Simulations demonstrate that the proposed algorithms approach the CRB and outperform state-of-the-art algorithms in heavy-tailed noise.
- May 03 2016 cs.PF arXiv:1605.00559v1We consider the peak age-of-information (PAoI) in an M/M/1 queueing system with packet delivery error, i.e., update packets can get lost during transmissions to their destination. We focus on two types of policies, one is to adopt Last-Come-First-Served (LCFS) scheduling, and the other is to utilize retransmissions, i.e., keep transmitting the most recent packet. Both policies can effectively avoid the queueing delay of a busy channel and ensure a small PAoI. Exact PAoI expressions under both policies with different error probabilities are derived, including First-Come-First-Served (FCFS), LCFS with preemptive priority, LCFS with non-preemptive priority, Retransmission with preemptive priority, and Retransmission with non-preemptive priority. Numerical results obtained from analysis and simulation are presented to validate our results.
- Apr 07 2016 cs.GT arXiv:1604.01672v1In this paper, we investigate the effect of brand in market competition. Specifically, we propose a variant Hotelling model where companies and customers are represented by points in an Euclidean space, with axes being product features. $N$ companies compete to maximize their own profits by optimally choosing their prices, while each customer in the market, when choosing sellers, considers the sum of product price, discrepancy between product feature and his preference, and a company's brand name, which is modeled by a function of its market area of the form $-\beta\cdot\text{(Market Area)}^q$, where $\beta$ captures the brand influence and $q$ captures how market share affects the brand. By varying the parameters $\beta$ and $q$, we derive existence results of Nash equilibrium and equilibrium market prices and shares. In particular, we prove that pure Nash equilibrium always exists when $q=0$ for markets with either one and two dominating features, and it always exists in a single dominating feature market when market affects brand name linearly, i.e., $q=1$. Moreover, we show that at equilibrium, a company's price is proportional to its market area over the competition intensity with its neighbors, a result that quantitatively reconciles the common belief of a company's pricing power. We also study an interesting "wipe out" phenomenon that only appears when $q>0$, which is similar to the "undercut" phenomenon in the Hotelling model, where companies may suddenly lose the entire market area with a small price increment. Our results offer novel insight into market pricing and positioning under competition with brand effect.
- Apr 07 2016 cs.GT arXiv:1604.01627v5The growth of the sharing economy is driven by the emergence of sharing platforms, e.g., Uber and Lyft, that match owners looking to share their resources with customers looking to rent them. The design of such platforms is a complex mixture of economics and engineering, and how to "optimally" design such platforms is still an open problem. In this paper, we focus on the design of prices and subsidies in sharing platforms. Our results provide insights into the tradeoff between revenue maximizing prices and social welfare maximizing prices. Specifically, we introduce a novel model of sharing platforms and characterize the profit and social welfare maximizing prices in this model. Further, we bound the efficiency loss under profit maximizing prices, showing that there is a strong alignment between profit and efficiency in practical settings. Our results highlight that the revenue of platforms may be limited in practice due to supply shortages; thus platforms have a strong incentive to encourage sharing via subsidies. We provide an analytic characterization of when such subsidies are valuable and show how to optimize the size of the subsidy provided. Finally, we validate the insights from our analysis using data from Didi Chuxing, the largest ridesharing platform in China.
- Recent research has shown great progress on fine-grained entity typing. Most existing methods require pre-defining a set of types and training a multi-class classifier from a large labeled data set based on multi-level linguistic features. They are thus limited to certain domains, genres and languages. In this paper, we propose a novel unsupervised entity typing framework by combining symbolic and distributional semantics. We start from learning general embeddings for each entity mention, compose the embeddings of specific contexts using linguistic structures, link the mention to knowledge bases and learn its related knowledge representations. Then we develop a novel joint hierarchical clustering and linking algorithm to type all mentions using these representations. This framework doesn't rely on any annotated data, predefined typing schema, or hand-crafted features, therefore it can be quickly adapted to a new domain, genre and language. Furthermore, it has great flexibility at incorporating linguistic structures (e.g., Abstract Meaning Representation (AMR), dependency relations) to improve specific context representation. Experiments on genres (news and discussion forum) show comparable performance with state-of-the-art supervised typing systems trained from a large amount of labeled data. Results on various languages (English, Chinese, Japanese, Hausa, and Yoruba) and domains (general and biomedical) demonstrate the portability of our framework.
- Mar 11 2016 cs.CR arXiv:1603.03086v2Hardware-based malware detectors (HMDs) are a key emerging technology to build trustworthy computing platforms, especially mobile platforms. Quantifying the efficacy of HMDs against malicious adversaries is thus an important problem. The challenge lies in that real-world malware typically adapts to defenses, evades being run in experimental settings, and hides behind benign applications. Thus, realizing the potential of HMDs as a line of defense - that has a small and battery-efficient code base - requires a rigorous foundation for evaluating HMDs. To this end, we introduce EMMA - a platform to evaluate the efficacy of HMDs for mobile platforms. EMMA deconstructs malware into atomic, orthogonal actions and introduces a systematic way of pitting different HMDs against a diverse subset of malware hidden inside benign applications. EMMA drives both malware and benign programs with real user-inputs to yield an HMD's effective operating range - i.e., the malware actions a particular HMD is capable of detecting. We show that small atomic actions, such as stealing a Contact or SMS, have surprisingly large hardware footprints, and use this insight to design HMD algorithms that are less intrusive than prior work and yet perform 24.7% better. Finally, EMMA brings up a surprising new result - obfuscation techniques used by malware to evade static analyses makes them more detectable using HMDs.
- Increasing threats of global warming and climate changes call for an energy-efficient and sustainable design of future wireless communication systems. To this end, a novel two-scale stochastic control framework is put forth for smart-grid powered coordinated multi-point (CoMP) systems. Taking into account renewable energy sources (RES), dynamic pricing, two-way energy trading facilities and imperfect energy storage devices, the energy management task is formulated as an infinite-horizon optimization problem minimizing the time-average energy transaction cost, subject to the users' quality of service (QoS) requirements. Leveraging the Lyapunov optimization approach as well as the stochastic subgradient method, a two-scale online control (TS-OC) approach is developed for the resultant smart-grid powered CoMP systems. Using only historical data, the proposed TS-OC makes online control decisions at two timescales, and features a provably feasible and asymptotically near-optimal solution. Numerical tests further corroborate the theoretical analysis, and demonstrate the merits of the proposed approach.
- Dec 22 2015 cs.NI arXiv:1512.06428v2The explosive growth of global mobile traffic has lead to a rapid growth in the energy consumption in communication networks. In this paper, we focus on the energy-aware design of the network selection, subchannel, and power allocation in cellular and Wi-Fi networks, while taking into account the traffic delay of mobile users. The problem is particularly challenging due to the two-timescale operations for the network selection (large timescale) and subchannel and power allocation (small timescale). Based on the two-timescale Lyapunov optimization technique, we first design an online Energy-Aware Network Selection and Resource Allocation (ENSRA) algorithm. The ENSRA algorithm yields a power consumption within O(1/V) bound of the optimal value, and guarantees an O(V) traffic delay for any positive control parameter V. Motivated by the recent advancement in the accurate estimation and prediction of user mobility, channel conditions, and traffic demands, we further develop a novel predictive Lyapunov optimization technique to utilize the predictive information, and propose a Predictive Energy-Aware Network Selection and Resource Allocation (P-ENSRA) algorithm. We characterize the performance bounds of P-ENSRA in terms of the power-delay tradeoff theoretically. To reduce the computational complexity, we finally propose a Greedy Predictive Energy-Aware Network Selection and Resource Allocation (GP-ENSRA) algorithm, where the operator solves the problem in P-ENSRA approximately and iteratively. Numerical results show that GP-ENSRA significantly improves the power-delay performance over ENSRA in the large delay regime. For a wide range of system parameters, GP-ENSRA reduces the traffic delay over ENSRA by 20~30% under the same power consumption.
- Oct 27 2015 cs.CR arXiv:1510.07338v2We present and evaluate a large-scale malware detection system integrating machine learning with expert reviewers, treating reviewers as a limited labeling resource. We demonstrate that even in small numbers, reviewers can vastly improve the system's ability to keep pace with evolving threats. We conduct our evaluation on a sample of VirusTotal submissions spanning 2.5 years and containing 1.1 million binaries with 778GB of raw feature data. Without reviewer assistance, we achieve 72% detection at a 0.5% false positive rate, performing comparable to the best vendors on VirusTotal. Given a budget of 80 accurate reviews daily, we improve detection to 89% and are able to detect 42% of malicious binaries undetected upon initial submission to VirusTotal. Additionally, we identify a previously unnoticed temporal inconsistency in the labeling of training datasets. We compare the impact of training labels obtained at the same time training data is first seen with training labels obtained months later. We find that using training labels obtained well after samples appear, and thus unavailable in practice for current training data, inflates measured detection by almost 20 percentage points. We release our cluster-based implementation, as well as a list of all hashes in our evaluation and 3% of our entire dataset.
- Oct 15 2015 cs.DS arXiv:1510.04099v1Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method is a widely used algorithm design scheme with many applications. To make efficient use of this method, the key step is to prove that the Markov chain is rapid mixing. Canonical paths is one of the two main tools to prove rapid mixing. However, there are much fewer success examples comparing to coupling, the other main tool. The main reason is that there is no systematic approach or general recipe to design canonical paths. Building up on a previous exploration by McQuillan, we develop a general theory to design canonical paths for MCMC: We reduce the task of designing canonical paths to solving a set of linear equations, which can be automatically done even by a machine. Making use of this general approach, we obtain fully polynomial-time randomized approximation schemes (FPRAS) for counting the number of $b$-matching with $b\leq 7$ and $b$-edge-cover with $b\leq 2$. They are natural generalizations of matchings and edge covers for graphs. No polynomial time approximation was previously known for these problems.
- Reconstructing a signal from squared linear (rank-one quadratic) measurements is a challenging problem with important applications in optics and imaging, where it is known as phase retrieval. This paper proposes two new phase retrieval algorithms based on non-convex quadratically constrained quadratic programming (QCQP) formulations, and a recently proposed approximation technique dubbed feasible point pursuit (FPP). The first is designed for uniformly distributed bounded measurement errors, such as those arising from high-rate quantization (B-FPP). The second is designed for Gaussian measurement errors, using a least squares criterion (LS-FPP). Their performance is measured against state-of-the-art algorithms and the Cramér-Rao bound (CRB), which is also derived here. Simulations show that LS-FPP outperforms the state-of-art and operates close to the CRB. Compact CRB expressions, properties, and insights are obtained by explicitly computing the CRB in various special cases -- including when the signal of interest admits a sparse parametrization, using harmonic retrieval as an example.
- Sep 17 2015 cs.CV arXiv:1509.04874v3How can a single fully convolutional neural network (FCN) perform on object detection? We introduce DenseBox, a unified end-to-end FCN framework that directly predicts bounding boxes and object class confidences through all locations and scales of an image. Our contribution is two-fold. First, we show that a single FCN, if designed and optimized carefully, can detect multiple different objects extremely accurately and efficiently. Second, we show that when incorporating with landmark localization during multi-task learning, DenseBox further improves object detection accuray. We present experimental results on public benchmark datasets including MALF face detection and KITTI car detection, that indicate our DenseBox is the state-of-the-art system for detecting challenging objects such as faces and cars.
- Aug 03 2015 cs.NI arXiv:1507.08728v3Although Software-Defined Networking (SDN) enables flexible network resource allocations for traffic engineering, current literature mostly focuses on unicast communications. Compared to traffic engineering for multiple unicast flows, multicast traffic engineering for multiple trees is very challenging not only because minimizing the bandwidth consumption of a single multicast tree by solving the Steiner tree problem is already NP-Hard, but the Steiner tree problem does not consider the link capacity constraint for multicast flows and node capacity constraint to store the forwarding entries in Group Table of OpenFlow. In this paper, therefore, we first study the hardness results of scalable multicast traffic engineering in SDN. We prove that scalable multicast traffic engineering with only the node capacity constraint is NP-Hard and not approximable within, which is the number of destinations in the largest multicast group. We then prove that scalable multicast traffic engineering with both the node and link capacity constraints is NP-Hard and not approximable within any ratio. To solve the problem, we design an approximation algorithm, named Multi-Tree Routing and State Assignment Algorithm (MTRSA), for the first case and extend it to the general multicast traffic engineering problem. The simulation and implementation results demonstrate that the solutions obtained by the proposed algorithm outperform the shortest-path trees and Steiner trees. Most importantly, MTRSA is computation-efficient and can be deployed in SDN since it can generate the solution with numerous trees in a short time.
- The line geometric model of 3-D projective geometry has the nice property that the Lie algebra sl(4) of 3-D projective transformations is isomorphic to the bivector algebra of CL(3,3), and line geometry is closely related to the classical screw theory for 3-D rigid-body motions. The canonical homomorphism from SL(4) to Spin(3,3) is not satisfying because it is not surjective, and the projective transformations of negative determinant do induce orthogonal transformations in the Plücker coordinate space of lines. This paper presents our contributions in developing a rigorous and convenient algebraic framework for the study of 3-D projective geometry with Clifford algebra. To overcome the unsatisfying defects of the Plücker correspondence, we propose a group Pin^sp(3,3) with Pin(3,3) as its normal subgroup, to quadruple-cover the group of 3-D projective transformations and polarities. We construct spinors in factored form that generate 3-D reflections and rigid-body motions, and extend screw algebra from the Lie algebra of rigid-body motions to other 6-D Lie subalgebras of sl(4), and construct the corresponding cross products and virtual works.
- In sentence modeling and classification, convolutional neural network approaches have recently achieved state-of-the-art results, but all such efforts process word vectors sequentially and neglect long-distance dependencies. To exploit both deep learning and linguistic structures, we propose a tree-based convolutional neural network model which exploit various long-distance relationships between words. Our model improves the sequential baselines on all three sentiment and question classification tasks, and achieves the highest published accuracy on TREC.
- The speed of a quantum random number generator is essential for practical applications, such as high-speed quantum key distribution systems. Here, we push the speed of a quantum random number generator to 68 Gbps by operating a laser around its threshold level. To achieve the rate, not only high-speed photodetector and high sampling rate are needed, but also a very stable interferometer is required. A practical interferometer with active feedback instead of common temperature control is developed to meet requirement of stability. Phase fluctuations of the laser are measured by the interferometer with a photodetector, and then digitalized to raw random numbers with a rate of 80 Gbps. The min-entropy of the raw data is evaluated by modeling the system and is used to quantify the quantum randomness of the raw data. The bias of the raw data caused by other signals, such as classical and detection noises, can be removed by Toeplitz-matrix hashing randomness extraction. The final random numbers can pass through the standard randomness tests. Our demonstration shows that high-speed quantum random number generators are ready for practical usage.
- The development and integration of social networking services and smartphones have made it easy for individuals to organize impromptu social activities anywhere and anytime. Main challenges arising in organizing impromptu activities are mostly due to the requirements of making timely invitations in accordance with the potential activity locations, corresponding to the locations of and the relationship among the candidate attendees. Various combinations of candidate attendees and activity locations create a large solution space. Thus, in this paper, we propose Multiple Rally-Point Social Spatial Group Query (MRGQ), to select an appropriate activity location for a group of nearby attendees with tight social relationships. Although MRGQ is NP-hard, the number of attendees in practice is usually small enough such that an optimal solution can be found efficiently. Therefore, we first propose an Integer Linear Programming optimization model for MRGQ. We then design an efficient algorithm, called MAGS, which employs effective search space exploration and pruning strategies to reduce the running time for finding the optimal solution. We also propose to further optimize efficiency by indexing the potential activity locations. A user study demonstrates the strength of using MAGS over manual coordination in terms of both solution quality and efficiency. Experimental results on real datasets show that our algorithms can process MRGQ efficiently and significantly outperform other baseline algorithms, including one based on the commercial parallel optimizer IBM CPLEX.
- May 04 2015 cs.DS arXiv:1505.00081v1We study the minimum connected sensor cover problem (\mincsc) and the budgeted connected sensor cover (\bcsc) problem, both motivated by important applications in wireless sensor networks. In both problems, we are given a set of sensors and a set of target points in the Euclidean plane. In \mincsc, our goal is to find a set of sensors of minimum cardinality, such that all target points are covered, and all sensors can communicate with each other (i.e., the communication graph is connected). We obtain a constant factor approximation algorithm, assuming that the ratio between the sensor radius and communication radius is bounded. In \bcsc problem, our goal is to choose a set of $B$ sensors, such that the number of targets covered by the chosen sensors is maximized and the communication graph is connected. We also obtain a constant approximation under the same assumption.
- We consider the age-of-information in a multi-class $M/G/1$ queueing system, where each class generates packets containing status information. Age of information is a relatively new metric that measures the amount of time that elapsed between status updates, thus accounting for both the queueing delay and the delay between packet generation. This gives rise to a tradeoff between frequency of status updates, and queueing delay. In this paper, we study this tradeoff in a system with heterogenous users modeled as a multi-class $M/G/1$ queue. To this end, we derive the exact peak age-of-Information (PAoI) profile of the system, which measures the "freshness" of the status information. We then seek to optimize the age of information, by formulating the problem using quasiconvex optimization, and obtain structural properties of the optimal solution.
- Advertisement disseminations based on Roadside Access Points (RAPs) in vehicular ad-hoc networks (VANETs) attract lots of attentions and have a promising prospect. In this paper, we focus on a roadside advertisement dissemination, including three basic elements: RAP Service Provider (RSP), mobile vehicles and shops. The RSP has deployed many RAPs at different locations in a city. A shop wants to rent some RAPs, which can disseminate advertisements to vehicles with some probabilites. Then, it tries to select the minimal number of RAPs to finish the advertisement dissemination, in order to save the expenses. Meanwhile, the selected RAPs need to ensure that each vehicle's probability of receiving advertisement successfully is not less than a threshold. We prove that this RAP selection problem is NP-hard. In order to solve this problem, we propose a greedy approximation algorithm, and give the corresponding approximation ratio. Further, we conduct extensive simulations on real world data sets to prove the good performance of this algorithm.
- Feb 27 2015 cs.SI arXiv:1502.07439v4Research issues and data mining techniques for product recommendation and viral marketing have been widely studied. Existing works on seed selection in social networks do not take into account the effect of product recommendations in e-commerce stores. In this paper, we investigate the seed selection problem for viral marketing that considers both effects of social influence and item inference (for product recommendation). We develop a new model, Social Item Graph (SIG), that captures both effects in form of hyperedges. Accordingly, we formulate a seed selection problem, called Social Item Maximization Problem (SIMP), and prove the hardness of SIMP. We design an efficient algorithm with performance guarantee, called Hyperedge-Aware Greedy (HAG), for SIMP and develop a new index structure, called SIG-index, to accelerate the computation of diffusion process in HAG. Moreover, to construct realistic SIG models for SIMP, we develop a statistical inference based framework to learn the weights of hyperedges from data. Finally, we perform a comprehensive evaluation on our proposals with various baselines. Experimental result validates our ideas and demonstrates the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed model and algorithms over baselines.
- Feb 04 2015 cs.CV arXiv:1502.00744v1This paper proposes a reconfigurable model to recognize and detect multiclass (or multiview) objects with large variation in appearance. Compared with well acknowledged hierarchical models, we study two advanced capabilities in hierarchy for object modeling: (i) "switch" variables(i.e. or-nodes) for specifying alternative compositions, and (ii) making local classifiers (i.e. leaf-nodes) shared among different classes. These capabilities enable us to account well for structural variabilities while preserving the model compact. Our model, in the form of an And-Or Graph, comprises four layers: a batch of leaf-nodes with collaborative edges in bottom for localizing object parts; the or-nodes over bottom to activate their children leaf-nodes; the and-nodes to classify objects as a whole; one root-node on the top for switching multiclass classification, which is also an or-node. For model training, we present an EM-type algorithm, namely dynamical structural optimization (DSO), to iteratively determine the structural configuration, (e.g., leaf-node generation associated with their parent or-nodes and shared across other classes), along with optimizing multi-layer parameters. The proposed method is valid on challenging databases, e.g., PASCAL VOC 2007 and UIUC-People, and it achieves state-of-the-arts performance.
- Jan 23 2015 cs.NI arXiv:1501.05421v1In many cognitive radio applications, there are multiple types of message queues. Existing queueing analysis works in underlay CR networks failed to discuss packets heterogeneity. Therefore high priority packets with impatient waiting time that have preemptive transmission opportunities over low class are investigated. We model the system behavior as a M/M/1+GI queue which is represented by a two dimensional state transition graph. The reneging probability of high priority packets and the average waiting time in two-class priority queues is analyzed. Simulation results demonstrate that the average waiting time of high priority packets decreases with the growing interference power threshold and the average waiting time of the low priority packet is proportional to the arrival rate of the high priority packet. This work may lay the foundation to design efficient MAC protocols and optimize long term system performance by carefully choosing system parameters.
- This paper investigates the benefits of the side information on the universal compression of sequences from a mixture of $K$ parametric sources. The output sequence of the mixture source is chosen from the source $i \in \{1,\ldots ,K\}$ with a $d_i$-dimensional parameter vector at random according to probability vector $\mathbf{w} = (w_1,\ldots,w_K)$. The average minimax redundancy of the universal compression of a new random sequence of length $n$ is derived when the encoder and the decoder have a common side information of $T$ sequences generated independently by the mixture source. Necessary and sufficient conditions on the distribution $\mathbf{w}$ and the mixture parameter dimensions $\mathbf{d} = (d_1,\ldots,d_K)$ are determined such that the side information provided by the previous sequences results in a reduction in the first-order term of the average codeword length compared with the universal compression without side information. Further, it is proved that the optimal compression with side information corresponds to the clustering of the side information sequences from the mixture source. Then, a clustering technique is presented to better utilize the side information by classifying the data sequences from a mixture source. Finally, the performance of the clustering on the universal compression with side information is validated using computer simulations on real network data traces.
- Nov 21 2014 cs.CL arXiv:1411.5379v3Semantic parsing has made significant progress, but most current semantic parsers are extremely slow (CKY-based) and rather primitive in representation. We introduce three new techniques to tackle these problems. First, we design the first linear-time incremental shift-reduce-style semantic parsing algorithm which is more efficient than conventional cubic-time bottom-up semantic parsers. Second, our parser, being type-driven instead of syntax-driven, uses type-checking to decide the direction of reduction, which eliminates the need for a syntactic grammar such as CCG. Third, to fully exploit the power of type-driven semantic parsing beyond simple types (such as entities and truth values), we borrow from programming language theory the concepts of subtype polymorphism and parametric polymorphism to enrich the type system in order to better guide the parsing. Our system learns very accurate parses in GeoQuery, Jobs and Atis domains.
- With the dramatic growth in the number of application domains that generate probabilistic, noisy and uncertain data, there has been an increasing interest in designing algorithms for geometric or combinatorial optimization problems over such data. In this paper, we initiate the study of constructing $\epsilon$-kernel coresets for uncertain points. We consider uncertainty in the existential model where each point's location is fixed but only occurs with a certain probability, and the locational model where each point has a probability distribution describing its location. An $\epsilon$-kernel coreset approximates the width of a point set in any direction. We consider approximating the expected width (an \expkernel), as well as the probability distribution on the width (an \probkernel) for any direction. We show that there exists a set of $O(1/\epsilon^{(d-1)/2})$ deterministic points which approximate the expected width under the existential and locational models, and we provide efficient algorithms for constructing such coresets. We show, however, it is not always possible to find a subset of the original uncertain points which provides such an approximation. However, if the existential probability of each point is lower bounded by a constant, an exp-kernel\ (or an fpow-kernel) is still possible. We also construct an quant-kernel coreset in linear time. Finally, combining with known techniques, we show a few applications to approximating the extent of uncertain functions, maintaining extent measures for stochastic moving points and some shape fitting problems under uncertainty.
- In this paper, we study the problem of reducing the delay of downloading data from cloud storage systems by leveraging multiple parallel threads, assuming that the data has been encoded and stored in the clouds using fixed rate forward error correction (FEC) codes with parameters (n, k). That is, each file is divided into k equal-sized chunks, which are then expanded into n chunks such that any k chunks out of the n are sufficient to successfully restore the original file. The model can be depicted as a multiple-server queue with arrivals of data retrieving requests and a server corresponding to a thread. However, this is not a typical queueing model because a server can terminate its operation, depending on when other servers complete their service (due to the redundancy that is spread across the threads). Hence, to the best of our knowledge, the analysis of this queueing model remains quite uncharted. Recent traces from Amazon S3 show that the time to retrieve a fixed size chunk is random and can be approximated as a constant delay plus an i.i.d. exponentially distributed random variable. For the tractability of the theoretical analysis, we assume that the chunk downloading time is i.i.d. exponentially distributed. Under this assumption, we show that any work-conserving scheme is delay-optimal among all on-line scheduling schemes when k = 1. When k > 1, we find that a simple greedy scheme, which allocates all available threads to the head of line request, is delay optimal among all on-line scheduling schemes. We also provide some numerical results that point to the limitations of the exponential assumption, and suggest further research directions.
- Apr 15 2014 cs.NI arXiv:1404.3454v2Software-Defined Networking (SDN) enables flexible network resource allocations for traffic engineering, but at the same time the scalability problem becomes more serious since traffic is more difficult to be aggregated. Those crucial issues in SDN have been studied for unicast but have not been explored for multicast traffic, and addressing those issues for multicast is more challenging since the identities and the number of members in a multicast group can be arbitrary. In this paper, therefore, we propose a new multicast tree for SDN, named Branch-aware Steiner Tree (BST). The BST problem is difficult since it needs to jointly minimize the numbers of the edges and the branch nodes in a tree, and we prove that it is NP-Hard and inapproximable within $k$, which denotes the number of group members. We further design an approximation algorithm, called Branch Aware Edge Reduction Algorithm (BAERA), to solve the problem. Simulation results demonstrate that the trees obtained by BAERA are more bandwidth-efficient and scalable than the shortest-path trees and traditional Steiner trees. Most importantly, BAERA is computation-efficient to be deployed in SDN since it can generate a tree on massive networks in small time.
- Apr 11 2014 cs.GT arXiv:1404.2671v1We consider the \em multi-shop ski rental problem. This problem generalizes the classic ski rental problem to a multi-shop setting, in which each shop has different prices for renting and purchasing a pair of skis, and a \emphconsumer has to make decisions on when and where to buy. We are interested in the \em optimal online (competitive-ratio minimizing) mixed strategy from the consumer's perspective. For our problem in its basic form, we obtain exciting closed-form solutions and a linear time algorithm for computing them. We further demonstrate the generality of our approach by investigating three extensions of our basic problem, namely ones that consider costs incurred by entering a shop or switching to another shop. Our solutions to these problems suggest that the consumer must assign positive probability in \emphexactly one shop at any buying time. Our results apply to many real-world applications, ranging from cost management in \textttIaaS cloud to scheduling in distributed computing.
- In this paper, we investigate the power of online learning in stochastic network optimization with unknown system statistics \it a priori. We are interested in understanding how information and learning can be efficiently incorporated into system control techniques, and what are the fundamental benefits of doing so. We propose two \emphOnline Learning-Aided Control techniques, $\mathtt{OLAC}$ and $\mathtt{OLAC2}$, that explicitly utilize the past system information in current system control via a learning procedure called \emphdual learning. We prove strong performance guarantees of the proposed algorithms: $\mathtt{OLAC}$ and $\mathtt{OLAC2}$ achieve the near-optimal $[O(\epsilon), O([\log(1/\epsilon)]^2)]$ utility-delay tradeoff and $\mathtt{OLAC2}$ possesses an $O(\epsilon^{-2/3})$ convergence time. $\mathtt{OLAC}$ and $\mathtt{OLAC2}$ are probably the first algorithms that simultaneously possess explicit near-optimal delay guarantee and sub-linear convergence time. Simulation results also confirm the superior performance of the proposed algorithms in practice. To the best of our knowledge, our attempt is the first to explicitly incorporate online learning into stochastic network optimization and to demonstrate its power in both theory and practice.
- We consider the problem of designing optimal online-ad investment strategies for a single advertiser, who invests at multiple sponsored search sites simultaneously, with the objective of maximizing his average revenue subject to the advertising budget constraint. A greedy online investment scheme is developed to achieve an average revenue that can be pushed to within $O(\epsilon)$ of the optimal, for any $\epsilon>0$, with a tradeoff that the temporal budget violation is $O(1/\epsilon)$. Different from many existing algorithms, our scheme allows the advertiser to \emphasynchronously update his investments on each search engine site, hence applies to systems where the timescales of action update intervals are heterogeneous for different sites. We also quantify the impact of inaccurate estimation of the system dynamics and show that the algorithm is robust against imperfect system knowledge.
- Mar 04 2014 cs.CR arXiv:1403.0297v1Revelations of large scale electronic surveillance and data mining by governments and corporations have fueled increased adoption of HTTPS. We present a traffic analysis attack against over 6000 webpages spanning the HTTPS deployments of 10 widely used, industry-leading websites in areas such as healthcare, finance, legal services and streaming video. Our attack identifies individual pages in the same website with 89% accuracy, exposing personal details including medical conditions, financial and legal affairs and sexual orientation. We examine evaluation methodology and reveal accuracy variations as large as 18% caused by assumptions affecting caching and cookies. We present a novel defense reducing attack accuracy to 27% with a 9% traffic increase, and demonstrate significantly increased effectiveness of prior defenses in our evaluation context, inclusive of enabled caching, user-specific cookies and pages within the same website.
- Oct 16 2013 cs.SY arXiv:1310.3973v1Optimal experiment design for parameter estimation is a research topic that has been in the interest of various studies. A key problem in optimal input design is that the optimal input depends on some unknown system parameters that are to be identified. Adaptive design is one of the fundamental routes to handle this problem. Although there exist a rich collection of results on adaptive experiment design, there are few results that address these issues for dynamic systems. This paper proposes an adaptive input design method for general single-input single-output linear-time-invariant systems.
- Motivated by the increasing popularity of learning and predicting human user behavior in communication and computing systems, in this paper, we investigate the fundamental benefit of predictive scheduling, i.e., predicting and pre-serving arrivals, in controlled queueing systems. Based on a lookahead window prediction model, we first establish a novel equivalence between the predictive queueing system with a \emphfully-efficient scheduling scheme and an equivalent queueing system without prediction. This connection allows us to analytically demonstrate that predictive scheduling necessarily improves system delay performance and can drive it to zero with increasing prediction power. We then propose the \textsfPredictive Backpressure (PBP) algorithm for achieving optimal utility performance in such predictive systems. \textsfPBP efficiently incorporates prediction into stochastic system control and avoids the great complication due to the exponential state space growth in the prediction window size. We show that \textsfPBP can achieve a utility performance that is within $O(\epsilon)$ of the optimal, for any $\epsilon>0$, while guaranteeing that the system delay distribution is a \emphshifted-to-the-left version of that under the original Backpressure algorithm. Hence, the average packet delay under \textsfPBP is strictly better than that under Backpressure, and vanishes with increasing prediction window size. This implies that the resulting utility-delay tradeoff with predictive scheduling beats the known optimal $[O(\epsilon), O(\log(1/\epsilon))]$ tradeoff for systems without prediction.
- Many spectrum auction mechanisms have been proposed for spectrum allocation problem, and unfortunately, few of them protect the bid privacy of bidders and achieve good social efficiency. In this paper, we propose PPS, a Privacy Preserving Strategyproof spectrum auction framework. Then, we design two schemes based on PPS separately for 1) the Single-Unit Auction model (SUA), where only single channel to be sold in the spectrum market; and 2) the Multi-Unit Auction model (MUA), where the primary user subleases multi-unit channels to the secondary users and each of the secondary users wants to access multi-unit channels either. Since the social efficiency maximization problem is NP-hard in both auction models, we present allocation mechanisms with approximation factors of $(1+\epsilon)$ and 32 separately for SUA and MUA, and further judiciously design strategyproof auction mechanisms with privacy preserving based on them. Our extensive evaluations show that our mechanisms achieve good social efficiency and with low computation and communication overhead.
- Truthful spectrum auctions have been extensively studied in recent years. Truthfulness makes bidders bid their true valuations, simplifying greatly the analysis of auctions. However, revealing one's true valuation causes severe privacy disclosure to the auctioneer and other bidders. To make things worse, previous work on secure spectrum auctions does not provide adequate security. In this paper, based on TRUST, we propose PS-TRUST, a provably secure solution for truthful double spectrum auctions. Besides maintaining the properties of truthfulness and special spectrum reuse of TRUST, PS-TRUST achieves provable security against semi-honest adversaries in the sense of cryptography. Specifically, PS-TRUST reveals nothing about the bids to anyone in the auction, except the auction result. To the best of our knowledge, PS-TRUST is the first provably secure solution for spectrum auctions. Furthermore, experimental results show that the computation and communication overhead of PS-TRUST is modest, and its practical applications are feasible.
- In this work, we study spectrum auction problem where each request from secondary users has spatial, temporal, and spectral features. With the requests of secondary users and the reserve price of the primary user, our goal is to design truthful mechanisms that will either maximize the social efficiency or maximize the revenue of the primary user. As the optimal conflict-free spectrum allocation problem is NP-hard, in this work, we design near optimal spectrum allocation mechanisms separately based on the following techniques: derandomized allocation from integer programming formulation, its linear programming (LP) relaxation, and the dual of the LP. We theoretically prove that 1) our near optimal allocation methods are bid monotone, which implys truthful auction mechanisms; and 2) our near optimal allocation methods can achieve a social efficiency or a revenue that is at least $1-\frac{1}{e}$ times of the optimal respectively. At last, we conduct extensive simulations to study the performances (social efficiency, revenue) of the proposed methods, and the simulation results corroborate our theoretical analysis.
- Sep 27 2012 cs.DS arXiv:1209.5828v4We consider the stochastic geometry model where the location of each node is a random point in a given metric space, or the existence of each node is uncertain. We study the problems of computing the expected lengths of several combinatorial or geometric optimization problems over stochastic points, including closest pair, minimum spanning tree, $k$-clustering, minimum perfect matching, and minimum cycle cover. We also consider the problem of estimating the probability that the length of closest pair, or the diameter, is at most, or at least, a given threshold. Most of the above problems are known to be $\sharpP$-hard. We obtain FPRAS (Fully Polynomial Randomized Approximation Scheme) for most of them in both the existential and locational uncertainty models. Our result for stochastic minimum spanning trees in the locational uncertain model improves upon the previously known constant factor approximation algorithm. Our results for other problems are the first known to the best of our knowledge.
- Understanding social network structure and evolution has important implications for many aspects of network and system design including provisioning, bootstrapping trust and reputation systems via social networks, and defenses against Sybil attacks. Several recent results suggest that augmenting the social network structure with user attributes (e.g., location, employer, communities of interest) can provide a more fine-grained understanding of social networks. However, there have been few studies to provide a systematic understanding of these effects at scale. We bridge this gap using a unique dataset collected as the Google+ social network grew over time since its release in late June 2011. We observe novel phenomena with respect to both standard social network metrics and new attribute-related metrics (that we define). We also observe interesting evolutionary patterns as Google+ went from a bootstrap phase to a steady invitation-only stage before a public release. Based on our empirical observations, we develop a new generative model to jointly reproduce the social structure and the node attributes. Using theoretical analysis and empirical evaluations, we show that our model can accurately reproduce the social and attribute structure of real social networks. We also demonstrate that our model provides more accurate predictions for practical application contexts.
- Aug 16 2012 cs.CL arXiv:1208.3001v1With such increasing popularity and availability of digital text data, authorships of digital texts can not be taken for granted due to the ease of copying and parsing. This paper presents a new text style analysis called natural frequency zoned word distribution analysis (NFZ-WDA), and then a basic authorship attribution scheme and an open authorship attribution scheme for digital texts based on the analysis. NFZ-WDA is based on the observation that all authors leave distinct intrinsic word usage traces on texts written by them and these intrinsic styles can be identified and employed to analyze the authorship. The intrinsic word usage styles can be estimated through the analysis of word distribution within a text, which is more than normal word frequency analysis and can be expressed as: which groups of words are used in the text; how frequently does each group of words occur; how are the occurrences of each group of words distributed in the text. Next, the basic authorship attribution scheme and the open authorship attribution scheme provide solutions for both closed and open authorship attribution problems. Through analysis and extensive experimental studies, this paper demonstrates the efficiency of the proposed method for authorship attribution.
- Benes networks are constructed with simple switch modules and have many advantages, including small latency and requiring only an almost linear number of switch modules. As circuit-switches, Benes networks are rearrangeably non-blocking, which implies that they are full-throughput as packet switches, with suitable routing. Routing in Benes networks can be done by time-sharing permutations. However, this approach requires centralized control of the switch modules and statistical knowledge of the traffic arrivals. We propose a backpressure-based routing scheme for Benes networks, combined with end-to-end congestion control. This approach achieves the maximal utility of the network and requires only four queues per module, independently of the size of the network.
- We design a framework for truthful double multi-channel spectrum auctions where each seller (or buyer) can sell (or buy) multiple spectrum channels based on their individual needs. Open, market-based spectrum trading motivates existing spectrum owners (as sellers) to lease their selected idle spectrum channels to new spectrum users (as buyers) who need the spectrum desperately. The most significant requirement is how to make the auction economic-robust (truthful in particular) while enabling spectrum reuse to improve spectrum utilization. Additionally, in practice, both sellers and buyers would require to trade multiple channels at one time, while guaranteeing their individual profitability. Unfortunately, none of the existing designs can meet all these requirements simultaneously. We address these requirements by proposing True-MCSA, a framework for truthful double multi-channel spectrum auctions. True-MCSA takes as input any reusability-driven spectrum allocation algorithm, introduces novel virtual buyer group (VBG) splitting and bidding algorithms, and applies a winner determination and pricing mechanism to achieve truthfulness and other economic properties while improving spectrum utilization and successfully dealing with multi-channel requests from both buyers and sellers. Our results show that the auction efficiency is impacted by the economic factors with efficiency degradations within 30%, under different experimental settings. Furthermore, the experimental results indicate that we can improve the auction efficiency by choosing a proper bidding algorithm and using a base bid. True-MCSA makes an important contribution on enabling spectrum reuse to improve auction efficiency in multi-channel cases.
- Secondary spectrum auction is widely applied in wireless networks for mitigating the spectrum scarcity. In a realistic spectrum trading market, the requests from secondary users often specify the usage of a fixed spectrum frequency band in a certain geographical region and require a duration time in a fixed available time interval. Considering the selfish behaviors of secondary users, it is imperative to design a truthful auction which matches the available spectrums and requests of secondary users optimally. Unfortunately, existing designs either do not consider spectrum heterogeneity or ignore the differences of required time among secondary users. In this paper, we address this problem by investigating how to use auction mechanisms to allocate and price spectrum resources so that the social efficiency can be maximized. We begin by classifying the spectrums and requests from secondary users into different local markets which ensures there is no interference between local markets, and then we can focus on the auction in a single local market. We first design an optimal auction based on the Vickrey-Clarke-Groves (VCG) mechanism to maximize the social efficiency while enforcing truthfulness. To reduce the computational complexity, we further propose a truthful sub-optimal auction with polynomial time complexity, which yields an approximation factor 6+4\surd2. Our extensive simulation results using real spectrum availability data show that the social efficiency ratio of the sub-optimal auction is always above 70% compared with the optimal auction.