results for au:Horodecki_M in:quant-ph

- Feb 27 2018 quant-ph arXiv:1802.09510v1In this paper we study state space of the so called bipartite non-signaling boxes - systems whose statistics is constrained solely by the principle of no instantaneous signaling between distant locations. These systems are described by joint probability distributions of outcomes of local measurements. They can exhibit much stronger correlations than those admitted by quantum mechanics. Inspired by quantum logic approach of Tylec and Kuś (J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 48 (2015) 505303) we consider non-signaling boxes with three inputs per party, and extend the set of measurements with just a single $global$ measurement - one that mimics quantum two-party Bell measurement. We then show that this seemingly mild extension completely rules out supraquantum correlations. The resulting system admits precisely quantum mechanical correlations of two qubits. We also consider non-maximally entangled measurements, the resulting system interpolating between quantum and full nosignaling theory. Our study paves a way to a general programme of interpolating between non-signaling boxes and quantum mechanics.
- Aug 09 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1708.02434v2Hereunder we continue the study of the representation theory of the algebra of permutation operators acting on the $n$-fold tensor product space, partially transposed on the last subsystem. We develop the concept of partially reduced irreducible representations, which allows to simplify significantly previously proved theorems and what is the most important derive new results for irreducible representations of the mentioned algebra. In our analysis we are able to reduce complexity of the central expressions by getting rid of sums over all permutations from symmetric group obtaining equations which are much more handy in practical applications. We also find relatively simple matrix representations for the generators of underlying algebra. Obtained simplifications and developments are applied to derive characteristic of the deterministic port-based teleportation scheme written purely in terms of irreducible representations of the studied algebra. We solve an eigenproblem for generators of algebra which is the first step towards to hybrid port-based teleportation scheme and gives us new proofs of asymptotic behaviour of teleportation fidelity. We also show connection between density operator characterising port-based teleportation and particular matrix composed of irreducible representation of the symmetric group which encodes properties of the investigated algebra.
- Jul 27 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1707.08456v1Deterministic port-based teleportation (dPBT) protocol is a scheme where a quantum state is guaranteed to be transferred to another system without unitary correction. We characterize the best achievable performance of the dPBT when both the resource state and the measurement is optimized. Surprisingly, the best possible fidelity for an arbitrary number of ports and dimension of the teleported state is given by the largest eigenvalue of a particular matrix -- Teleportation Matrix. It encodes the relationship between a certain set of Young diagrams and emerges as the the optimal solution to the relevant semidefinite program.
- Jul 24 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1707.06869v1We present an example of a Thermal Operation for a system of $d>1$ energy levels, which cannot be performed without an instant access to the whole energy space. Pursuing the question about the decomposability of global Thermal Operations into convex combinations of processes acting non-trivially on smaller subspaces, we investigate the set of Thermal Operations for transitions within the subspace of states diagonal in the energy basis. For 3 level systems, we determine the set of extremal points of these operations and connect it with thermo-majorization criterion. In particular, we show that the structure of the set depends on temperature. Finally, we show the connection between a low temperature realization in 3 level systems of the non-decomposable operation introduced in the beginning with higher temperature extremal points.
- Jun 19 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1706.05264v1Although an input distribution may not majorize a target distribution, it may majorize a distribution which is close to the target. Here we introduce a notion of approximate majorization. For any distribution, and given a distance $\delta$, we find the approximate distributions which majorize (are majorized by) all other distributions within the distance $\delta$. We call these the steepest and flattest approximation. This enables one to compute how close one can get to a given target distribution under a process governed by majorization. We show that the flattest and steepest approximations preserve ordering under majorization. Furthermore, we give a notion of majorization distance. This has applications ranging from thermodynamics, entanglement theory, and economics.
- Feb 02 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1702.00078v1One of the formulations of Heisenberg uncertainty principle, concerning so-called measurement uncertainty, states that the measurement of one observable modifies the statistics of the other. Here, we derive such a measurement uncertainty principle from two comprehensible assumptions: impossibility of instantaneous messaging at a distance (no-signaling), and violation of Bell inequalities (non-locality). The uncertainty is established for a pair of observables of one of two spatially separated systems that exhibit non-local correlations. To this end, we introduce a gentle form of measurement which acquires partial information about one of the observables. We then bound disturbance of the remaining observables by the amount of information gained from the gentle measurement, minus a correction depending on the degree of non-locality. The obtained quantitative expression resembles the quantum mechanical formulations, yet it is derived without the quantum formalism and complements the known qualitative effect of disturbance implied by non-locality and no-signaling.
- Dec 30 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1612.09260v3Port-based teleportation (PBT), introduced in 2008, is a type of quantum teleportation protocol which transmits the state to the receiver without requiring any corrections on the receiver's side. Evaluating the performance of PBT was computationally intractable and previous attempts succeeded only with small systems. We study PBT protocols and fully characterize their performance for arbitrary dimensions and number of ports. We develop new mathematical tools to study the symmetries of the measurement operators that arise in these protocols and belong to the algebra of partially transposed permutation operators. First, we develop the representation theory of the mentioned algebra which provides an elegant way of understanding the properties of subsystems of a large system with general symmetries. In particular, we introduce the theory of the partially reduced irreducible representations which we use to obtain a simpler representation of the algebra of partially transposed permutation operators and thus explicitly determine the properties of any PBT scheme for fixed dimension in polynomial time.
- May 16 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1605.04279v3We consider Bayesian estimate of static magnetic field, characterized by a prior Gaussian probability distribution, in systems of a few electron quantum dot spins interacting with infinite temperature spin environment via hyperfine interaction. Sudden transitions among optimal states and measurements are observed. Usefulness of measuring occupation levels is shown for all times of the evolution, together with the role of entanglement in the optimal scenario. For low values of magnetic field, memory effects stemming from the interaction with environment provide limited metrological advantage.
- May 04 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1605.00713v1Randomness is both a useful way to model natural systems and a useful tool for engineered systems, e.g. in computation, communication and control. Fully random transformations require exponential time for either classical or quantum systems, but in many case pseudorandom operations can emulate certain properties of truly random ones. Indeed in the classical realm there is by now a well-developed theory of such pseudorandom operations. However the construction of such objects turns out to be much harder in the quantum case. Here we show that random quantum circuits are a powerful source of quantum pseudorandomness. This gives the for the first time a polynomialtime construction of quantum unitary designs, which can replace fully random operations in most applications, and shows that generic quantum dynamics cannot be distinguished from truly random processes. We discuss applications of our result to quantum information science, cryptography and to understanding self-equilibration of closed quantum dynamics.
- Feb 12 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1602.03783v2One of the formulations of Heisenberg uncertainty principle, concerning so-called measurement uncertainty, states that the measurement of one observable modifies the statistics of the other. Here, we derive such a measurement uncertainty principle from two comprehensible assumptions: impossibility of instantaneous messaging at a distance (no-signaling), and violation of Bell inequalities (non-locality). The uncertainty is established for a pair of observables of one of two spatially separated systems that exhibit non-local correlations. To this end, we introduce a gentle form of measurement which acquires partial information about one of the observables. We then bound disturbance of the remaining observables by the amount of information gained from the gentle measurement, minus a correction depending on the degree of non-locality. The obtained quantitative expression resembles the quantum mechanical formulations, yet it is derived without the quantum formalism and complements the known qualitative effect of disturbance implied by non-locality and no-signaling.
- Jan 26 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1601.06455v1The problem of device-independent randomness amplification against no-signaling adversaries has so far been studied under the assumption that the weak source of randomness is uncorrelated with the (quantum) devices used in the amplification procedure. In this work, we relax this assumption, and reconsider the original protocol of Colbeck and Renner, Nature Physics 8, 450-454 (2012), on randomness amplification using a Santha-Vazirani (SV) source. To do so, we introduce an SV-like condition for devices, namely that any string of SV source bits remains weakly random conditioned upon any other bit string from the same SV source and the outputs obtained when this further string is input into the devices. Assuming this condition, we show that a quantum device using a singlet state to violate the chained Bell inequalities leads to full randomness in the asymptotic scenario of a large number of settings, for a restricted set of SV sources (with $0 \leq \varepsilon < \frac{(2^{(1/12)} - 1)}{2(2^{(1/12)} + 1)} \approx 0.0144$). We also study a device-independent protocol that allows for correlations between the sequence of boxes used in the protocol and the SV source bits used to choose the particular box from whose output the randomness is obtained. Assuming the SV-like condition for devices, we show that the honest parties can achieve amplification of the weak source against this attack for the parameter range $0 \leq \varepsilon<0.0132$. We leave the case of a yet more general attack on the amplification protocol as an interesting open problem.
- Dec 02 2015 quant-ph arXiv:1512.00223v3Maximal violation of the CHSH-Bell inequality is usually said to be a feature of anticommuting observables. In this work we show that even random observables exhibit near-maximal violations of the CHSH-Bell inequality. To do this, we use the tools of free probability theory to analyze the commutators of large random matrices. Along the way, we introduce the notion of "free observables" which can be thought of as infinite-dimensional operators that reproduce the statistics of random matrices as their dimension tends towards infinity. We also study the fine-grained uncertainty of a sequence of free or random observables, and use this to construct a steering inequality with a large violation.
- Recent work using tools from quantum information theory has shown that at the nanoscale where quantum effects become prevalent, there is not one thermodynamical second law but many. Derivations of these laws assume that an experimenter has very precise control of the system and heat bath. Here we show that these multitude of laws can be saturated using two very simple operations: changing the energy levels of the system and thermalizing over any two system energy levels. Using these two operations, one can distill the optimal amount of work from a system, as well as perform the reverse formation process. Even more surprisingly, using only these two operations and one ancilla qubit in a thermal state, one can transform any state into any other state allowable by the second laws. We thus have the remarkable result that the second laws hold for fine-grained manipulation of system and bath, but can be achieved using very coarse control. This brings the full array of thermal operations into a regime accessible by experiment, and establishes the physical relevance of these second laws.
- Nov 18 2015 quant-ph arXiv:1511.05415v1We study the classical and quantum values of one- and two-party linear games, an important class of unique games that generalizes the well-known XOR games to the case of non-binary outcomes. We introduce a ``constraint graph" associated to such a game, with the constraints defining the linear game represented by an edge-coloring of the graph. We use the graph-theoretic characterization to relate the task of finding equivalent games to the notion of signed graphs and switching equivalence from graph theory. We relate the problem of computing the classical value of single-party anti-correlation XOR games to finding the edge bipartization number of a graph, which is known to be MaxSNP hard, and connect the computation of the classical value of more general XOR-d games to the identification of specific cycles in the graph. We construct an orthogonality graph of the game from the constraint graph and study its Lovász theta number as a general upper bound on the quantum value even in the case of single-party contextual XOR-d games. Linear games possess appealing properties for use in device-independent applications such as randomness of the local correlated outcomes in the optimal quantum strategy. We study the possibility of obtaining quantum algebraic violation of these games, and show that no finite linear game possesses the property of pseudo-telepathy leaving the frequently used chained Bell inequalities as the natural candidates for such applications. We also show this lack of pseudo-telepathy for multi-party XOR-type inequalities involving two-body correlation functions.
- Jun 24 2015 quant-ph arXiv:1506.07124v2We develop a general operational framework that formalizes the concept of conditional uncertainty in a measure-independent fashion. Our formalism is built upon a mathematical relation which we call conditional majorization. We define conditional majorization and, for the case of classical memory, we provide its thorough characterization in terms of monotones, i.e., functions that preserve the partial order under conditional majorization. We demonstrate the application of this framework by deriving two types of memory-assisted uncertainty relations: (1) a monotone-based conditional uncertainty relation, (2) a universal measure-independent conditional uncertainty relation, both of which set a lower bound on the minimal uncertainty that Bob has about Alice's pair of incompatible measurements, conditioned on arbitrary measurement that Bob makes on his own system. We next compare the obtained relations with their existing entropic counterparts and find that they are at least independent.
- Of course not, but if one believes that information cannot be destroyed in a theory of quantum gravity, then we run into apparent contradictions with quantum theory when we consider evaporating black holes. Namely that the no-cloning theorem or the principle of entanglement monogamy is violated. Here, we show that neither violation need hold, since, in arguing that black holes lead to cloning or non-monogamy, one needs to assume a tensor product structure between two points in space-time that could instead be viewed as causally connected. In the latter case, one is violating the semi-classical causal structure of space, which is a strictly weaker implication than cloning or non-monogamy. We show that the lack of monogamy that can emerge in evaporating space times is one that is allowed in quantum mechanics, and is very naturally related to a lack of monogamy of correlations of outputs of measurements performed at subsequent instances of time of a single system. A particular example of this is the Horowitz-Maldacena proposal, and we argue that it needn't lead to cloning or violations of entanglement monogamy. For measurements on systems which appear to be leaving a black hole, we introduce the notion of the temporal product, and argue that it is just as natural a choice for measurements as the tensor product. For black holes, the tensor and temporal products have the same measurement statistics, but result in different type of non-monogamy of correlations, with the former being forbidden in quantum theory while the latter is allowed. In the case of the AMPS firewall experiment we find that the entanglement structure is modified, and one must have entanglement between the infalling Hawking partners and early time outgoing Hawking radiation which surprisingly tame violation of entanglement monogamy.
- The superposition principle is one of the landmarks of quantum mechanics. The importance of quantum superpositions provokes questions about the limitations that quantum mechanics itself imposes on the possibility of their generation. In this work we systematically study the problem of creation of superpositions of unknown quantum states. First, we prove a no-go theorem that forbids the existence of a universal probabilistic quantum protocol producing a superposition of two unknown quantum states. Secondly, we provide an explicit probabilistic protocol generating a superposition of two unknown states, each having a fixed overlap with the known referential pure state. The protocol is proven to be unique and optimal. Moreover, it can be implemented on arbitrary Hilbert spaces. In the context of quantum optics it can be used to efficiently generate highly nonclassical or nongaussian states.
- Apr 24 2015 quant-ph arXiv:1504.06313v2Recently, a physically realistic protocol amplifying the randomness of Santha-Vazirani sources producing cryptographically secure random bits was proposed; however for reasons of practical relevance, the crucial question remained open whether this can be accomplished under the minimal conditions necessary for the task. Namely, is it possible to achieve randomness amplification using only two no-signaling components and in a situation where the violation of a Bell inequality only guarantees that some outcomes of the device for specific inputs exhibit randomness? Here, we solve this question and present a device-independent protocol for randomness amplification of Santha-Vazirani sources using a device consisting of two non-signaling components. We show that the protocol can amplify any such source that is not fully deterministic into a fully random source while tolerating a constant noise rate and prove the composable security of the protocol against general no-signaling adversaries. Our main innovation is the proof that even the partial randomness certified by the two-party Bell test (a single input-output pair ($\textbf{u}^*, \textbf{x}^*$) for which the conditional probability $P(\textbf{x}^* | \textbf{u}^*)$ is bounded away from $1$ for all no-signaling strategies that optimally violate the Bell inequality) can be used for amplification. We introduce the methodology of a partial tomographic procedure on the empirical statistics obtained in the Bell test that ensures that the outputs constitute a linear min-entropy source of randomness. As a technical novelty that may be of independent interest, we prove that the Santha-Vazirani source satisfies an exponential concentration property given by a recently discovered generalized Chernoff bound.
- Feb 11 2015 quant-ph arXiv:1502.03088v1It is an established fact that entanglement is a resource. Sharing an entangled state leads to non-local correlations and to violations of Bell inequalities. Such non-local correlations illustrate the advantage of quantum resources over classical resources. Here, we study quantitatively Bell inequalities with $2\times n$ inputs. As found in [N. Gisin et al., Int. J. Q. Inf. 5, 525 (2007)] quantum mechanical correlations cannot reach the algebraic bound for such inequalities. In this paper, we uncover the heart of this effect which we call the \it fraction of determinism. We show that any quantum statistics with two parties and $2 \times n$ inputs exhibits nonzero fraction of determinism, and we supply a quantitative bound for it. We then apply it to provide an explicit \it universal upper bound for Bell inequalities with $2\times n$ inputs. As our main mathematical tool we introduce and prove a \it reverse triangle inequality, stating in a quantitative way that if some states are far away from a given state, then their mixture is also. The inequality is crucial in deriving the lower bound for the fraction of determinism, but is also of interest on its own.
- Feb 05 2015 quant-ph arXiv:1502.01058v4We obtain a general connection between a quantum advantage in communication complexity and non-locality. We show that given any protocol offering a (sufficiently large) quantum advantage in communication complexity, there exists a way of obtaining measurement statistics which violate some Bell inequality. Our main tool is port-based teleportation. If the gap between quantum and classical communication complexity can grow arbitrarily large, the ratio of the quantum value to the classical value of the Bell quantity becomes unbounded with the increase in the number of inputs and outputs.
- The aim of this paper is to indicate possible applications of operator systems in qualitative description of varoius scenarios while studying non-locality. To this end we study in details the notion of generalized non-commuting cube. Following ideas of Fritz and Farenick-Kavruk-Paulsen-Todorov we show in systematic way that various classes of Tsirelson's correlation boxes as well as NPA hierarchies can be described by using various operator system tensor products of generalized non-commuting cubes. Moreover, we show also that noncommuting cubes can be applied for the description of steering assemblages. Next we study some aproximation properties of noncommuting cubes by finite dimensional models. Finaly, we indicate possibility to use the framework operator systems for studying Bell and steering inequalities.
- Nov 24 2014 quant-ph arXiv:1411.5994v4We construct steering inequalities which exhibit unbounded violation. The concept was to exploit the relationship between steering violation and uncertainty relation. To this end we apply mutually unbiased bases and anti-commuting observables, known to exibit the strongest uncertainty. In both cases, we are able to procure unbounded violations. Our approach is much more constructive and transparent than the operator space theory approach employed to obtain large violation of Bell inequalities. Importantly, using anti-commuting observables we are able to obtain a \it dichotomic steering inequality with unbounded violation. So far there is no analogous result for Bell inequalities. Interestingly, both the dichotomic inequality and one of our inequalities can not be directly obtained from existing uncertainty relations, which strongly suggest the existence of an unknown kind of uncertainty relation.
- Oct 06 2014 quant-ph arXiv:1410.0947v3Pure states are very important in any theory since they represent states of maximal information about the system within the theory. Here, we show that no non-trivial (not local realistic) extremal states (boxes) of general no-signaling theories can be realized within quantum theory. We then explore three interesting consequences of this fact. Firstly, since the pure states are uncorrelated from the environment, the statement forms a no-go result against the most straightforward device-independent protocol for randomness or secure key generation against general no-signaling adversaries. It also leads to the interesting question whether all non-extremal boxes allow for non-local correlations with the adversary. Secondly, in addition to the fact that new information-theoretic principles (designed to pick out the set of quantum correlations from among all non signaling ones) can in consequence be tested on arbitrary non-local vertices to check their validity, it also allows the possibility of excluding from the quantum set any box of no-signaling correlations that can be distilled to a non-local vertex. Finally, it also forms a sufficient condition to identify non-local games with no quantum winning strategy, when one can show that the game has a single unique non-signaling winning strategy. We illustrate each of these consequences with the example of generalized Popescu-Rohrlich boxes.
- Oct 03 2014 quant-ph arXiv:1410.0378v2We present a construction of quantum states in dimension $d$ that has at least 1 dit of ideal key, called private dits (pdits), which covers most of the known examples of private bits (pbits) $d=2$. We examine properties of this class of states, focusing mostly on its distance to the set of separable states $\mathcal{SEP}$, showing that for a fixed dimension of key part $d_k$ the distance increases with $d_s$. We provide explicit examples of PPT states (in $d$ dimensions) which are nearly as far from separable ones as possible. Precisely, the distance from the set of $\mathcal{SEP}$ is $2 - \epsilon$, where $d$ scales with $\epsilon$ as $d \propto 1/\epsilon^3$, as opposed to $d \propto 2^{(log(4/\epsilon))^2}$ obtained in [Badzia̧g et al., Phys. Rev. A 90, 012301 (2014)]. We do not use boosting (taking many copies of pdits to boost the distance) as in Badzia̧g et al. paper.
- Aug 06 2014 quant-ph arXiv:1408.0993v2Understanding the role that quantum entanglement plays as a resource in various information processing tasks is one of the crucial goals of quantum information theory. Here we propose a new perspective for studying quantum entanglement: distributed computation of functions without communication between nodes. To formalize this approach, we propose identity games. Surprisingly, despite of no-signaling, we obtain that non-local quantum strategies beat classical ones in terms of winning probability for identity games originating from certain bipartite and multipartite functions. Moreover we show that, for majority of functions, access to general non-signaling resources boosts success probability two times in comparison to classical ones, for number of outputs large enough.
- The second law of thermodynamics places a limitation into which states a system can evolve into. For systems in contact with a heat bath, it can be combined with the law of energy conservation, and it says that a system can only evolve into another if the free energy goes down. Recently, it's been shown that there are actually many second laws, and that it is only for large macroscopic systems that they all become equivalent to the ordinary one. These additional second laws also hold for quantum systems, and are, in fact, often more relevant in this regime. They place a restriction on how the probabilities of energy levels can evolve. Here, we consider additional restrictions on how the coherences between energy levels can evolve. Coherences can only go down, and we provide a set of restrictions which limit the extent to which they can be maintained. We find that coherences over energy levels must decay at rates that are suitably adapted to the transition rates between energy levels. We show that the limitations are matched in the case of a single qubit, in which case we obtain the full characterization of state-to-state transformations. For higher dimensions, we conjecture that more severe constraints exist. We also introduce a new class of thermodynamical operations which allow for greater manipulation of coherences and study its power with respect to a class of operations known as thermal operations.
- Irreducible representations (irreps) of a finite group $G$ are equivalent if there exists a similarity transformation between them. In this paper, we describe an explicit algorithm for constructing this transformation between a pair of equivalent irreps, assuming we are given an algorithm to compute the matrix elements of these irreps. Along the way, we derive a generalization of the classical orthogonality relations for matrix elements of irreps of finite groups. We give an explicit form of such unitary matrices for the important case of conjugated Young-Yamanouchi representations, when our group $G$ is symmetric group $S(N)$.
- May 09 2014 quant-ph arXiv:1405.1945v2In \citeJP2011,JPPVW2010 the operator space theory was applied to study bipartite Bell inequalities. The aim of the paper is to follow this line of research and use the operator space technique to analyze the steering scenario. We obtain a bipartite steering functional with unbounded largest violation of steering inequality, as well as we can construct all ingredients explicitly. It turns out that the unbounded largest violation is obtained by non maximally entangled state. Moreover, we focus on the bipartite dichotomic case where we construct a steering functional with unbounded largest violation of steering inequality. This phenomenon is different to the Bell scenario where only bounded largest violation can be obtained by any bipartite dichotomic Bell functional.
- Apr 10 2014 quant-ph arXiv:1404.2495v2We present a scheme for encoding and decoding an unknown state for CSS codes, based on syndrome measurements. We illustrate our method by means of Kitaev toric code, defected-lattice code, topological subsystem code and Haah 3D code. The protocol is local whenever in a given code the crossings between the logical operators consist of next neighbour pairs, which holds for the above codes. For subsystem code we also present scheme in a noisy case, where we allow for bit and phase-flip errors on qubits as well as state preparation and syndrome measurement errors. Similar scheme can be built for two other codes. We show that the fidelity of the protected qubit in the noisy scenario in a large code size limit is of $1-\mathcal{O}(p)$, where $p$ is a probability of error on a single qubit. Regarding Haah code we provide noiseless scheme, leaving the noisy case as an open problem.
- Mar 25 2014 quant-ph arXiv:1403.5867v1Quantum metrology allows for a huge boost in the precision of parameters estimation. However, it seems to be extremely sensitive on the noise. Bound entangled states are states with large amount of noise what makes them unusable for almost all quantum informational tasks. Here we provide a counterintuitive example of a family of bound entangled states which can be used in quantum enhanced metrology. We show that these states give advantage as big as maximally entangled states and asymptotically reach the Heisenberg limit. Moreover, entanglement of the applied states is very weak which is reflected by its so called unlockability poperty. Finally, we find instances where behaviour of Quantum Fisher Information reports presence of bound entanglement while a well-known class of strong correlation Bell inequality does not. The question rises of whether (and if so, then to what degree) violation of local realism is required for the sub-shot noise precision in quantum metrology.
- To explain conceptual gap between classical/quantum and other, hypothetical descriptions of world, several principles has been proposed. So far, all these principles have not explicitly included the uncertainty relation. Here we introduce an information content principle (ICP) which represents the new - constrained uncertainty principle. The principle, by taking into account the encoding/decoding properties of single physical system, is capable of separation both classicality and quanta from a number of potential physical theories including hidden variable theories. The ICP, which is satisfied by both classical and quantum theory, states that the amount of non-redundant information which may be extracted from a given system is bounded by a perfectly decodable information content of the system. We show that ICP allows to discriminate theories which do not allow for correlations stronger than Tsirelson's bound. We show also how to apply the principle to composite systems, ruling out some theories despite their elementary constituents behave quantumly.
- Mar 07 2014 quant-ph arXiv:1403.1295v3A well known cryptographic primitive is so called random access code. Namely, Alice is to send to Bob one of two bits, so that Bob has the choice which bit he wants to learn about. However at any time Alice should not learn Bob's choice, and Bob should learn only the bit of his choice. The task is impossible to accomplish by means of either classical or quantum communication. On the other hand, a concept of correlations stronger than quantum ones, exhibited by so called Popescu- Rohrlich box, was introduced and widely studied. In particular, it is known that Popescu-Rohrlich box enables simulation of the random access code with the support of one bit of communication. Here, we propose a quantum analogue of this phenomenon. Namely, we de?fine an analogue of a random access code, where instead of classical bits, one encodes qubits. We provide a quantum non-signaling box that if supported with two classical bits, allows to simulate a quantum version of random access code. We point out that two bits are necessary. We also show that a quantum random access code cannot be fully quantum: when Bob inputs superposition of two choices, the output will be in a mixed state rather than in a superposition of required states.
- In this work, we revisit the problem of finding an admissible region of fidelities obtained after an application of an arbitrary $1 \rightarrow N$ universal quantum cloner which has been recently solved in [A. Kay et al., Quant. Inf. Comput 13, 880 (2013)] from the side of cloning machines. Using group-theory formalism, we show that the allowed region for fidelities can be alternatively expressed in terms of overlaps of pure states with recently found irreducible representations of the commutant $U \otimes U \otimes \ldots \otimes U \otimes U^*$, which gives the characterization of the allowed region where states being cloned are figure of merit. Additionally, it is sufficient to take pure states with real coefficients only, which makes calculations simpler. To obtain the allowed region, we make a convex hull of possible ranges of fidelities related to a given irrep. Subsequently, two cases: $1 \rightarrow 2$ and $1 \rightarrow 3$ cloners, are studied for different dimensions of states as illustrative examples.
- Oct 18 2013 quant-ph arXiv:1310.4544v2Randomness amplification is the task of transforming a source of somewhat random bits into a source of fully random bits. Although it is impossible to amplify randomness from a single source by classical means, the situation is different considering non-local correlations allowed by quantum mechanics. Here we give the first device-independent protocol for randomness amplification using a constant number of devices. The protocol involves four devices, can amplify any non-deterministic source into a fully random source, tolerates a constant rate of error, and has its correctness based solely on the assumption of no-signaling between the devices. In contrast all previous protocols either required an unbounded number of devices, or could only amplify sources sufficiently close to fully random.
- Oct 01 2013 quant-ph arXiv:1309.7992v2Following recent work of Beigi and Shor, we investigate PPT states that are "heavily entangled." We first exploit volumetric methods to show that in a randomly chosen direction, there are PPT states whose distance in trace norm from separable states is (asymptotically) at least 1/4. We then provide explicit examples of PPT states which are nearly as far from separable ones as possible. To obtain a distance of 2-\epsilon from the separable states, we need a dimension of 2^poly(\log(1/\epsilon)), as opposed to 2^poly(1/\epsilon) given by the construction of Beigi and Shor. We do so by exploiting the so called \it private states, introduced earlier in the context of quantum cryptography. We also provide a lower bound for the distance between private states and PPT states and investigate the distance between pure states and the set of PPT states.
- Area laws for entanglement in quantum many-body systems give useful information about their low-temperature behaviour and are tightly connected to the possibility of good numerical simulations. An intuition from quantum many-body physics suggests that an area law should hold whenever there is exponential decay of correlations in the system, a property found, for instance, in non-critical phases of matter. However, the existence of quantum data-hiding state--that is, states having very small correlations, yet a volume scaling of entanglement--was believed to be a serious obstruction to such an implication. Here we prove that notwithstanding the phenomenon of data hiding, one-dimensional quantum many-body states satisfying exponential decay of correlations always fulfil an area law. To obtain this result we combine several recent advances in quantum information theory, thus showing the usefulness of the field for addressing problems in other areas of physics.
- Aug 27 2013 quant-ph arXiv:1308.5404v2We consider relations between communication complexity problems and detecting correlations (violating local realism) with no local hidden variable model. We show first universal equivalence between characteristics of protocols used in that type of problems and non-signaling correlations. We construct non linear bipartite Bell type inequalities and strong nonlocality test with binary observables by providing general method of Bell inequalities construction and showing that existence of gap between quantum and classical complexity leads to violation of these inequalities. We obtain, first to our knowledge, explicit Bell inequality with binary observables and exponential violation.
- Aug 22 2013 quant-ph arXiv:1308.4635v1In randomness amplification a slightly random source is used to produce an improved random source. Perhaps surprisingly, a single source of randomness cannot be amplified at all classically. However, the situation is different if one considers correlations allowed by quantum mechanics as an extra resource. Here we present a protocol that amplifies Santha-Vazirani sources arbitrarily close to deterministic into fully random sources. The protocol is device independent, depending only on the observed statistics of the devices and on the validity of the no-signaling principle between different devices. It improves previously-known protocols in two respects. First the protocol is tolerant to noise so that even noisy quantum-mechanical systems give rise to good devices for the protocol. Second it is simpler, being based on the violation of a four-party Bell inequality and on the XOR as a hash function. As a technical tool we prove a new de Finetti theorem where the subsystems are selected from a Santha-Vazirani source.
- We consider the structure of algebra of operators, acting in $n-$fold tensor product space, which are partially transposed on the last term. Using purely algebraical methods we show that this algebra is semi-simple and then, considering its regular representation, we derive basic properties of the algebra. In particular, we describe all irreducible representations of the algebra of partially transposed operators and derive expressions for matrix elements of the representations. It appears that there are two types of irreducible representations of the algebra. The first one is strictly connected with the representations of the group $S(n-1)$ induced by irreducible representations of the group $S(n-2)$. The second type is structurally connected with irreducible representations of the group $S(n-1)$.
- Jul 31 2013 quant-ph arXiv:1307.7904v2We study a problem of interconvertibility of two supra-quantum resources: one is so called PR-box, which violates CHSH inequality up to maximal algebraic bound, and second is so called random access code (RAC). The latter is a functionality that enables Bob (receiver) to choose one of two bits of Alice. It has been known, that PR-box supplemented with one bit of communication can be used to simulate RAC. We ask the converse question: to what extent RAC can simulate PR-box? To this end we introduce racbox: a box such that supplemented with one bit of communication offers RAC. As said, PR-box can simulate racbox. The question we raise, is whether any racbox can simulate PR-box. We show that a non-signaling racbox indeed can simulate PR-box, hence those two resources are equivalent. We also provide an example of signalling racbox which cannot simulate PR-box. We give a resource inequality between racbox es and PR-boxes, and show that it is saturated.
- In this paper we have found irreducible representations (irreps) of the algebra of partially transposed permutation operators on last subsystem. We give here direct method of irreps construction for an arbitrary number of subsystems n and local dimension d. Our method is inspired by representation theory of symmetric group S(n), theory of Brauer Algebras and Walled Brauer Algebras.
- The second law of thermodynamics tells us which state transformations are so statistically unlikely that they are effectively forbidden. Its original formulation, due to Clausius, states that "Heat can never pass from a colder to a warmer body without some other change, connected therewith, occurring at the same time". The second law applies to systems composed of many particles interacting; however, we are seeing that one can make sense of thermodynamics in the regime where we only have a small number of particles interacting with a heat bath. Is there a second law of thermodynamics in this regime? Here, we find that for processes which are cyclic or very close to cyclic, the second law for microscopic systems takes on a very di?erent form than it does at the macroscopic scale, imposing not just one constraint on what state transformations are possible, but an entire family of constraints. In particular, we find a family of free energies which generalise the traditional one, and show that they can never increase. We further find that there are three regimes which determine which family of second laws govern state transitions, depending on how cyclic the process is. In one regime one can cause an apparent violation of the usual second law, through a process of embezzling work from a large system which remains arbitrarily close to its original state. These second laws are not only relevant for small systems, but also apply to individual macroscopic systems interacting via long-range interactions, which only satisfy the ordinary second law on average. By making precise the definition of thermal operations, the laws of thermodynamics take on a simple form with the first law defining the class of thermal operations, the zeroeth law emerging as a unique condition ensuring the theory is nontrivial, and the remaining laws being a monotonicity property of our generalised free energies.
- Mar 25 2013 quant-ph arXiv:1303.5591v1A direct analysis of the protocol of randomness amplification using Bell inequality violation is performed in terms of the convex combination of no-signaling boxes required to simulate quantum violation of the inequality. The probability distributions of bits generated by a Santha-Vazirani source are shown to be mixtures of permutations of Bernoulli distributions with parameter defined by the source. An intuitive proof is provided for the range of partial randomness from which perfect randomness can be extracted using quantum correlations violating the chain inequalities. Exact values are derived in the asymptotic limit of a large number of measurement settings.
- Dec 12 2012 quant-ph arXiv:1212.2556v2We numerically investigate the statement that local random quantum circuits acting on n qubits composed of polynomially many nearest neighbour two-qubit gates form an approximate unitary poly(n)-design [F.G.S.L. Brandao et al., arXiv:1208.0692]. Using a group theory formalism, spectral gaps that give a ratio of convergence to a given t-design are evaluated for a different number of qubits n (up to 20) and degrees t (t=2,3,4 and 5), improving previously known results for n=2 in the case of t=2 and 3. Their values lead to a conclusion that the previously used lower bound that bounds spectral gaps values may give very little information about the real situation and in most cases, only tells that a gap is closed. We compare our results to the another lower bounding technique, again showing that its results may not be tight.
- Nov 01 2012 quant-ph arXiv:1210.8317v2We conjecture new uncertainty relations which restrict correlations between results of measurements performed by two separated parties on a shared quantum state. The first uncertainty relation bounds the sum of two mutual informations when one party measures a single observable and the other party measures one of two observables. The uncertainty relation does not follow from Maassen-Uffink uncertainty relation and is much stronger than Hall uncertainty relation derived from the latter. The second uncertainty relation bounds the sum of two mutual informations when each party measures one of two observables. We provide numerical evidence for validity of conjectured uncertainty relations and prove them for large classes of states and observables.
- Sep 18 2012 quant-ph arXiv:1209.3745v3Contextuality is central to both the foundations of quantum theory and to the novel information processing tasks. Although it was recognized before Bell's nonlocality, despite some recent proposals, it still faces a fundamental problem: how to quantify its presence? In this work, we provide a framework for quantifying contextuality. We conduct two complementary approaches: (i) bottom-up approach, where we introduce a communication game, which grasps the phenomenon of contextuality in a quantitative manner; (ii) top-down approach, where we just postulate two measures - relative entropy of contextuality and contextuality cost, analogous to existent measures of non-locality (a special case of contextuality). We then match the two approaches, by showing that the measure emerging from communication scenario turns out to be equal to the relative entropy of contextuality. We give analytical formulas for the proposed measures for some contextual systems. Furthermore we explore properties of these measures such as monotonicity or additivity.
- Sep 13 2012 quant-ph arXiv:1209.2683v2We introduce new teleportation protocols which are generalizations of the original teleportation protocols that use the Pauli group [Bennett, et al. Physical Review Letters, 70(13) 1895-1899] and the port-based teleportation protocols, introduced by Hiroshima and Ishizaka [Physical Review Letters, 101(24) 240501], that use the symmetric permutation group. We derive sufficient condition for a set of operations, which in general need not form a group, to give rise to a teleportation protocol and provide examples of such schemes. This generalization leads to protocols with novel properties and is needed to push forward new schemes of computation based on them. Port-based teleportation protocols and our generalizations use a large resource state consisting of N singlets to teleport only a single qubit state reliably. We provide two distinct protocols which recycle the resource state to teleport multiple states with error linearly increasing with their number. The first protocol consists of sequentially teleporting qubit states, and the second teleports them in a bulk.
- Sep 12 2012 quant-ph arXiv:1209.2162v1We review the basic idea behind resource theories, where we quantify quantum resources by specifying a restricted class of operations. This divides the state space into various sets, including states which are free (because they can be created under the class of operations), and those which are a resource (because they cannot be). One can quantify the worth of the resource by the relative entropy distance to the set of free states, and under certain conditions, this is a unique measure which quantifies the rate of state to state transitions. The framework includes entanglement, asymmetry and purity theory. It also includes thermodynamics, which is a hybrid resource theory combining purity theory and asymmetry. Another hybrid resource theory which merges purity theory and entanglement can be used to study quantumness of correlations and discord, and we present quantumness in this more general framework of resource theories.
- Aug 06 2012 quant-ph arXiv:1208.0692v3We prove that local random quantum circuits acting on n qubits composed of O(t^10 n^2) many nearest neighbor two-qubit gates form an approximate unitary t-design. Previously it was unknown whether random quantum circuits were a t-design for any t > 3. The proof is based on an interplay of techniques from quantum many-body theory, representation theory, and the theory of Markov chains. In particular we employ a result of Nachtergaele for lower bounding the spectral gap of frustration-free quantum local Hamiltonians; a quasi-orthogonality property of permutation matrices; a result of Oliveira which extends to the unitary group the path-coupling method for bounding the mixing time of random walks; and a result of Bourgain and Gamburd showing that dense subgroups of the special unitary group, composed of elements with algebraic entries, are infty-copy tensor-product expanders. We also consider pseudo-randomness properties of local random quantum circuits of small depth and prove that circuits of depth O(t^10n) constitute a quantum t-copy tensor-product expander. The proof also rests on techniques from quantum many-body theory, in particular on the detectability lemma of Aharonov, Arad, Landau, and Vazirani. We give applications of the results to cryptography, equilibration of closed quantum dynamics, and the generation of topological order. In particular we show the following pseudo-randomness property of generic quantum circuits: Almost every circuit U of size O(n^k) on n qubits cannot be distinguished from a Haar uniform unitary by circuits of size O(n^(k-9)/11) that are given oracle access to U.
- We prove that a finite correlation length, i.e. exponential decay of correlations, implies an area law for the entanglement entropy of quantum states defined on a line. The entropy bound is exponential in the correlation length of the state, thus reproducing as a particular case Hastings proof of an area law for groundstates of 1D gapped Hamiltonians. As a consequence, we show that 1D quantum states with exponential decay of correlations have an efficient classical approximate description as a matrix product state of polynomial bond dimension, thus giving an equivalence between injective matrix product states and states with a finite correlation length. The result can be seen as a rigorous justification, in one dimension, of the intuition that states with exponential decay of correlations, usually associated with non-critical phases of matter, are simple to describe. It also has implications for quantum computing: It shows that unless a pure state quantum computation involves states with long-range correlations, decaying at most algebraically with the distance, it can be efficiently simulated classically. The proof relies on several previous tools from quantum information theory - including entanglement distillation protocols achieving the hashing bound, properties of single-shot smooth entropies, and the quantum substate theorem - and also on some newly developed ones. In particular we derive a new bound on correlations established by local random measurements, and we give a generalization to the max-entropy of a result of Hastings concerning the saturation of mutual information in multiparticle systems. The proof can also be interpreted as providing a limitation on the phenomenon of data hiding in quantum states.
- Feb 07 2012 quant-ph arXiv:1202.1016v5The problem of sharing entanglement over large distances is crucial for implementations of quantum cryptography. A possible scheme for long-distance entanglement sharing and quantum communication exploits networks whose nodes share Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) pairs. In Perseguers et al. [Phys. Rev. A 78, 062324 (2008)] the authors put forward an important isomorphism between storing quantum information in a dimension $D$ and transmission of quantum information in a $D+1$-dimensional network. We show that it is possible to obtain long-distance entanglement in a noisy two-dimensional (2D) network, even when taking into account that encoding and decoding of a state is exposed to an error. For 3D networks we propose a simple encoding and decoding scheme based solely on syndrome measurements on 2D Kitaev topological quantum memory. Our procedure constitutes an alternative scheme of state injection that can be used for universal quantum computation on 2D Kitaev code. It is shown that the encoding scheme is equivalent to teleporting the state, from a specific node into a whole two-dimensional network, through some virtual EPR pair existing within the rest of network qubits. We present an analytic lower bound on fidelity of the encoding and decoding procedure, using as our main tool a modified metric on space-time lattice, deviating from a taxicab metric at the first and the last time slices.
- We analyze a region of fidelities for qubit which is obtained after an application of a 1 -> N universal quantum cloner. We express the allowed region for fidelities in terms of overlaps of pure states with irreps of S(n) (n = N+1) showing that the pure states can be taken with real coefficients only. Subsequently, the case n = 4, corresponding to a 1 -> 3 cloner is studied in more detail as an illustrative example. To obtain the main result, we make a convex hull of possible ranges of fidelities related to a given irrep. The formalism allows to construct the state giving rise to a given N-tuple of fidelities.
- Nov 17 2011 quant-ph arXiv:1111.3882v3The ideas of thermodynamics have proved fruitful in the setting of quantum information theory, in particular the notion that when the allowed transformations of a system are restricted, certain states of the system become useful resources with which one can prepare previously inaccessible states. The theory of entanglement is perhaps the best-known and most well-understood resource theory in this sense. Here we return to the basic questions of thermodynamics using the formalism of resource theories developed in quantum information theory and show that the free energy of thermodynamics emerges naturally from the resource theory of energy-preserving transformations. Specifically, the free energy quantifies the amount of useful work which can be extracted from asymptotically-many copies of a quantum system when using only reversible energy-preserving transformations and a thermal bath at fixed temperature. The free energy also quantifies the rate at which resource states can be reversibly interconverted asymptotically, provided that a sublinear amount of coherent superposition over energy levels is available, a situation analogous to the sublinear amount of classical communication required for entanglement dilution.
- The relationship between thermodynamics and statistical physics is valid in the thermodynamic limit - when the number of particles becomes very large. Here, we study thermodynamics in the opposite regime - at both the nano scale, and when quantum effects become important. Applying results from quantum information theory we construct a theory of thermodynamics in these limits. We derive general criteria for thermodynamical state transformations, and as special cases, find two free energies: one that quantifies the deterministically extractable work from a small system in contact with a heat bath, and the other that quantifies the reverse process. We find that there are fundamental limitations on work extraction from nonequilibrium states, owing to finite size effects and quantum coherences. This implies that thermodynamical transitions are generically irreversible at this scale. As one application of these methods, we analyse the efficiency of small heat engines and find that they are irreversible during the adiabatic stages of the cycle.
- Nov 09 2011 quant-ph arXiv:1111.1781v3We deal with families of probability distributions satisfying non-signalling condition, called non-signalling boxes and consider class of operations that transform local boxes into local ones (the one that admit LHV model). We prove that any operation from this class can not broadcast a nonlocal box in 2x2 case. We consider a function called anti-Robustness which can not decrease under these operations. The proof reduces to showing that anti-Robustness would decrease after broadcasting.
- Sep 20 2011 quant-ph arXiv:1109.3904v1We consider distillation of entanglement from two qubit states which are mixtures of three mutually orthogonal states: two pure entangled states and one pure product state. We distill entanglement from such states by projecting n copies of the state on permutationally invariant subspace and then applying one-way hashing protocol. We find analytical expressions for the rate of the protocol. We also generalize this method to higher dimensional systems. To get analytical expression for two qubit case, we faced a mathematical problem of diagonalizing a family of matrices enjoying some symmetries w.r.t. to symmetric group. We have solved this problem in two ways: (i) directly, by use of Schur-Weyl decomposition and Young symmetrizers (ii) showing that the problem is equivalent to a problem of diagonalizing adjacency matrices in a particular instance of a so called algebraic association scheme.
- Sep 09 2011 quant-ph arXiv:1109.1779v3It is known that from entangled states that have positive partial transpose it is not possible to distill maximally entangled states by local operations and classical communication (LOCC). A long-standing open question is whether maximally entangled states can be distilled from every state with a non-positive partial transpose. In this paper we study a possible approach to the question consisting of enlarging the class of operations allowed. Namely, instead of LOCC operations we consider k-extendible operations, defined as maps whose Choi-Jamiolkowski state is k-extendible. We find that this class is unexpectedly powerful - e.g. it is capable of distilling EPR pairs even from product states. We also perform numerical studies of distillation of Werner states by those maps, which show that if we raise the extension index k simultaneously with the number of copies of the state, then the class of k-extendible operations is not that powerful anymore and provide a better approximation to the set of LOCC operations.
- We analyze equilibration times of subsystems of a larger system under a random total Hamiltonian, in which the basis of the Hamiltonian is drawn from the Haar measure. We obtain that the time of equilibration is of the order of the inverse of the arithmetic average of the Bohr frequencies. To compute the average over a random basis, we compute the inverse of a matrix of overlaps of operators which permute four systems. We first obtain results on such a matrix for a representation of an arbitrary finite group and then apply it to the particular representation of the permutation group under consideration.
- Entangled inputs can enhance the capacity of quantum channels, this being one of the consequences of the celebrated result showing the non-additivity of several quantities relevant for quantum information science. In this work, we answer the converse question (whether entangled inputs can ever render noisy quantum channels have maximum capacity) to the negative: No sophisticated entangled input of any quantum channel can ever enhance the capacity to the maximum possible value; a result that holds true for all channels both for the classical as well as the quantum capacity. This result can hence be seen as a bound as to how "non-additive quantum information can be". As a main result, we find first practical and remarkably simple computable single-shot bounds to capacities, related to entanglement measures. As examples, we discuss the qubit amplitude damping and identify the first meaningful bound for its classical capacity.
- Oct 19 2010 quant-ph arXiv:1010.3654v2A central problem in quantum computation is to understand which quantum circuits are useful for exponential speed-ups over classical computation. We address this question in the setting of query complexity and show that for almost any sufficiently long quantum circuit one can construct a black-box problem which is solved by the circuit with a constant number of quantum queries, but which requires exponentially many classical queries, even if the classical machine has the ability to postselect. We prove the result in two steps. In the first, we show that almost any element of an approximate unitary 3-design is useful to solve a certain black-box problem efficiently. The problem is based on a recent oracle construction of Aaronson and gives an exponential separation between quantum and classical bounded-error with postselection query complexities. In the second step, which may be of independent interest, we prove that linear-sized random quantum circuits give an approximate unitary 3-design. The key ingredient in the proof is a technique from quantum many-body theory to lower bound the spectral gap of local quantum Hamiltonians.
- Aug 09 2010 quant-ph arXiv:1008.1226v2We provide a class of bound entangled states that have positive distillable secure key rate. The smallest state of this kind is 4 \bigotimes 4. Our class is a generalization of the class presented in [1] (IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory 54, 2621 (2008); arXiv:quant-ph/0506203). It is much wider, containing, in particular, states from the boundary of PPT entangled states (all of the states in the class in [1] were of this kind) but also states inside the set of PPT entangled states, even, approaching the separable states. This generalization comes with a price: for the wider class a positive key rate requires, in general, apart from the one-way Devetak-Winter protocol (used in [1]) also the recurrence preprocessing and thus effectively is a two-way protocol. We also analyze the amount of noise that can be admixtured to the states of our class without losing key distillability property which may be crucial for experimental realization. The wider class contains key-distillable states with higher entropy (up to 3.524, as opposed to 2.564 for the class in [1]).
- Jun 03 2010 quant-ph arXiv:1006.0468v1The discovery of quantum key distribution by Bennett and Brassard (BB84) bases on the fundamental quantum feature: incompatibility of measurements of quantum non-commuting observables. In 1991 Ekert showed that cryptographic key can be generated at a distance with help of entangled (correlated) quantum particles. Recently Barrett, Hardy and Kent showed that the non-locality used by Ekert is itself a good resource of cryptographic key even beyond quantum mechanics. Their result paved the way to new generation of quantum cryptographic protocols - secure even if the devices are built by the very eavesdropper. However, there is a question, which is fundamental from both practical and philosophical point of view: does Nature offer security on operational level based on the original concept behind quantum cryptography - that information gain about one observable must cause disturbance to another, incompatible one? Here we resolve this problem by using another striking feature of quantum world - contextuality. It is a strong version of incompatibility manifested in the famous Kochen-Specker paradox. The crucial concept is the use of a new class of families of bipartite probability distributions . We show that if two persons share systems which locally exhibit the Kochen-Specker paradox and, in addition, exhibit perfect correlations, then they can extract secure key, even if they do not trust the quantum devices. This is the first operational protocol that directly implements the fundamental feature of Nature: the information gain vs. disturbance trade-off. For sake of proof we exhibit a new Bell's inequality which is interesting in itself. The security is proved not by exploiting strong violation of the inequality by quantum mechanics (as one usually proceeds), but rather by arguing, that quantum mechanics cannot violate it too much.
- Feb 12 2010 quant-ph arXiv:1002.2410v2The discovery of quantum key distribution by Bennett and Brassard (BB84) bases on the fundamental quantum feature: incompatibility of measurements of quantum non-commuting observables. In 1991 Ekert showed that cryptographic key can be generated at a distance with help of entangled (correlated) quantum particles. Recently Barrett, Hardy and Kent showed that the non-locality used by Ekert is itself a good resource of cryptographic key even beyond quantum mechanics. Their result paved the way to new generation of quantum cryptographic protocols - secure even if the devices are built by the very eavesdropper. However, there is a question, which is fundamental from both practical and philosophical point of view: does Nature offer security on operational level based on the original concept behind quantum cryptography - that information gain about one bservables must cause disturbance to another, incompatible one? Here we resolve this problem by using in place of non-locality another striking feature of quantum world - contextuality. It is a strong version of incompatibility manifested in the famous Kochen-Specker paradox. The crucial concept is the use of a new class of families of bipartite probability distributions which locally exhibit the Kochen-Specker paradox conditions and, in addition, exhibit perfect correlations. We show that if two persons share systems described by such a family then they can extract secure key. This is the first operational protocol that directly implements the fundamental feature of Nature: the information gain vs. disturbance trade-off. At the same time it provides natural device-independent cryptographic scheme within quantum mechanics suitable for current technology.
- We present a constructive example of violation of additivity of minimum output Rényi entropy for each p>2. The example is provided by antisymmetric subspace of a suitable dimension. We discuss possibility of extension of the result to go beyond p>2 and obtain additivity for p=0 for a class of entanglement breaking channels.
- Jul 31 2009 quant-ph arXiv:0907.5228v2Is the notion of a quantum computer resilient to thermal noise unphysical? We address this question from a constructive perspective and show that local quantum Hamiltonian models provide self-correcting quantum computers. To this end, we first give a sufficient condition on the connect- edness of excitations for a stabilizer code model to be a self-correcting quantum memory. We then study the two main examples of topological stabilizer codes in arbitrary dimensions and establish their self-correcting capabilities. Also, we address the transversality properties of topological color codes, showing that 6D color codes provide a self-correcting model that allows the transversal and local implementation of a universal set of operations in seven spatial dimensions. Finally, we give a procedure to initialize such quantum memories at finite temperature.
- Jul 21 2009 quant-ph arXiv:0907.3210v1Hastings recently reported a randomized construction of channels violating the minimum output entropy additivity conjecture. Here we revisit his argument, presenting a simplified proof. In particular, we do not resort to the exact probability distribution of the Schmidt coefficients of a random bipartite pure state, as in the original proof, but rather derive the necessary large deviation bounds by a concentration of measure argument. Furthermore, we prove non-additivity for the overwhelming majority of channels consisting of a Haar random isometry followed by partial trace over the environment, for an environment dimension much bigger than the output dimension. This makes Hastings' original reasoning clearer and extends the class of channels for which additivity can be shown to be violated.
- Feb 06 2009 quant-ph arXiv:0902.0912v2We introduce the concept of mutual independence -- correlations shared between distant parties which are independent of the environment. This notion is more general than the standard idea of a secret key -- it is a fully quantum and more general form of privacy. The states which possess mutual independence also generalize the so called private states -- those that possess private key. We then show that the problem of distributed compression of quantum information at distant sources can be solved in terms of mutual independence, if free entanglement between the senders and the receiver is available. Namely, we obtain a formula for the sum of rates of qubits needed to transmit a distributed state between Alice and Bob to a decoder Charlie. We also show that mutual independence is bounded from above by the relative entropy modulo a conjecture, saying that if after removal of a single qubit the state becomes product, its initial entanglement is bounded by 1. We suspect that mutual independence is a highly singular quantity, i.e. that it is positive only on a set of measure zero; furthermore, we believe that its presence is seen on the single copy level. This appears to be born out in the classical case.
- Nov 04 2008 quant-ph arXiv:0811.0033v1We analyse stability of the four-dimensional Kitaev model - a candidate for scalable quantum memory - in finite temperature within the weak coupling Markovian limit. It is shown that, below a critical temperature, certain topological qubit observables X and Z possess relaxation times exponentially long in the size of the system. Their construction involves polynomial in system's size algorithm which uses as an input the results of measurements performed on all individual spins. We also discuss the drawbacks of such candidate for quantum memory and mention the implications of the stability of qubit for statistical mechanics.
- Oct 28 2008 quant-ph arXiv:0810.4584v1The thermalization process of the 2D Kitaev model is studied within the Markovian weak coupling approximation. It is shown that its largest relaxation time is bounded from above by a constant independent of the system size and proportional to $\exp(2\Delta/kT)$ where $\Delta$ is an energy gap over the 4-fold degenerate ground state. This means that the 2D Kitaev model is not an example of a memory, neither quantum nor classical.
- Oct 09 2008 quant-ph arXiv:0810.1310v1We show that the global balance of information dynamics for general quantum measurements given in [F. Buscemi, M. Hayashi, and M. Horodecki, Phys.Rev.Lett. 100, 210504 (2008)] makes it possible to unify various and generally inequivalent approaches adopted in order to derive information-disturbance tradeoffs in quantum theory. We focus in particular on those tradeoffs, constituting the vast majority of the literature on the subject, where disturbance is defined either in terms of average output fidelity or of entanglement fidelity.