results for au:Hirche_C in:quant-ph

- We extend quantum Stein's lemma in asymmetric quantum hypothesis testing to composite null and alternative hypotheses. As our main result, we show that the asymptotic error exponent for testing convex combinations of quantum states $\rho^{\otimes n}$ against convex combinations of quantum states $\sigma^{\otimes n}$ is given by a regularized quantum relative entropy distance formula. We prove that in general such a regularization is needed but also discuss various settings where our formula as well as extensions thereof become single-letter. This includes a novel operational interpretation of the relative entropy of coherence in terms of hypothesis testing. For our proof, we start from the composite Stein's lemma for classical probability distributions and lift the result to the non-commutative setting by only using elementary properties of quantum entropy. Finally, our findings also imply an improved Markov type lower bound on the quantum conditional mutual information in terms of the regularized quantum relative entropy - featuring an explicit and universal recovery map.
- "Bounds on information combining" are entropic inequalities that determine how the information (entropy) of a set of random variables can change when these are combined in certain prescribed ways. Such bounds play an important role in classical information theory, particularly in coding and Shannon theory; entropy power inequalities are special instances of them. The arguably most elementary kind of information combining is the addition of two binary random variables (a CNOT gate), and the resulting quantities play an important role in Belief propagation and Polar coding. We investigate this problem in the setting where quantum side information is available, which has been recognized as a hard setting for entropy power inequalities. Our main technical result is a non-trivial, and close to optimal, lower bound on the combined entropy, which can be seen as an almost optimal "quantum Mrs. Gerber's Lemma". Our proof uses three main ingredients: (1) a new bound on the concavity of von Neumann entropy, which is tight in the regime of low pairwise state fidelities; (2) the quantitative improvement of strong subadditivity due to Fawzi-Renner, in which we manage to handle the minimization over recovery maps; (3) recent duality results on classical-quantum-channels due to Renes et al. We furthermore present conjectures on the optimal lower and upper bounds under quantum side information, supported by interesting analytical observations and strong numerical evidence. We finally apply our bounds to Polar coding for binary-input classical-quantum channels, and show the following three results: (A) Even non-stationary channels polarize under the polar transform. (B) The blocklength required to approach the symmetric capacity scales at most sub-exponentially in the gap to capacity. (C) Under the aforementioned lower bound conjecture, a blocklength polynomial in the gap suffices.
- Many determinantal inequalities for positive definite block matrices are consequences of general entropy inequalities, specialised to Gaussian distributed vectors with prescribed covariances. In particular, strong subadditivity (SSA) yields \beginequation* \ln\det V_AC + \ln\det V_BC - \ln\det V_ABC - \ln\det V_C ≥0 \endequation* for all $3\times 3$-block matrices $V_{ABC}$, where subscripts identify principal submatrices. We shall refer to the above inequality as SSA of log-det entropy. In this paper we develop further insights on the properties of the above inequality and its applications to classical and quantum information theory. In the first part of the paper, we show how to find known and new necessary and sufficient conditions under which saturation with equality occurs. Subsequently, we discuss the role of the classical transpose channel (also known as Petz recovery map) in this problem and find its action explicitly. We then prove some extensions of the saturation theorem, by finding faithful lower bounds on a log-det conditional mutual information. In the second part, we focus on quantum Gaussian states, whose covariance matrices are not only positive but obey additional constraints due to the uncertainty relation. For Gaussian states, the log-det entropy is equivalent to the Rényi entropy of order $2$. We provide a strengthening of log-det SSA for quantum covariance matrices that involves the so-called Gaussian Rényi-$2$ entanglement of formation, a well-behaved entanglement measure defined via a Gaussian convex roof construction. We then employ this result to define a log-det entropy equivalent of the squashed entanglement, which is remarkably shown to coincide with the Gaussian Rényi-$2$ entanglement of formation. This allows us to establish useful properties of such measure(s), like monogamy, faithfulness, and additivity on Gaussian states.
- We investigate the ability of a quantum measurement device to discriminate two states or, generically, two hypothesis. In full generality, the measurement can be performed a number $n$ of times, and arbitrary pre-processing of the states and post-processing of the obtained data is allowed. Even if the two hypothesis correspond to orthogonal states, perfect discrimination is not always possible. There is thus an intrinsic error associated to the measurement device, which we aim to quantify, that limits its discrimination power. We minimize various error probabilities (averaged or constrained) over all pairs of $n$-partite input states. These probabilities, or their exponential rates of decrease in the case of large $n$, give measures of the discrimination power of the device. For the asymptotic rate of the averaged error probability, we obtain a Chernoff-type bound, dual to the standard Chernoff bound for which the state pair is fixed and the optimization is over all measurements. The key point in the derivation is that i.i.d. states become optimal in asymptotic settings. Minimum asymptotic rates are also obtained for constrained error probabilities, dual to Stein's Lemma and Hoeffding's bound. We further show that adaptive protocols where the state preparer gets feedback from the measurer do not improve the asymptotic rates. These rates thus quantify the ultimate discrimination power of a measurement device.
- We provide new constructions of unitary $t$-designs for general $t$ on one qudit and $N$ qubits, and propose a design Hamiltonian, a random Hamiltonian of which dynamics always forms a unitary design after a threshold time, as a basic framework to investigate randomising time evolution in quantum many-body systems. The new constructions are based on recently proposed schemes of repeating random unitaires diagonal in mutually unbiased bases. We first show that, if a pair of the bases satisfies a certain condition, the process on one qudit approximately forms a unitary $t$-design after $O(t)$ repetitions. We then construct quantum circuits on $N$ qubits that achieve unitary $t$-designs for $t = o(N^{1/2})$ using $O(t N^2)$ gates, improving the previous result using $O(t^{10}N^2)$ gates in terms of $t$. Based on these results, we present a design Hamiltonian with periodically changing two-local spin-glass-type interactions, leading to fast and relatively natural realisations of unitary designs in complex many-body systems.
- We derive fundamental constraints for the Schur complement of positive matrices, which provide an operator strengthening to recently established information inequalities for quantum covariance matrices, including strong subadditivity. This allows us to prove general results on the monogamy of entanglement and steering quantifiers in continuous variable systems with an arbitrary number of modes per party. A powerful hierarchical relation for correlation measures based on the log-determinant of covariance matrices is further established for all Gaussian states, which has no counterpart among quantities based on the conventional von Neumann entropy.
- Dec 17 2015 quant-ph arXiv:1512.05324v3Several information measures have recently been defined which capture the notion of "recoverability." In particular, the fidelity of recovery quantifies how well one can recover a system $A$ of a tripartite quantum state, defined on systems $ABC$, by acting on system $C$ alone. The relative entropy of recovery is an associated measure in which the fidelity is replaced by relative entropy. In this paper, we provide concrete operational interpretations of the aforementioned recovery measures in terms of a computational decision problem and a hypothesis testing scenario. Specifically, we show that the fidelity of recovery is equal to the maximum probability with which a computationally unbounded quantum prover can convince a computationally bounded quantum verifier that a given quantum state is recoverable. The quantum interactive proof system giving this operational meaning requires four messages exchanged between the prover and verifier, but by forcing the prover to perform his actions in superposition, we construct a different proof system that requires only two messages. The result is that the associated decision problem is in QIP(2) and another argument establishes it as hard for QSZK (both classes contain problems believed to be difficult to solve for a quantum computer). We finally prove that the regularized relative entropy of recovery is equal to the optimal Type II error exponent when trying to distinguish many copies of a tripartite state from a recovered version of this state, such that the Type I error is constrained to be no larger than a constant.
- Sep 18 2015 quant-ph arXiv:1509.05155v5We investigate decoupling, one of the most important primitives in quantum Shannon theory, by replacing the uniformly distributed random unitaries commonly used to achieve the protocol, with repeated applications of random unitaries diagonal in the Pauli-$Z$ and -$X$ bases. This strategy was recently shown to achieve an approximate unitary $2$-design after a number of repetitions of the process, which implies that the strategy gradually achieves decoupling. Here, we prove that even fewer repetitions of the process achieve decoupling at the same rate as that with the uniform ones, showing that rather imprecise approximations of unitary $2$-designs are sufficient for decoupling. We also briefly discuss efficient implementations of them and implications of our decoupling theorem to coherent state merging and relative thermalisation.
- Feb 27 2015 quant-ph arXiv:1502.07514v4Unitary $2$-designs are random unitaries simulating up to the second order statistical moments of the uniformly distributed random unitaries, often referred to as Haar random unitaries. They are used in a wide variety of theoretical and practical quantum information protocols, and also have been used to model the dynamics in complex quantum many-body systems. Here, we show that unitary $2$-designs can be approximately implemented by alternately repeating random unitaries diagonal in the Pauli-$Z$ basis and that in the Pauli-$X$ basis. We also provide a converse about the number of repetitions needed to achieve unitary $2$-designs. These results imply that the process after $\ell$ repetitions achieves a $\Theta(d^{-\ell})$-approximate unitary $2$-design. Based on the construction, we further provide quantum circuits that efficiently implement approximate unitary $2$-designs. Although a more efficient implementation of unitary $2$-designs is known, our quantum circuit has its own merit that it is divided into a constant number of commuting parts, which enables us to apply all commuting gates simultaneously and leads to a possible reduction of an actual execution time. We finally interpret the result in terms of the dynamics generated by time-dependent Hamiltonians and provide for the first time a random disordered time-dependent Hamiltonian that generates a unitary $2$-design after switching interactions only a few times.
- We present a new achievable rate region for the two-user binary-input classical-quantum broadcast channel. The result is a generalization of the classical Marton-Gelfand-Pinsker region and is provably larger than the best previously known rate region for classical-quantum broadcast channels. The proof of achievability is based on the recently introduced polar coding scheme and its generalization to quantum network information theory.
- Polar codes are the first capacity achieving and efficiently implementable codes for classical communication. Recently they have also been generalized to communication over classical-quantum and quantum channels. In this work we present our recent results for polar coding in quantum information theory, including applications to classical-quantum multiple access channels, interference channels and compound communication settings, including the first proof of channel coding achieving the Han-Kobayashi rate region of the interference channel without the need of a simultaneous decoder. Moreover we add to the existing framework by extending polar codes to achieve the asymmetric capacity and improving the block error probability for classical-quantum channels. In addition we use polar codes to prove a new achievable rate region for the classical-quantum broadcast channel. We also discuss polar codes for quantum communication over quantum channels and state results towards codes for compound quantum channels in this setting. We conclude by stating a list of interesting open questions to invite further research on the topic.
- Polar coding is a method for communication over noisy classical channels which is provably capacity-achieving and has an efficient encoding and decoding. Recently, this method has been generalized to the realm of quantum information processing, for tasks such as classical communication, private classical communication, and quantum communication. In the present work, we apply the polar coding method to network quantum information theory, by making use of recent advances for related classical tasks. In particular, we consider problems such as the compound multiple access channel and the quantum interference channel. The main result of our work is that it is possible to achieve the best known inner bounds on the achievable rate regions for these tasks, without requiring a so-called quantum simultaneous decoder. Thus, our work paves the way for developing network quantum information theory further without requiring a quantum simultaneous decoder.
- Proving achievability of protocols in quantum Shannon theory usually does not consider the efficiency at which the goal of the protocol can be achieved. Nevertheless it is known that protocols such as coherent state merging are efficiently achievable at optimal rate. We aim to investigate this fact further in a general one-shot setting, by considering certain classes of decoupling theorems and give exact rates for these classes. Moreover we compare results of general decoupling theorems using Haar distributed unitaries with those using smaller sets of operators, in particular $\epsilon$-approximate 2-designs. We also observe the behavior of our rates in special cases such as $\epsilon$ approaching zero and the asymptotic limit.