results for au:Hinderer_T in:gr-qc

- Mar 01 2018 gr-qc astro-ph.CO arXiv:1802.10194v2The detection of gravitational waves with Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo has enabled novel tests of general relativity, including direct study of the polarization of gravitational waves. While general relativity allows for only two tensor gravitational-wave polarizations, general metric theories can additionally predict two vector and two scalar polarizations. The polarization of gravitational waves is encoded in the spectral shape of the stochastic gravitational-wave background, formed by the superposition of cosmological and individually-unresolved astrophysical sources. Using data recorded by Advanced LIGO during its first observing run, we search for a stochastic background of generically-polarized gravitational waves. We find no evidence for a background of any polarization, and place the first direct bounds on the contributions of vector and scalar polarizations to the stochastic background. Under log-uniform priors for the energy in each polarization, we limit the energy-densities of tensor, vector, and scalar modes at 95% credibility to $\Omega^T_0 < 5.6 \times 10^{-8}$, $\Omega^V_0 < 6.4\times 10^{-8}$, and $\Omega^S_0 < 1.1\times 10^{-7}$ at a reference frequency $f_0 = 25$ Hz.
- Feb 15 2018 gr-qc arXiv:1802.05241v1We report on a new all-sky search for periodic gravitational waves in the frequency band 475-2000 Hz and with a frequency time derivative in the range of [-1.0e-8, +1e-9] Hz/s. Potential signals could be produced by a nearby spinning and slightly non-axisymmetric isolated neutron star in our galaxy. This search uses the data from Advanced LIGO's first observational run O1. No gravitational wave signals were observed, and upper limits were placed on their strengths. For completeness, results from the separately published low frequency search 20-475 Hz are included as well. Our lowest upper limit on worst-case (linearly polarized) strain amplitude h_0 is 4e-25 near 170 Hz, while at the high end of our frequency range we achieve a worst-case upper limit of 1.3e-24. For a circularly polarized source (most favorable orientation), the smallest upper limit obtained is ~1.5e-25.
- Jan 31 2018 gr-qc arXiv:1801.09972v1LIGO and Virgo recently observed the first binary neutron star merger, demonstrating that gravitational-waves offer the ability to probe how matter behaves in one of the most extreme environments in the Universe. However, the gravitational-wave signal emitted by an inspiraling binary neutron star system is only weakly dependent on the equation of state and extracting this information is challenging. Previous studies have focused mainly on binary systems where the neutron stars are spinning slowly and the main imprint of neutron star matter in the inspiral signal is due to tidal effects. For binaries with non-negligible neutron-star spin the deformation of the neutron star due to its own rotation introduces additional variations in the emitted gravitational-wave signal. Here we explore whether highly spinning binary neutron-star systems offer a better chance to measure the equation-of-state than weakly spinning binary-neutron star systems. We focus on the dominant adiabatic quadrupolar effects and consider three main questions. First, we show that equation-of-state effects can be significant in the inspiral waveforms, and that the spin-quadrupole effect dominates for rapidly rotating neutron stars. Second, we show that variations in the spin-quadrupole phasing are strongly degenerate with changes in the component masses and spins, and neglecting these terms has a negligible impact on the number of observations with second generation observatories. Finally, we explore the bias in the masses and spins that would be introduced by using incorrect equation-of-state terms. Using a novel method to rapidly evaluate an approximation of the likelihood we show that assuming the incorrect equation-of-state when measuring source parameters can lead to a significant bias. We also find that the ability to measure the equation-of-state is improved when considering spinning systems.
- Nov 16 2017 astro-ph.HE gr-qc arXiv:1711.05578v1On June 8, 2017 at 02:01:16.49 UTC, a gravitational-wave signal from the merger of two stellar-mass black holes was observed by the two Advanced LIGO detectors with a network signal-to-noise ratio of 13. This system is the lightest black hole binary so far observed, with component masses $12^{+7}_{-2}\,M_\odot$ and $7^{+2}_{-2}\,M_\odot$ (90% credible intervals). These lie in the range of measured black hole masses in low-mass X-ray binaries, thus allowing us to compare black holes detected through gravitational waves with electromagnetic observations. The source's luminosity distance is $340^{+140}_{-140}$ Mpc, corresponding to redshift $0.07^{+0.03}_{-0.03}$. We verify that the signal waveform is consistent with the predictions of general relativity.
- Oct 26 2017 astro-ph.HE gr-qc arXiv:1710.09320v1The first observation of a binary neutron star coalescence by the Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo gravitational-wave detectors offers an unprecedented opportunity to study matter under the most extreme conditions. After such a merger, a compact remnant is left over whose nature depends primarily on the masses of the inspiralling objects and on the equation of state of nuclear matter. This could be either a black hole or a neutron star (NS), with the latter being either long-lived or too massive for stability implying delayed collapse to a black hole. Here, we present a search for gravitational waves from the remnant of the binary neutron star merger GW170817 using data from Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo. We search for short ($\lesssim1$ s) and intermediate-duration ($\lesssim 500$ s) signals, which includes gravitational-wave emission from a hypermassive NS or supramassive NS, respectively. We find no signal from the post-merger remnant. Our derived strain upper limits are more than an order of magnitude larger than those predicted by most models. For short signals, our best upper limit on the root-sum-square of the gravitational-wave strain emitted from 1--4 kHz is $h_{\rm rss}^{50\%}=2.1\times 10^{-22}$ Hz$^{-1/2}$ at 50% detection efficiency. For intermediate-duration signals, our best upper limit at 50% detection efficiency is $h_{\rm rss}^{50\%}=8.4\times 10^{-22}$ Hz$^{-1/2}$ for a millisecond magnetar model, and $h_{\rm rss}^{50\%}=5.9\times 10^{-22}$ Hz$^{-1/2}$ for a bar-mode model. These results indicate that post-merger emission from a similar event may be detectable when advanced detectors reach design sensitivity or with next-generation detectors.
- Oct 17 2017 gr-qc arXiv:1710.05837v1The LIGO Scientific and Virgo Collaborations have announced the first detection of gravitational waves from the coalescence of two neutron stars. The merger rate of binary neutron stars estimated from this event suggests that distant, unresolvable binary neutron stars create a significant astrophysical stochastic gravitational-wave background. The binary neutron star background will add to the background from binary black holes, increasing the amplitude of the total astrophysical background relative to previous expectations. In the Advanced LIGO-Virgo frequency band most sensitive to stochastic backgrounds (near 25 Hz), we predict a total astrophysical background with amplitude $\Omega_{\rm GW} (f=25 \text{Hz}) = 1.8_{-1.3}^{+2.7} \times 10^{-9}$ with $90\%$ confidence, compared with $\Omega_{\rm GW} (f=25 \text{Hz}) = 1.1_{-0.7}^{+1.2} \times 10^{-9}$ from binary black holes alone. Assuming the most probable rate for compact binary mergers, we find that the total background may be detectable with a signal-to-noise-ratio of 3 after 40 months of total observation time, based on the expected timeline for Advanced LIGO and Virgo to reach their design sensitivity.
- Oct 09 2017 gr-qc astro-ph.HE arXiv:1710.02327v2Spinning neutron stars asymmetric with respect to their rotation axis are potential sources of continuous gravitational waves for ground-based interferometric detectors. In the case of known pulsars a fully coherent search, based on matched filtering, which uses the position and rotational parameters obtained from electromagnetic observations, can be carried out. Matched filtering maximizes the signal-to-noise (SNR) ratio, but a large sensitivity loss is expected in case of even a very small mismatch between the assumed and the true signal parameters. For this reason, \it narrow-band analyses methods have been developed, allowing a fully coherent search for gravitational waves from known pulsars over a fraction of a hertz and several spin-down values. In this paper we describe a narrow-band search of eleven pulsars using data from Advanced LIGO's first observing run. Although we have found several initial outliers, further studies show no significant evidence for the presence of a gravitational wave signal. Finally, we have placed upper limits on the signal strain amplitude lower than the spin-down limit for 5 of the 11 targets over the bands searched: in the case of J1813-1749 the spin-down limit has been beaten for the first time. For an additional 3 targets, the median upper limit across the search bands is below the spin-down limit. This is the most sensitive narrow-band search for continuous gravitational waves carried out so far.
- Sep 28 2017 gr-qc astro-ph.HE arXiv:1709.09660v3On August 14, 2017 at 10:30:43 UTC, the Advanced Virgo detector and the two Advanced LIGO detectors coherently observed a transient gravitational-wave signal produced by the coalescence of two stellar mass black holes, with a false-alarm-rate of $\lesssim$ 1 in 27000 years. The signal was observed with a three-detector network matched-filter signal-to-noise ratio of 18. The inferred masses of the initial black holes are $30.5_{-3.0}^{+5.7}$ Msun and $25.3_{-4.2}^{+2.8}$ Msun (at the 90% credible level). The luminosity distance of the source is $540_{-210}^{+130}~\mathrm{Mpc}$, corresponding to a redshift of $z=0.11_{-0.04}^{+0.03}$. A network of three detectors improves the sky localization of the source, reducing the area of the 90% credible region from 1160 deg$^2$ using only the two LIGO detectors to 60 deg$^2$ using all three detectors. For the first time, we can test the nature of gravitational wave polarizations from the antenna response of the LIGO-Virgo network, thus enabling a new class of phenomenological tests of gravity.
- Jul 27 2017 gr-qc arXiv:1707.08426v2We develop the foundations of an effective-one-body (EOB) model for eccentric binary coalescences that includes the conservative dynamics, radiation reaction, and gravitational waveform modes from the inspiral and the merger-ringdown signals. We use the same approach as is commonly employed in black-hole perturbation theory by introducing a relativistic parameterization of the dynamics that is defined by the orbital geometry and consists of a set of phase variables and quantities that evolve only due to gravitational radiation reaction. Specializing to nonspinning binaries, we derive the EOB evolution equations and compute the binary's radiative multipole moments that determine the gravitational waves through a decomposition into the fundamental frequencies of the motion. The major differences between our treatment and the quasi-Keplerian approach often used in post-Newtonian (PN) calculations are that the orbital parameters describe strong-field dynamics, and that expressing the multipole moments in terms of the frequencies simplifies the calculations and also results in an unambiguous orbit-averaging operation. While our description of the conservative dynamics is fully relativistic, we limit explicit derivations in the radiative sector to 1.5PN order for simplicity. This already enables us to establish methods for computing both instantaneous and hereditary contributions to the gravitational radiation in EOB coordinates that have straightforward extensions to higher PN order. The weak-field, small eccentricity limit of our results for the orbit-averaged fluxes of energy and angular momentum agrees with known PN results when expressed in terms of gauge-invariant quantities. We further address considerations for the numerical implementation of the model and the completion of the waveforms to include the merger and ringdown signals, and provide illustrative results.
- Apr 28 2017 gr-qc arXiv:1704.08651v1Binary systems containing boson stars---self-gravitating configurations of a complex scalar field--- can potentially mimic black holes or neutron stars as gravitational-wave sources. We investigate the extent to which tidal effects in the gravitational-wave signal can be used to discriminate between these standard sources and boson stars. We consider spherically symmetric boson stars within two classes of scalar self-interactions: an effective-field-theoretically motivated quartic potential and a solitonic potential constructed to produce very compact stars. We compute the tidal deformability parameter characterizing the dominant tidal imprint in the gravitational-wave signals for a large span of the parameter space of each boson star model. We find that the tidal deformability for boson stars with a quartic self-interaction is bounded below by $\Lambda_{\rm min}\approx 280$ and for those with a solitonic interaction by $\Lambda_{\rm min}\approx 1.3$. Employing a Fisher matrix analysis, we estimate the precision with which Advanced LIGO and third-generation detectors can measure these tidal parameters using the inspiral portion of the signal. We discuss a new strategy to improve the distinguishability between black holes/neutrons stars and boson stars by combining deformability measurements of each compact object in a binary system, thereby eliminating the scaling ambiguities in each boson star model. Our analysis shows that current-generation detectors can potentially distinguish boson stars with quartic potentials from black holes, as well as from neutron-star binaries if they have either a large total mass or a large mass ratio. Discriminating solitonic boson stars from black holes using only tidal effects during the inspiral will be difficult with Advanced LIGO, but third-generation detectors should be able to distinguish between binary black holes and these binary boson stars.
- Feb 08 2017 gr-qc astro-ph.HE arXiv:1702.02053v1We present a detailed comparison between tidal effective-one-body (EOB) models and new state-of-the-art numerical relativity simulations for non-spinning binary neutron star systems. This comparison is the most extensive one to date, covering a wide range in the parameter space and encompassing the energetics of the binary, the periastron advance, the time and frequency evolution of the gravitational wave phase for the dominant mode, and several subdominant modes. We consider different EOB models with tidal effects that have been proposed, including the model with dynamical tides of [Phys.Rev.Lett. 116 (2016) no.18, 181101] and the gravitational self-force (GSF) inspired tidal EOB model of [Phys.Rev.Lett. 114 (2015) no.16, 161103]. The EOB model with dynamical tides leads to the best representation of the systems considered here, however, the differences to the GSF-inspired model are small. A common feature is that for systems where matter effects are large, i.e. stiff equations of state or small total masses, all EOB models underestimate the tidal effects and differences to the results from numerical relativity simulations become noticeable near the merger. We analyze this regime to diagnose the shortcomings of the models in the late inspiral, where the two neutron stars are no longer isolated bodies moving in vacuum. Our work will serve to guide further advances in modeling these systems.
- Aug 08 2016 gr-qc astro-ph.HE arXiv:1608.01907v2Tidal effects have an important impact on the late inspiral of compact binary systems containing neutron stars. Most current models of tidal deformations of neutron stars assume that the tidal bulge is directly related to the tidal field generated by the companion, with a constant response coefficient. However, if the orbital motion approaches a resonance with one of the internal modes of the neutron star, this adiabatic description of tidal effects starts to break down, and the tides become dynamical. In this paper, we consider dynamical tides in general relativity due to the quadrupolar fundamental oscillation mode of a neutron star. We devise a description of the effects of the neutron star's finite size on the orbital dynamics based on an effective point-particle action augmented by dynamical quadrupolar degrees of freedom. We analyze the post-Newtonian and test-particle approximations of this model and incorporate the results into an effective-one-body Hamiltonian. This enables us to extend the description of dynamical tides over the entire inspiral. We demonstrate that dynamical tides give a significant enhancement of matter effects compared to adiabatic tides, at least for neutron stars with large radii and for low mass-ratio systems, and should therefore be included in accurate models for gravitational-wave data analysis.
- Extracting the unique information on ultradense nuclear matter from the gravitational waves emitted by merging, neutron-star binaries requires robust theoretical models of the signal. We develop a novel effective-one-body waveform model that includes, for the first time, dynamic (instead of only adiabatic) tides of the neutron star, as well as the merger signal for neutron-star--black-hole binaries. We demonstrate the importance of the dynamic tides by comparing our model against new numerical-relativity simulations of nonspinning neutron-star--black-hole binaries spanning more than 24 gravitational-wave cycles, and to other existing numerical simulations for double neutron-star systems. Furthermore, we derive an effective description that makes explicit the dependence of matter effects on two key parameters: tidal deformability and fundamental oscillation frequency.
- Jan 28 2016 gr-qc arXiv:1601.07529v2We derive a Hamiltonian for an extended spinning test body in a curved background spacetime, to quadratic order in the spin, in terms of three-dimensional position, momentum, and spin variables having canonical Poisson brackets. This requires a careful analysis of how changes of the spin supplementary condition are related to shifts of the body's representative worldline and transformations of the body's multipole moments, and we employ bitensor calculus for a precise framing of this analysis. We apply the result to the case of the Kerr spacetime and thereby compute an explicit canonical Hamiltonian for the test-body limit of the spinning two-body problem in general relativity, valid for generic orbits and spin orientations, to quadratic order in the test spin. This fully relativistic Hamiltonian is then expanded in post-Newtonian orders and in powers of the Kerr spin parameter, allowing comparisons with the test-mass limits of available post-Newtonian results. Both the fully relativistic Hamiltonian and the results of its expansion can inform the construction of waveform models, especially effective-one-body models, for the analysis of gravitational waves from compact binaries.
- This paper gives a complete characterization of resonant orbits in a Kerr spacetime. A resonant orbit is defined as a geodesic for which the longitudinal and radial orbital frequencies are commensurate. Our analysis is based on expressing the resonance condition in its most symmetric form using Carlson's integrals. We provide a number of concise formulae for the dependence of resonances on the system parameters. Resonant effects may be observable during the in-spiral of a compact object into a super-massive black hole. When the slowly evolving orbital frequencies pass through a series of low-order resonances, rapid changes in the orbital parameters could produce measurable phase shifts in the emitted gravitational radiation (GW). Resonant orbits may also capture dust leading to electromagnetic emission. The KAM theorem indicates that, low order resonant orbits demarcate the regions where the onset of chaos could occur around a perturbed black-hole. We find that the 1/2 and 2/3 resonances occur at ~4 and 5.4 Schwarzschild radii (Rs) from the event horizon. For compact object in-spirals around super-massive black holes, this region lies within the sensitivity band of space-based GW detectors. For Sgr A*, length scales of ~41 and 55 microarcseconds and timescales of 50 and 79 min respectively should be associated with resonant effects, if Sgr A* is non-spinning. Spin decreases these values by up to ~32% and ~28%. These length-scales are potentially resolvable with VLBI measurements. We find that all low-order resonances are localized to the strong field region r < 50 Rs. This fact guarantees the validity of using approximations based on averaging to model the frequency evolution of a test object in region 50 Rs <r <1000 Rs. The systematic determination of the multipole moments of the central object by observing the orbit of a pulsar, free of chaotic effects, is thus possible.
- Nov 12 2013 gr-qc arXiv:1311.2544v1Gravitational waves emitted by black-hole binary systems have the highest signal-to-noise ratio in LIGO and Virgo detectors when black-hole spins are aligned with the orbital angular momentum and extremal. For such systems, we extend the effective-one-body inspiral-merger-ringdown waveforms to generic mass ratios and spins calibrating them to 38 numerical-relativity nonprecessing waveforms produced by the SXS Collaboration. The numerical-relativity simulations span mass ratios from 1 to 8, spin magnitudes up to 98% of extremality, and last for 40 to 60 gravitational-wave cycles. When the total mass of the binary is between 20Msun and 200Msun, the effective-one-body nonprecessing (dominant mode) waveforms have overlaps above 99% (using the advanced-LIGO design noise spectral density) with all of the 38 nonprecessing numerical waveforms, when maximizing only on initial phase and time. This implies a negligible loss in event rate due to modeling. Moreover, without further calibration, we show that the precessing effective-one-body (dominant mode) waveforms have overlaps above 97% with two very long, strongly precessing numerical-relativity waveforms, when maximizing only on the initial phase and time.
- Sep 04 2013 gr-qc arXiv:1309.0544v3We compute the periastron advance using the effective-one-body formalism for binary black holes moving on quasi-circular orbits and having spins collinear with the orbital angular momentum. We compare the predictions with the periastron advance recently computed in accurate numerical-relativity simulations and find remarkable agreement for a wide range of spins and mass ratios. These results do not use any numerical-relativity calibration of the effective-one-body model, and stem from two key ingredients in the effective-one-body Hamiltonian: (i) the mapping of the two-body dynamics of spinning particles onto the dynamics of an effective spinning particle in a (deformed) Kerr spacetime, fully symmetrized with respect to the two-body masses and spins, and (ii) the resummation, in the test-particle limit, of all post-Newtonian (PN) corrections linear in the spin of the particle. In fact, even when only the leading spin PN corrections are included in the effective-one-body spinning Hamiltonian but all the test-particle corrections linear in the spin of the particle are resummed we find very good agreement with the numerical results (within the numerical error for equal-mass binaries and discrepancies of at most 1% for larger mass ratios). Furthermore, we specialize to the extreme mass-ratio limit and derive, using the equations of motion in the gravitational skeleton approach, analytical expressions for the periastron advance, the meridional Lense-Thirring precession and spin precession frequency in the case of a spinning particle on a nearly circular equatorial orbit in Kerr spacetime, including also terms quadratic in the spin.
- We compute the length and timescales associated with resonant orbits in the Kerr Metric for all orbital and spin parameters. Resonance induced effects are potentially observable when the Event Horizon telescope resolves the inner structure of Sgr A*, space-based gravitational wave detectors record phase-shifts in the waveform during the resonant passage of a neutron star as it spirals in to the black hole and in the frequencies of quasi periodic oscillations for accreting black holes. The onset of geodesic chaos for non-Kerr spacetimes should occur at the resonance locations quantified here.
- Mar 11 2013 gr-qc arXiv:1303.1919v2Axially symmetric spacetimes are the only models for isolated systems with continuous symmetries that also include dynamics. For such systems, we review the reduction of the vacuum Einstein field equations to their most concise form by dimensionally reducing to the three-dimensional space of orbits of the Killing vector, followed by a conformal rescaling. The resulting field equations can be written as a problem in three-dimensional gravity with a complex scalar field as source. This scalar field, the Ernst potential is constructed from the norm and twist of the spacelike Killing field. In the case where the axial Killing vector is twist-free, we discuss the properties of the axis and simplify the field equations using a triad formalism. We study two physically motivated triad choices that further reduce the complexity of the equations and exhibit their hierarchical structure. The first choice is adapted to a harmonic coordinate that asymptotes to a cylindrical radius and leads to a simplification of the three-dimensional Ricci tensor and the boundary conditions on the axis. We illustrate its properties by explicitly solving the field equations in the case of static axisymmetric spacetimes. The other choice of triad is based on geodesic null coordinates adapted to null infinity as in the Bondi formalism. We then explore the solution space of the twist-free axisymmetric vacuum field equations, identifying the known (unphysical) solutions together with the assumptions made in each case. This singles out the necessary conditions for obtaining physical solutions to the equations.
- Spin effects on gravitational waves from inspiraling compact binaries at second post-Newtonian orderSep 28 2012 gr-qc arXiv:1209.6349v2We calculate the gravitational waveform for spinning, precessing compact binary inspirals through second post-Newtonian order in the amplitude. When spins are collinear with the orbital angular momentum and the orbits are quasi-circular, we further provide explicit expressions for the gravitational-wave polarizations and the decomposition into spin-weighted spherical-harmonic modes. Knowledge of the second post-Newtonian spin terms in the waveform could be used to improve the physical content of analytical templates for data analysis of compact binary inspirals and for more accurate comparisons with numerical-relativity simulations.
- Jan 11 2011 gr-qc arXiv:1101.1673v1The gravitational wave signal from an inspiralling binary neutron star system will contain detailed information about tidal coupling in the system, and thus, about the internal physics of the neutron stars. To extract this information will require highly accurate models for the gravitational waveform. We present here a calculation of the gravitational wave signal from a binary with quadrupolar tidal interactions which includes all post-1-Newtonian-order effects in both the conservative dynamics and wave generation. We consider stars with adiabatically induced quadrupoles moving in circular orbits, and work to linear in the stars' quadrupole moments. We find that post-1-Newtonian corrections increase the tidal signal by approximately 20% at gravitational wave frequencies of 400 Hz.
- We present two methods for integrating forced geodesic equations in the Kerr spacetime, which can accommodate arbitrary forces. As a test case, we compute inspirals under a simple drag force, mimicking the presence of gas. We verify that both methods give the same results for this simple force. We find that drag generally causes eccentricity to increase throughout the inspiral. This is a relativistic effect qualitatively opposite to what is seen in gravitational-radiation-driven inspirals, and similar to what is observed in hydrodynamic simulations of gaseous binaries. We provide an analytic explanation by deriving the leading order relativistic correction to the Newtonian dynamics. If observed, an increasing eccentricity would provide clear evidence that the inspiral was occurring in a non-vacuum environment. Our two methods are especially useful for evolving orbits in the adiabatic regime. Both use the method of osculating orbits, in which each point on the orbit is characterized by the parameters of the geodesic with the same instantaneous position and velocity. Both methods describe the orbit in terms of the geodesic energy, axial angular momentum, Carter constant, azimuthal phase, and two angular variables that increase monotonically and are relativistic generalizations of the eccentric anomaly. The two methods differ in their treatment of the orbital phases and the representation of the force. In one method the geodesic phase and phase constant are evolved together as a single orbital phase parameter, and the force is expressed in terms of its components on the Kinnersley orthonormal tetrad. In the second method, the phase constants of the geodesic motion are evolved separately and the force is expressed in terms of its Boyer-Lindquist components. This second approach is a generalization of earlier work by Pound and Poisson for planar forces in a Schwarzschild background.
- Sep 27 2010 gr-qc astro-ph.CO arXiv:1009.4923v3We show that transient resonances occur in the two body problem in general relativity, in the highly relativistic, extreme mass-ratio regime for spinning black holes. These resonances occur when the ratio of polar and radial orbital frequencies, which is slowly evolving under the influence of gravitational radiation reaction, passes through a low order rational number. At such points, the adiabatic approximation to the orbital evolution breaks down, and there is a brief but order unity correction to the inspiral rate. Corrections to the gravitational wave signal's phase due to resonance effects scale as the square root of the inverse of mass of the small body, and thus become large in the extreme-mass-ratio limit, dominating over all other post-adiabatic effects. The resonances make orbits more sensitive to changes in initial data (though not quite chaotic), and are genuine non-perturbative effects that are not seen at any order in a standard post-Newtonian expansion. Our results apply to an important potential source of gravitational waves, the gradual inspiral of white dwarfs, neutron stars, or black holes into much more massive black holes. It is hoped to exploit observations of these sources to map the spacetime geometry of black holes. However, such mapping will require accurate models of binary dynamics, which is a computational challenge whose difficulty is significantly increased by resonance effects. We estimate that the resonance phase shifts will be of order a few tens of cycles for mass ratios $\sim 10^{-6}$, by numerically evolving fully relativistic orbital dynamics supplemented with an approximate, post-Newtonian self-force.
- Mar 04 2010 gr-qc arXiv:1003.0882v1We study gravitational wave emission, zoom-whirl behavior and the resulting spin of the remnant black hole in highly boosted collisions of equal-mass, non spinning black-hole binaries with generic impact parameter.
- Ultrarelativistic collisions of black holes are ideal gedanken experiments to study the nonlinearities of general relativity. In this paper we use semianalytical tools to better understand the nature of these collisions and the emitted gravitational radiation. We explain many features of the energy spectra extracted from numerical relativity simulations using two complementary semianalytical calculations. In the first calculation we estimate the radiation by a "zero-frequency limit" analysis of the collision of two point particles with finite impact parameter. In the second calculation we replace one of the black holes by a point particle plunging with arbitrary energy and impact parameter into a Schwarzschild black hole, and we explore the multipolar structure of the radiation paying particular attention to the near-critical regime. We also use a geodesic analogy to provide qualitative estimates of the dependence of the scattering threshold on the black hole spin and on the dimensionality of the spacetime.
- Nov 19 2009 astro-ph.HE gr-qc arXiv:0911.3535v1The early part of the gravitational wave signal of binary neutron star inspirals can potentially yield robust information on the nuclear equation of state. The influence of a star's internal structure on the waveform is characterized by a single parameter: the tidal deformability lambda, which measures the star's quadrupole deformation in response to the companion's perturbing tidal field. We calculate lambda for a wide range of equations of state and find that the value of lambda spans an order of magnitude for the range of equation of state models considered. An analysis of the feasibility of discriminating between neutron star equations of state with gravitational wave observations of the early part of the inspiral reveals that the measurement error in lambda increases steeply with the total mass of the binary. Comparing the errors with the expected range of lambda, we find that Advanced LIGO observations of binaries at a distance of 100 Mpc will probe only unusually stiff equations of state, while the proposed Einstein Telescope is likely to see a clean tidal signature.
- We study the collision of two highly boosted equal mass, nonrotating black holes with generic impact parameter. We find such systems to exhibit zoom-whirl behavior when fine tuning the impact parameter. Near the threshold of immediate merger the remnant black hole Kerr parameter can be near maximal (a/M about 0.95) and the radiated energy can be as large as 35% of the center-of-mass energy.
- Inspirals of stellar mass compact objects into massive black holes are an important source for future gravitational wave detectors such as Advanced LIGO and LISA. Detection of these sources and extracting information from the signal relies on accurate theoretical models of the binary dynamics. We cast the equations describing binary inspiral in the extreme mass ratio limit in terms of action angle variables, and derive properties of general solutions using a two-timescale expansion. This provides a rigorous derivation of the prescription for computing the leading order orbital motion. As shown by Mino, this leading order or adiabatic motion requires only knowledge of the orbit-averaged, dissipative piece of the self force. The two timescale method also gives a framework for calculating the post-adiabatic corrections. For circular and for equatorial orbits, the leading order corrections are suppressed by one power of the mass ratio, and give rise to phase errors of order unity over a complete inspiral through the relativistic regime. These post-1-adiabatic corrections are generated by the fluctuating piece of the dissipative, first order self force, by the conservative piece of the first order self force, and by the orbit-averaged, dissipative piece of the second order self force. We also sketch a two-timescale expansion of the Einstein equation, and deduce an analytic formula for the leading order, adiabatic gravitational waveforms generated by an inspiral.
- For a variety of fully relativistic polytropic neutron star models we calculate the star's tidal Love number k2. Most realistic equations of state for neutron stars can be approximated as a polytrope with an effective index n~0.5-1.0. The equilibrium stellar model is obtained by numerical integration of the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkhov equations. We calculate the linear l=2 static perturbations to the Schwarzschild spacetime following the method of Thorne and Campolattaro. Combining the perturbed Einstein equations into a single second order differential equation for the perturbation to the metric coefficient g_tt, and matching the exterior solution to the asymptotic expansion of the metric in the star's local asymptotic rest frame gives the Love number. Our results agree well with the Newtonian results in the weak field limit. The fully relativistic values differ from the Newtonian values by up to ~24%. The Love number is potentially measurable in gravitational wave signals from inspiralling binary neutron stars.
- Ground-based gravitational wave detectors may be able to constrain the nuclear equation of state using the early, low frequency portion of the signal of detected neutron star - neutron star inspirals. In this early adiabatic regime, the influence of a neutron star's internal structure on the phase of the waveform depends only on a single parameter lambda of the star related to its tidal Love number, namely the ratio of the induced quadrupole moment to the perturbing tidal gravitational field. We analyze the information obtainable from gravitational wave frequencies smaller than a cutoff frequency of 400 Hz, where corrections to the internal-structure signal are less than 10 percent. For an inspiral of two non-spinning 1.4 solar mass neutron stars at a distance of 50 Mpc, LIGO II detectors will be able to constrain lambda to lambda < 2.0 10^37 g cm^2 s^2 with 90% confidence. Fully relativistic stellar models show that the corresponding constraint on radius R for 1.4 solar mass neutron stars would be R < 13.6 km (15.3 km) for a n=0.5 (n=1.0) polytrope.
- Apr 04 2007 gr-qc arXiv:0704.0389v8We analyze the effect of gravitational radiation reaction on generic orbits around a body with an axisymmetric mass quadrupole moment Q to linear order in Q, to the leading post-Newtonian order, and to linear order in the mass ratio. This system admits three constants of the motion in absence of radiation reaction: energy, angular momentum, and a third constant analogous to the Carter constant. We compute instantaneous and time-averaged rates of change of these three constants. For a point particle orbiting a black hole, Ryan has computed the leading order evolution of the orbit's Carter constant, which is linear in the spin. Our result, when combined with an interaction quadratic in the spin (the coupling of the black hole's spin to its own radiation reaction field), gives the next to leading order evolution. The effect of the quadrupole, like that of the linear spin term, is to circularize eccentric orbits and to drive the orbital plane towards antialignment with the symmetry axis. In addition we consider a system of two point masses where one body has a single mass multipole or current multipole. To linear order in the mass ratio, to linear order in the multipole, and to the leading post-Newtonian order, we show that there does not exist an analog of the Carter constant for such a system (except for the cases of spin and mass quadrupole). With mild additional assumptions, this result falsifies the conjecture that all vacuum, axisymmetric spacetimes posess a third constant of geodesic motion.