The Correlation Filter is an algorithm that trains a linear template to discriminate between images and their translations. It is well suited to object tracking because its formulation in the Fourier domain provides a fast solution, enabling the detector to be re-trained once per frame. Previous works that use the Correlation Filter, however, have adopted features that were either manually designed or trained for a different task. This work is the first to overcome this limitation by interpreting the Correlation Filter learner, which has a closed-form solution, as a differentiable layer in a deep neural network. This enables learning deep features that are tightly coupled to the Correlation Filter. Experiments illustrate that our method has the important practical benefit of allowing lightweight architectures to achieve state-of-the-art performance at high framerates.
While the costs of human violence have attracted a great deal of attention from the research community, the effects of the network-on-network (NoN) violence popularised by Generative Adversarial Networks have yet to be addressed. In this work, we quantify the financial, social, spiritual, cultural, grammatical and dermatological impact of this aggression and address the issue by proposing a more peaceful approach which we term Generative Unadversarial Networks (GUNs). Under this framework, we simultaneously train two models: a generator G that does its best to capture whichever data distribution it feels it can manage, and a motivator M that helps G to achieve its dream. Fighting is strictly verboten and both models evolve by learning to respect their differences. The framework is both theoretically and electrically grounded in game theory, and can be viewed as a winner-shares-all two-player game in which both players work as a team to achieve the best score. Experiments show that by working in harmony, the proposed model is able to claim both the moral and log-likelihood high ground. Our work builds on a rich history of carefully argued position-papers, published as anonymous YouTube comments, which prove that the optimal solution to NoN violence is more GUNs.
Oct 11 2016 cs.CV
In this short note we introduce ResearchDoom, an implementation of the Doom first-person shooter that can extract detailed metadata from the game. We also introduce the CocoDoom dataset, a collection of pre-recorded data extracted from Doom gaming sessions along with annotations in the MS Coco format. ResearchDoom and CocoDoom can be used to train and evaluate a variety of computer vision methods such as object recognition, detection and segmentation at the level of instances and categories, tracking, ego-motion estimation, monocular depth estimation and scene segmentation. The code and data are available at http://www.robots.ox.ac.uk/~vgg/research/researchdoom.
Sep 15 2016 cs.CV
Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) are extremely efficient, since they exploit the inherent translation-invariance of natural images. However, translation is just one of a myriad of useful spatial transformations. Can the same efficiency be attained when considering other spatial invariances? Such generalized convolutions have been considered in the past, but at a high computational cost. We present a construction that is simple and exact, yet has the same computational complexity that standard convolutions enjoy. It consists of a constant image warp followed by a simple convolution, which are standard blocks in deep learning toolboxes. With a carefully crafted warp, the resulting architecture can be made invariant to one of a wide range of spatial transformations. We show encouraging results in realistic scenarios, including the estimation of vehicle poses in the Google Earth dataset (rotation and scale), and face poses in Annotated Facial Landmarks in the Wild (3D rotations under perspective).
Jul 01 2016 cs.CV
The problem of arbitrary object tracking has traditionally been tackled by learning a model of the object's appearance exclusively online, using as sole training data the video itself. Despite the success of these methods, their online-only approach inherently limits the richness of the model they can learn. Recently, several attempts have been made to exploit the expressive power of deep convolutional networks. However, when the object to track is not known beforehand, it is necessary to perform Stochastic Gradient Descent online to adapt the weights of the network, severely compromising the speed of the system. In this paper we equip a basic tracking algorithm with a novel fully-convolutional Siamese network trained end-to-end on the ILSVRC15 dataset for object detection in video. Our tracker operates at frame-rates beyond real-time and, despite its extreme simplicity, achieves state-of-the-art performance in multiple benchmarks.
One-shot learning is usually tackled by using generative models or discriminative embeddings. Discriminative methods based on deep learning, which are very effective in other learning scenarios, are ill-suited for one-shot learning as they need large amounts of training data. In this paper, we propose a method to learn the parameters of a deep model in one shot. We construct the learner as a second deep network, called a learnet, which predicts the parameters of a pupil network from a single exemplar. In this manner we obtain an efficient feed-forward one-shot learner, trained end-to-end by minimizing a one-shot classification objective in a learning to learn formulation. In order to make the construction feasible, we propose a number of factorizations of the parameters of the pupil network. We demonstrate encouraging results by learning characters from single exemplars in Omniglot, and by tracking visual objects from a single initial exemplar in the Visual Object Tracking benchmark.
Oct 15 2015 cs.NE
This paper addresses the reservoir design problem in the context of delay-based reservoir computers for multidimensional input signals, parallel architectures, and real-time multitasking. First, an approximating reservoir model is presented in those frameworks that provides an explicit functional link between the reservoir parameters and architecture and its performance in the execution of a specific task. Second, the inference properties of the ridge regression estimator in the multivariate context is used to assess the impact of finite sample training on the decrease of the reservoir capacity. Finally, an empirical study is conducted that shows the adequacy of the theoretical results with the empirical performances exhibited by various reservoir architectures in the execution of several nonlinear tasks with multidimensional inputs. Our results confirm the robustness properties of the parallel reservoir architecture with respect to task misspecification and parameter choice that had already been documented in the literature.
This paper extends the notion of information processing capacity for non-independent input signals in the context of reservoir computing (RC). The presence of input autocorrelation makes worthwhile the treatment of forecasting and filtering problems for which we explicitly compute this generalized capacity as a function of the reservoir parameter values using a streamlined model. The reservoir model leading to these developments is used to show that, whenever that approximation is valid, this computational paradigm satisfies the so called separation and fading memory properties that are usually associated with good information processing performances. We show that several standard memory, forecasting, and filtering problems that appear in the parametric stochastic time series context can be readily formulated and tackled via RC which, as we show, significantly outperforms standard techniques in some instances.
May 01 2014 cs.CV
The core component of most modern trackers is a discriminative classifier, tasked with distinguishing between the target and the surrounding environment. To cope with natural image changes, this classifier is typically trained with translated and scaled sample patches. Such sets of samples are riddled with redundancies -- any overlapping pixels are constrained to be the same. Based on this simple observation, we propose an analytic model for datasets of thousands of translated patches. By showing that the resulting data matrix is circulant, we can diagonalize it with the Discrete Fourier Transform, reducing both storage and computation by several orders of magnitude. Interestingly, for linear regression our formulation is equivalent to a correlation filter, used by some of the fastest competitive trackers. For kernel regression, however, we derive a new Kernelized Correlation Filter (KCF), that unlike other kernel algorithms has the exact same complexity as its linear counterpart. Building on it, we also propose a fast multi-channel extension of linear correlation filters, via a linear kernel, which we call Dual Correlation Filter (DCF). Both KCF and DCF outperform top-ranking trackers such as Struck or TLD on a 50 videos benchmark, despite running at hundreds of frames-per-second, and being implemented in a few lines of code (Algorithm 1). To encourage further developments, our tracking framework was made open-source.