Most mainstream Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR) systems consider all feature frames equally important. However, acoustic landmark theory is based on a contradictory idea, that some frames are more important than others. Acoustic landmark theory exploits the quantal nonlinear articulatory-acoustic relationships from human speech perception experiments, and provides theoretical support for extracting acoustic features in the vicinity of landmark regions where an abrupt change occurs in the spectrum of speech signals. In this work, we conduct experiments on the TIMIT corpus, with both GMM and DNN based ASR systems and found that frames containing landmarks are more informative than others. We found that altering the level of emphasis on landmarks through accordingly re-weighting acoustic likelihood in frames, tends to reduce the phone error rate (PER). Furthermore, by leveraging the landmark as a heuristic, one of our hybrid DNN frame dropping strategies maintained a PER within 0.44% of optimal when scoring less than half (41.2% to be precise) of the frames. This hybrid strategy out-performs other non-heuristicbased methods and demonstrates the potential of landmarks for reducing computation.
Learning with recurrent neural networks (RNNs) on long sequences is a notoriously difficult task. There are three major challenges: 1) complex dependencies, 2) vanishing and exploding gradients, and 3) efficient parallelization. In this paper, we introduce a simple yet effective RNN connection structure, the DilatedRNN, which simultaneously tackles all of these challenges. The proposed architecture is characterized by multi-resolution dilated recurrent skip connections and can be combined flexibly with diverse RNN cells. Moreover, the DilatedRNN reduces the number of parameters needed and enhances training efficiency significantly, while matching state-of-the-art performance (even with standard RNN cells) in tasks involving very long-term dependencies. To provide a theory-based quantification of the architecture's advantages, we introduce a memory capacity measure, the mean recurrent length, which is more suitable for RNNs with long skip connections than existing measures. We rigorously prove the advantages of the DilatedRNN over other recurrent neural architectures. The code for our method is publicly available at https://github.com/code-terminator/DilatedRNN
Convolutional autoregressive models have recently demonstrated state-of-the-art performance on a number of generation tasks. While fast, parallel training methods have been crucial for their success, generation is typically implemented in a naïve fashion where redundant computations are unnecessarily repeated. This results in slow generation, making such models infeasible for production environments. In this work, we describe a method to speed up generation in convolutional autoregressive models. The key idea is to cache hidden states to avoid redundant computation. We apply our fast generation method to the Wavenet and PixelCNN++ models and achieve up to $21\times$ and $183\times$ speedups respectively.
Dec 14 2016 cs.CL
Mismatched transcriptions have been proposed as a mean to acquire probabilistic transcriptions from non-native speakers of a language.Prior work has demonstrated the value of these transcriptions by successfully adapting cross-lingual ASR systems for different tar-get languages. In this work, we describe two techniques to refine these probabilistic transcriptions: a noisy-channel model of non-native phone misperception is trained using a recurrent neural net-work, and decoded using minimally-resourced language-dependent pronunciation constraints. Both innovations improve quality of the transcript, and both innovations reduce phone error rate of a trainedASR, by 7% and 9% respectively
This paper presents an efficient implementation of the Wavenet generation process called Fast Wavenet. Compared to a naive implementation that has complexity O(2^L) (L denotes the number of layers in the network), our proposed approach removes redundant convolution operations by caching previous calculations, thereby reducing the complexity to O(L) time. Timing experiments show significant advantages of our fast implementation over a naive one. While this method is presented for Wavenet, the same scheme can be applied anytime one wants to perform autoregressive generation or online prediction using a model with dilated convolution layers. The code for our method is publicly available.
This paper tests the hypothesis that distinctive feature classifiers anchored at phonetic landmarks can be transferred cross-lingually without loss of accuracy. Three consonant voicing classifiers were developed: (1) manually selected acoustic features anchored at a phonetic landmark, (2) MFCCs (either averaged across the segment or anchored at the landmark), and(3) acoustic features computed using a convolutional neural network (CNN). All detectors are trained on English data (TIMIT),and tested on English, Turkish, and Spanish (performance measured using F1 and accuracy). Experiments demonstrate that manual features outperform all MFCC classifiers, while CNNfeatures outperform both. MFCC-based classifiers suffer an F1reduction of 16% absolute when generalized from English to other languages. Manual features suffer only a 5% F1 reduction,and CNN features actually perform better in Turkish and Span-ish than in the training language, demonstrating that features capable of representing long-term spectral dynamics (CNN and landmark-based features) are able to generalize cross-lingually with little or no loss of accuracy
Jul 27 2016 cs.CV
Semantic image inpainting is a challenging task where large missing regions have to be filled based on the available visual data. Existing methods which extract information from only a single image generally produce unsatisfactory results due to the lack of high level context. In this paper, we propose a novel method for semantic image inpainting, which generates the missing content by conditioning on the available data. Given a trained generative model, we search for the closest encoding of the corrupted image in the latent image manifold using our context and prior losses. This encoding is then passed through the generative model to infer the missing content. In our method, inference is possible irrespective of how the missing content is structured, while the state-of-the-art learning based method requires specific information about the holes in the training phase. Experiments on three datasets show that our method successfully predicts information in large missing regions and achieves pixel-level photorealism, significantly outperforming the state-of-the-art methods.
The increasing popularity of real-world recommender systems produces data continuously and rapidly, and it becomes more realistic to study recommender systems under streaming scenarios. Data streams present distinct properties such as temporally ordered, continuous and high-velocity, which poses tremendous challenges to traditional recommender systems. In this paper, we investigate the problem of recommendation with stream inputs. In particular, we provide a principled framework termed sRec, which provides explicit continuous-time random process models of the creation of users and topics, and of the evolution of their interests. A variational Bayesian approach called recursive meanfield approximation is proposed, which permits computationally efficient instantaneous on-line inference. Experimental results on several real-world datasets demonstrate the advantages of our sRec over other state-of-the-arts.
Monaural source separation is important for many real world applications. It is challenging because, with only a single channel of information available, without any constraints, an infinite number of solutions are possible. In this paper, we explore joint optimization of masking functions and deep recurrent neural networks for monaural source separation tasks, including monaural speech separation, monaural singing voice separation, and speech denoising. The joint optimization of the deep recurrent neural networks with an extra masking layer enforces a reconstruction constraint. Moreover, we explore a discriminative criterion for training neural networks to further enhance the separation performance. We evaluate the proposed system on the TSP, MIR-1K, and TIMIT datasets for speech separation, singing voice separation, and speech denoising tasks, respectively. Our approaches achieve 2.30--4.98 dB SDR gain compared to NMF models in the speech separation task, 2.30--2.48 dB GNSDR gain and 4.32--5.42 dB GSIR gain compared to existing models in the singing voice separation task, and outperform NMF and DNN baselines in the speech denoising task.
Jun 08 2011 cs.SD
This paper considers methods for audio display in a CAVE-type virtual reality theater, a 3 m cube with displays covering all six rigid faces. Headphones are possible since the user's headgear continuously measures ear positions, but loudspeakers are preferable since they enhance the sense of total immersion. The proposed solution consists of open-loop acoustic point control. The transfer function, a matrix of room frequency responses from the loudspeakers to the ears of the user, is inverted using multi-channel inversion methods, to create exactly the desired sound field at the user's ears. The inverse transfer function is constructed from impulse responses simulated by the image source method. This technique is validated by measuring a 2x2 matrix transfer function, simulating a transfer function with the same geometry, and filtering the measured transfer function through the inverse of the simulation. Since accuracy of the image source method decreases with time, inversion performance is improved by windowing the simulated response prior to inversion. Parameters of the simulation and inversion are adjusted to minimize residual reverberant energy; the best-case dereverberation ratio is 10 dB.