results for au:Goyal_S in:quant-ph

- Mar 20 2017 quant-ph cond-mat.other arXiv:1703.05938v2We construct a decomposition procedure for converting split-step quantum walks into ordinary quantum walks with alternating coins, and we show that this decomposition enables a feasible linear optical realization of split-step quantum walks by eliminating quantum-control requirements. As salient applications, we show how our scheme will simulate Majorana modes and edge states.
- We create a multi-partite entangled state by storing a single photon in a crystal that contains many large atomic ensembles with distinct resonance frequencies. The photon is re-emitted at a well-defined time due to an interference effect analogous to multi-slit diffraction. We derive a lower bound for the number of entangled ensembles based on the contrast of the interference and the single-photon character of the input, and we experimentally demonstrate entanglement between over two hundred ensembles, each containing a billion atoms. In addition, we illustrate the fact that each individual ensemble contains further entanglement. Our results are the first demonstration of entanglement between many macroscopic systems in a solid and open the door to creating even more complex entangled states.
- May 25 2016 quant-ph physics.optics arXiv:1605.07539v2Cat states are coherent quantum superpositions of macroscopically distinct states and are useful for understanding the boundary between the classical and the quantum world. Due to their macroscopic nature, cat states are difficult to prepare in physical systems. We propose a method to create cat states in one-dimensional quantum walks using delocalized initial states of the walker. Since the quantum walks can be performed on any quantum system, our proposal enables a platform-independent realization of the cat states. We further show that the linear dispersion relation of the effective quantum walk Hamiltonian, which governs the dynamics of the delocalized states, is responsible for the formation of the cat states. We analyze the robustness of these states against environmental interactions and present methods to control and manipulate the cat states in the photonic implementation of quantum walks.
- Nov 11 2015 quant-ph arXiv:1511.03149v2Mixed states of a quantum system, represented by density operators, can be decomposed as a statistical mixture of pure states in a number of ways where each decomposition can be viewed as a different preparation recipe. However the fact that the density matrix contains full information about the ensemble makes it impossible to estimate the preparation basis for the quantum system. Here we present a measurement scheme to (seemingly) improve the performance of unsharp measurements. We argue that in some situations this scheme is capable of providing statistics from a single copy of the quantum system, thus making it possible to perform state tomography from a single copy. One of the byproduct of the scheme is a way to distinguish between different preparation methods used to prepare the state of the quantum system. However, our numerical simulations disagree with our intuitive predictions. We show that a counter-intuitive property of a biased classical random walk is responsible for the proposed mechanism not working.
- Oct 13 2015 quant-ph physics.optics arXiv:1510.03365v1We propose an optical implementation of the Deutsch-Jozsa Algorithm using classical light in a binary decision-tree scheme. Our approach uses a ring cavity and linear optical devices in order to efficiently quarry the oracle functional values. In addition, we take advantage of the intrinsic Fourier transforming properties of a lens to read out whether the function given by the oracle is balanced or constant.
- Aug 26 2015 quant-ph physics.optics arXiv:1508.06259v2Any lossless transformation on $n_{s}$ spatial and $n_{p}$ internal modes of light can be described by an $n_{s}n_{p}\times n_{s}n_{p}$ unitary matrix, but there is no known procedure to effect an arbitrary $n_{s}n_{p}\times n_{s}n_{p}$ unitary matrix on light in $n_{s}$ spatial and $n_{p}$ internal modes. We devise an algorithm to realize an arbitrary discrete unitary transformation on the combined spatial and internal degrees of freedom of light. Our realization uses beamsplitters and operations on internal modes to effect arbitrary linear transformations. The number of beamsplitters required to realize a unitary transformation is reduced as compared to existing realization by a factor $n_{p}^2/2$ at the cost of increasing the number of internal optical elements by a factor of two. Our algorithm thus enables the optical implementation of higher dimensional unitary transformations.
- Jun 30 2015 quant-ph arXiv:1506.08703v3Classical optics can be used to efficiently implement certain quantum information processing tasks with a high degree of control, for example, one-dimensional quantum walks through the space of orbital angular momentum of light directed by its polarization. To explore the potential of quantum information processing with classical light, we here suggest a method to realize d-dimensional quantum walks with classical optics---an important step towards robust implementation of certain quantum algorithms. In this scheme, different degrees of freedom of light, such as frequency, orbital angular momentum, and time bins, represent different directions for the walker while the coin to decide which direction the walker takes is realized by employing the polarization combined with different light paths.
- Apr 24 2015 quant-ph arXiv:1504.06000v2We utilize a discrete (sequential) measurement protocol to investigate quantum process tomography of a single two-level quantum system, with an unknown initial state, undergoing Rabi oscillations. The ignorance of the dynamical parameters is encoded into a continuous-variable classical system which is coupled to the two-level quantum system via a generalized Hamiltonian. This combined estimate of the quantum state and dynamical parameters is updated by using the information obtained from sequential measurements on the quantum system and, after a sufficient waiting period, faithful state monitoring and parameter determination is obtained. Numerical evidence is used to demonstrate the convergence of the state estimate to the true state of the hybrid system.
- Dec 03 2014 quant-ph physics.optics arXiv:1412.0788v1Using an experimental setup that simulates a turbulent atmosphere, we study the secret key rate for quantum key distribution protocols in orbital angular momentum based free space quantum communication. The quantum key distribution protocols under consideration include the Ekert 91 protocol for different choices of mutually unbiased bases and the six-state protocol. We find that the secret key rate of these protocols decay to zero roughly at the same scale where the entanglement of formation decays to zero.
- Feb 25 2014 quant-ph arXiv:1402.5810v1We present an experimental study of higher-dimensional quantum key distribution protocols based on mutually unbiased bases, implemented by means of photons carrying orbital angular momentum. We perform (d+1) mutually unbiased measurements in a classical prepare and measure scheme and on a pair of entangled photons for dimensions ranging from d = 2 to 5. In our analysis, we pay attention to the detection efficiency and photon pair creation probability. As security measures, we determine from experimental data the average error rate, the mutual information shared between the sender and receiver and the secret key generation rate per photon. We demonstrate that increasing the dimension leads to an increased information capacity as well as higher key generation rates per photon up to a dimension of d = 4.
- Jan 01 2014 quant-ph arXiv:1401.0196v2A simple coined quantum walk in one dimension can be characterized by a $SU(2)$ operator with three parameters which represents the coin toss. However, different such coin toss operators lead to equivalent dynamics of the quantum walker. In this manuscript we present the unitary equivalence classes of quantum walks and show that all the nonequivalent quantum walks can be distinguished by a single parameter. Moreover, we argue that the electric quantum walks are equivalent to quantum walks with time dependent coin toss operator.
- Jun 04 2013 quant-ph physics.optics arXiv:1306.0427v2Teleportation plays an important role in the communication of quantum information between the nodes of a quantum network and is viewed as an essential ingredient for long-distance Quantum Cryptography. We describe a method to teleport the quantum information carried by a photon in a superposition of a number $d$ of light modes (a "qudit") by the help of $d$ additional photons based on transcription. A qudit encoded into a single excitation of $d$ light modes (in our case Laguerre-Gauss modes which carry orbital angular momentum) is transcribed to $d$ single-rail photonic qubits, which are spatially separated. Each single-rail qubit consists of a superposition of vacuum and a single photon in each one of the modes. After successful teleportation of each of the $d$ single-rail qubits by means of "quantum scissors" they are converted back into a qudit carried by a single photon which completes the teleportation scheme.
- Feb 22 2013 quant-ph arXiv:1302.5296v1Hardy's nonlocality argument, which establishes incompatibility of quantum theory with local-realism, can also be used to reveal the time-nonlocal feature of quantum states. For spin-1/2 systems, the maximum probability of success of this argument is known to be 25%. We show that this maximum remains 25% for all finite-dimensional quantum systems with suitably chosen observables. This enables a test of the quantum properties of macroscopic systems in analogy to the method of Leggett and Garg.
- Dec 21 2012 quant-ph arXiv:1212.5115v2Quantum Teleportation, the transfer of the state of one quantum system to another without direct interaction between both systems, is an important way to transmit information encoded in quantum states and to generate quantum correlations (entanglement) between remote quantum systems. So far, for photons, only superpositions of two distinguishable states (one ``qubit'') could be teleported. Here we show how to teleport a ``qudit'', i.e. a superposition of an arbitrary number $d$ of distinguishable states present in the orbital angular momentum of a single photon using $d$ beam splitters and $d$ additional entangled photons. The same entanglement resource might also be employed to collectively teleport the state of $d/2$ photons at the cost of one additional entangled photon per qubit. This is superior to existing schemes for photonic qubits, which require an additional pair of entangled photons per qubit.
- Nov 09 2012 quant-ph arXiv:1211.1705v2We present an implementation scheme for a quantum walk in the orbital angular momentum space of a laser beam. The scheme makes use of a ring interferometer, containing a quarter-wave plate and a q plate. This setup enables one to perform an arbitrary number of quantum walk steps. In addition, the classical nature of the implementation scheme makes it possible to observe the quantum walk evolution in real time. We use nonquantum entanglement of the laser beam's polarization with its orbital angular momentum to implement the quantum walk.
- Oct 11 2012 physics.optics quant-ph arXiv:1210.2867v1We study the evolution of an orbital angular momentum (OAM) entangled bipartite photonic state for the case where one of the photons propagates through Kolmogorov turbulence, using the concurrence as a measure of entanglement. Quantum state tomography was performed to reconstruct the two qubit density matrices for a range of scintillation strengths. Our results give the first direct experimental confirmation of the existing theories for decay of entanglement due to atmospheric turbulence. We also show how the modal scattering increases with increasing scintillation and we discuss the impact of the scale at which entanglement dissipates due to atmospheric turbulence on free-space quantum communication.
- Jan 30 2012 cond-mat.str-el quant-ph arXiv:1201.5874v2We analyze the Physics of cold atoms in honeycomb optical lattices with on-site repulsion and spin-orbit couplings that break time reversal symmetry. Such systems, at half filling and large on-site repulsion, have been proposed as a possible realization of the Kitaev model. The spin-orbit couplings break the spin degeneracy and, if strong-enough, lead to four non-overlapping bands in the non-interacting limit. These bands carry non-zero Chern number and therefore the non-interacting system has non-zero angular momentum and chiral edge states at 1/4 and 3/4 filling. We have investigated the effect of interactions using the variational cluster perturbation theory and conclude that the chiral edge states exist in finite range of interaction and hopping parameter space.
- The geometry of the generalized Bloch sphere $\Omega_3$, the state space of a qutrit, is studied. Closed form expressions for $\Omega_3$, its boundary $\partial \Omega_3$, and the set of extremals $\Omega_3^{\rm ext}$ are obtained by use of an elementary observation. These expressions and analytic methods are used to classify the 28 two-sections and the 56 three-sections of $\Omega_3$ into unitary equivalence classes, completing the works of earlier authors. It is shown, in particular, that there are families of two-sections and of three-sections which are equivalent geometrically but not unitarily, a feature that does not appear to have been appreciated earlier. A family of three-sections of obese-tetrahedral shape whose symmetry corresponds to the 24-element tetrahedral point group $T_d$ is examined in detail. This symmetry is traced to the natural reduction of the adjoint representation of $SU(3)$, the symmetry underlying $\Omega_3$, into direct sum of the two-dimensional and the two (inequivalent) three-dimensional irreducible representations of $T_d$.
- Feb 23 2011 quant-ph cond-mat.other arXiv:1102.4403v2The effect of a number of mechanisms designed to suppress decoherence in open quantum systems are studied with respect to their effectiveness at slowing down the loss of entanglement. The effect of photonic band-gap materials and frequency modulation of the system-bath coupling are along expected lines in this regard. However, other control schemes, like resonance fluorescence, achieve quite the contrary: increasing the strength of the control kills entanglement off faster. The effect of dynamic decoupling schemes on two qualitatively different system-bath interactions are studied in depth. Dynamic decoupling control has the expected effect of slowing down the decay of entanglement in a two-qubit system coupled to a harmonic oscillator bath under non-demolition interaction. However, non-trivial phenomena are observed when a Josephson charge qubit, strongly coupled to a random telegraph noise bath, is subject to decoupling pulses. The most striking of these reflects the resonance fluorescence scenario in that an increase in the pulse strength decreases decoherence but also speeds up the sudden death of entanglement. This demonstrates that the behaviour of decoherence and entanglement in time can be qualitatively different in the strong-coupling non-Markovian regime.
- May 25 2010 quant-ph arXiv:1005.4224v2Entanglement sudden death in spatially separated two-mode Gaussian states coupled to local thermal and squeezed thermal baths is studied by mapping the problem to that of the quantum-to-classical transition. Using Simon's criterion concerning the characterisation of classicality in Gaussian states, the time to ESD is calculated by analysing the covariance matrices of the system. The results for the two-mode system at T=0 and T>0 for the two types of bath states are generalised to $n$-modes, and are shown to be similar in nature to the results for the general discrete $n$-qubit system.
- May 21 2010 quant-ph arXiv:1005.3785v2We present a novel scheme to generate entanglement between two spatially separated systems. The scheme makes use of spatial entanglement generated by a single-particle quantum walk which is used to entangle two spatially separated, not necessarily correlated, systems. This scheme can be used to entangle any two systems which can interact with the spatial modes entangled during the quantum walk evolution. A notable feature is that we can control the quantum walk dynamics and its ability to localize leads to a substantial control and improvement in the entanglement output.
- Mar 08 2010 quant-ph arXiv:1003.1248v1The phenomenon of entanglement sudden death (ESD) in finite dimensional composite open systems is described here for both bi-partite as well as multipartite cases, where individual subsystems undergo Lindblad type heat bath evolution. ESD is found to be generic for non-zero temperature of the bath. At T=0, one-sided action of the heat bath on pure entangled states of two qubits does not show ESD.
- Jan 07 2009 quant-ph arXiv:0901.0671v4The evolution of a many-particle system on a one-dimensional lattice, subjected to a quantum walk can cause spatial entanglement in the lattice position, which can be exploited for quantum information/communication purposes. We demonstrate the evolution of spatial entanglement and its dependence on the quantum coin operation parameters, the number of particles present in the lattice and the number of steps of quantum walk on the system. Thus, spatial entanglement can be controlled and optimized using a many-particle discrete-time quantum walk.