Mar 19 2018 cs.NI
Value-added services (e.g., overlaid video advertisements) have become an integral part of today's Content Delivery Networks (CDNs). To offer cost-efficient, scalable and more agile provisioning of new value-added services in CDNs, Network Functions Virtualization (NFV) paradigm may be leveraged to allow implementation of fine-grained services as a chain of Virtual Network Functions (VNFs) to be placed in CDN. The manner in which these chains are placed is critical as it both affects the quality of service (QoS) and provider cost. The problem is however, very challenging due to the specifics of the chains (e.g.,one of their end-points is not known prior to the placement). We formulate it as an Integer Linear Program (ILP) and propose a cost efficient Proactive VNF placement and chaining (CPVNF)algorithm. The objective is to find the optimal number of VNFs along with their locations in such a manner that the cost is minimized while QoS is met. Apart from cost minimization, the support for large-scale CDNs with a large number of servers and end-users is an important feature of the proposed algorithm. Through simulations, the algorithm's behaviour for small-scale to large-scale CDN networks is analyzed.
Nov 10 2017 cs.NI
The European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) developed Network Functions Virtualization (NFV) Management and Orchestration (MANO) framework. Within that framework, NFV orchestrator (NFVO) and Virtualized Network Function (VNF) Manager (VNFM) functional blocks are responsible for managing the lifecycle of network services and their associated VNFs. However, they face significant scalability and performance challenges in large-scale and geo-distributed NFV systems. Their number and location have major implications for the number of VNFs that can be accommodated and also for the overall system performance. NFVO and VNFM placement is therefore a key challenge due to its potential impact on the system scalability and performance. In this paper, we address the placement of NFVO and VNFM in large-scale and geo-distributed NFV infrastructure. We provide an integer linear programming formulation of the problem and propose a two-step placement algorithm to solve it. We also conduct a set of experiments to evaluate the proposed algorithm.
Nov 08 2017 cs.MM
Multimedia conferencing is used extensively in a wide range of applications, such as online games and distance learning. These applications need to efficiently scale the conference size as the number of participants fluctuates. Cloud is a technology that addresses the scalability issue. However, the proposed cloud-based solutions have several shortcomings in considering the future demand of applications while meeting both Quality of Service (QoS) requirements and efficiency in resource usage. In this paper, we propose an Adaptive and Dynamic Scaling mechanism (ADS) for multimedia conferencing services in the cloud. This mechanism enables scalable and elastic resource allocation with respect to the number of participants. ADS produces a cost-efficient scaling schedule while considering the QoS requirements and the future demand of the conferencing service. We formulate the problem using Integer Linear Programming (ILP) and design a heuristic for it. Simulation results show that ADS mechanism elastically scales conferencing services. Moreover, the ADS heuristic is shown to outperform a greedy algorithm from a resource-efficiency perspective.
Cloud computing with its three key facets (i.e., IaaS, PaaS, and SaaS) and its inherent advantages (e.g., elasticity and scalability) still faces several challenges. The distance between the cloud and the end devices might be an issue for latency-sensitive applications such as disaster management and content delivery applications. Service Level Agreements (SLAs) may also impose processing at locations where the cloud provider does not have data centers. Fog computing is a novel paradigm to address such issues. It enables provisioning resources and services outside the cloud, at the edge of the network, closer to end devices or eventually, at locations stipulated by SLAs. Fog computing is not a substitute for cloud computing but a powerful complement. It enables processing at the edge while still offering the possibility to interact with the cloud. This article presents a comprehensive survey on fog computing. It critically reviews the state of the art in the light of a concise set of evaluation criteria. We cover both the architectures and the algorithms that make fog systems. Challenges and research directions are also introduced. In addition, the lessons learned are reviewed and the prospects are discussed in terms of the key role fog is likely to play in emerging technologies such as Tactile Internet.
Oct 16 2017 cs.DC
Internet of Things (IoT) is expected to enable a myriad of applications by interconnecting objects - such as sensors and robots - over the Internet. IoT applications range from healthcare to autonomous vehicles and include disaster management. Enabling these applications in cloud environments requires the design of appropriate IoT Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IoT IaaS) to ease the provisioning of the IoT objects as cloud services. This paper discusses a case study on search and rescue IoT applications in large-scale disaster scenarios. It proposes an IoT IaaS architecture that virtualizes robots (IaaS for robots) and provides them to the upstream applications as-a-Service. Node- and Network-level robots virtualization are supported. The proposed architecture meets a set of identified requirements, such as the need for a unified description model for heterogeneous robots, publication/discovery mechanism, and federation with other IaaS for robots when needed. A validating proof of concept is built and experiments are made to evaluate its performance. Lessons learned and prospective research directions are discussed.
Oct 16 2017 cs.NI
Content Delivery Networks (CDNs) deliver content (e.g. Web pages, videos) to geographically distributed end-users over the Internet. Some contents do sometimes attract the attention of a large group of end-users. This often leads to flash crowds which can cause major issues such as outage in the CDN. Microservice architectural style aims at decomposing monolithic systems into smaller components which can be independently deployed, upgraded and disposed. Network Function Virtualization (NFV) is an emerging technology that aims to reduce costs and bring agility by decoupling network functions from the underlying hardware. This paper leverages the NFV and microservice architectural style to propose an architecture for on-the-fly CDN component provisioning to tackle issues such as flash crowds. In the proposed architecture, CDN components are designed as sets of microservices which interact via RESTFul Web services and are provisioned as Virtual Network Functions (VNFs), which are deployed and orchestrated on-the-fly. We have built a prototype in which a CDN surrogate server, designed as a set of microservices, is deployed on-the-fly. The prototype is deployed on SAVI, a Canadian distributed test bed for future Internet applications. The performance is also evaluated.
Sep 20 2017 cs.NI
With the recent advances in sensor hardware and software, architectures for virtualized Wireless Sensor Networks (vWSNs) are now emerging. Through node- and network-level virtualization, vWSNs can be offered as Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) which can aid in realizing the true potential of Internet-of-Things (IoT). Cloud computing offers elastic provisioning of large-scale infrastructures to multiple concurrent users where Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS) interacts with IaaS in order to efficiently host and execute applications over these infrastructures. Amalgamating IoT with cloud computing potentially allows rapid application and service provisioning in an efficient, scalable and robust manner. However, interactions between vWSNs and PaaS are largely an unexplored area. Indeed, existing vWSN IaaS are not yet ready for PaaS. This paper proposes a vWSN IaaS architecture which is ready for interactions with PaaS. The proposed architecture is based on our previous works and is rooted in the fundamental differences between traditional IaaS and vWSN IaaS. We built a prototype using Java Sunspot as the WSN tool kit and made early performance measurements.
In large-scale natural disasters, humans are likely to fail when they attempt to reach high-risk sites or act in search and rescue operations. Robots, however, outdo their counterparts in surviving the hazards and handling the search and rescue missions due to their multiple and diverse sensing and actuation capabilities. The dynamic formation of optimal coalition of these heterogeneous robots for cost efficiency is very challenging and research in the area is gaining more and more attention. In this paper, we propose a novel heuristic. Since the population of robots in large-scale disaster settings is very large, we rely on Quantum Multi-Objective Particle Swarm Optimization (QMOPSO). The problem is modeled as a multi-objective optimization problem. Simulations with different test cases and metrics, and comparison with other algorithms such as NSGA-II and SPEA-II are carried out. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm outperforms the existing algorithms not only in terms of convergence but also in terms of diversity and processing time.
Nov 08 2016 cs.NI
Content Delivery Networks (CDNs) have gained immense popularity over the years. Replica server placement is a key design issue in CDNs. It entails placing replica servers at meticulous locations, such that cost is minimized and Quality of Service (QoS) of end-users is satisfied. Many replica server placement models have been proposed in the literature of traditional CDN. As the CDN architecture is evolving through the adoption of emerging paradigms, such as, cloud computing and Network Functions Virtualization (NFV), new algorithms are being proposed. In this paper, we present a comprehensive survey of replica server placement algorithms in traditional and emerging paradigm based CDNs. We categorize the algorithms and provide a summary of their characteristics. Besides, we identify requirements for an efficient replica server placement algorithm and perform a comparison in the light of the requirements. Finally, we discuss potential avenues for further research in replica server placement in CDNs.
Aug 23 2016 cs.NI
Cloud computing and Network Function Virtualization (NFV) are emerging as key technologies to overcome the challenges facing 4G and beyond mobile systems. Over the last few years, Platform-as-a-Service (PaaS) has gained momentum and has become more widely adopted throughout IT enterprises. It simplifies the applications provisioning and accelerates time-to-market while lowering costs. Telco can leverage the same model to provision the 4G and beyond core network services using NFV technology. However, many challenges have to be addressed, mainly due to the specificities of network services. This paper proposes an architecture for a Virtual Network Platform-as-a-Service (VNPaaS) to provision 3GPP 4G and beyond core network services in a distributed environment. As an illustrative use case, the proposed architecture is employed to provision the 3GPP Home Subscriber Server (HSS) as-a-Service (HSSaaS). The HSSaaS is built from Virtualized Network Functions (VNFs) resulting from a novel decomposition of HSS. A prototype is implemented and early measurements are made.
Multimedia conferencing is the real-time exchange of multimedia content between multiple parties. It is the basis of a wide range of applications (e.g., multimedia multiplayer game). Cloud-based provisioning of the conferencing services on which these applications rely will bring benefits, such as easy service provisioning and elastic scalability. However, it remains a big challenge. This paper proposes a PaaS for conferencing service provisioning. The proposed PaaS is based on a business model from the state of the art. It relies on conferencing IaaSs that, instead of VMs, offer conferencing substrates (e.g., dial-in signaling, video mixer and audio mixer). The PaaS enables composition of new conferences from substrates on the fly. This has been prototyped in this paper and, in order to evaluate it, a conferencing IaaS is also implemented. Performance measurements are also made.
Jan 15 2016 cs.NI
Virtualization enables multiple applications to share the same wireless sensor and actuator network (WSAN). However, in heterogeneous environments, virtualized wireless sensor and actuator networks (VWSAN) raise new challenges, such as the need for on-the-fly, dynamic, elastic, and scalable provisioning of gateways. Network Functions Virtualization (NFV) is a paradigm emerging to help tackle these new challenges. It leverages standard virtualization technology to consolidate special-purpose network elements on commodity hardware. This article presents NFV architecture for VWSAN gateways, in which software instances of gateway modules are hosted in NFV infrastructure operated and managed by a VWSAN gateway provider. We consider several VWSAN providers, each with its own brand or combination of brands of sensors and actuators/robots. These sensors and actuators can be accessed by a variety of applications, each may have different interface and QoS (i.e., latency, throughput, etc.) requirements. The NFV infrastructure allows dynamic, elastic, and scalable deployment of gateway modules in this heterogeneous VWSAN environment. Furthermore, the proposed architecture is flexible enough to easily allow new sensors and actuators integration and new application domains accommodation. We present a prototype that is built using the OpenStack platform. Besides, the performance results are discussed
Dec 02 2015 cs.NI
4G systems have been continuously evolving to cope with the emerging challenges of human-centric and machine-to- machine (M2M) applications. Research has also now started on 5G systems. Scenarios have been proposed and initial requirements derived. 4G and beyond systems are expected to easily deliver a wide range of human-centric and M2M applications and services in a scalable, elastic, and cost efficient manner. The 3GPP IP multimedia subsystem (IMS) was standardized as the service delivery platform for 3G networks. Unfortunately, it does not meet several requirements for provisioning applications and services in 4G and beyond systems. However, cloudifying it will certainly pave the way for its use as a service delivery platform for 4G and beyond. This article presents a critical overview of the architectures proposed so far for cloudifying the IMS. There are two classes of approaches; the first focuses on the whole IMS system, and the second deals with specific IMS entities. Research directions are also discussed. IMS granularity and a PaaS for the development and management of IMS functional entities are the two key directions we currently foresee.
Sep 24 2015 cs.MM
Multimedia conferencing is the conversational exchange of multimedia content between multiple parties. It has a wide range of applications (e.g. Massively Multiplayer Online Games (MMOGs) and distance learning). Many multimedia conferencing applications use video extensively, thus video mixing in conferencing settings is of critical importance. Cloud computing is a technology that can solve the scalability issue in multimedia conferencing, while bringing other benefits, such as, elasticity, efficient use of resources, rapid development, and introduction of new applications. However, proposed cloud-based multimedia conferencing approaches so far have several deficiencies when it comes to efficient resource usage while meeting Quality of Service (QoS) requirements. We propose a solution to optimize resource allocation for cloud-based video mixing service in multimedia conferencing applications, which can support scalability in terms of number of users, while guaranteeing QoS. We formulate the resource allocation problem mathematically as an Integer Linear Programming (ILP) problem and design a heuristic for it. Simulation results show that our resource allocation model can support more participants compared to the state-of-the-art, while honoring QoS, with respect to end-to-end delay.
With the wide adoption of large-scale Internet services and big data, the cloud has become the ideal environment to satisfy the ever-growing storage demand, thanks to its seemingly limitless capacity, high availability and faster access time. In this context, data replication has been touted as the ultimate solution to improve data availability and reduce access time. However, replica placement systems usually need to migrate and create a large number of data replicas over time between and within data centers, incurring a large overhead in terms of network load and availability. In this paper, we propose CRANE, an effiCient Replica migrAtion scheme for distributed cloud Storage systEms. CRANE complements any replica placement algorithm by efficiently managing replica creation in geo-distributed infrastructures by (1) minimizing the time needed to copy the data to the new replica location, (2) avoiding network congestion, and (3) ensuring a minimal availability of the data. Our results show that, compared to swift (the OpenStack project for managing data storage), CRANE is able to minimize up to 30% of the replica creation time and 25% of inter-data center network traffic, while ensuring the minimum required availability of the data.
Content Placement (CP) problem in Cloud-based Content Delivery Networks (CCDNs) leverage resource elasticity to build cost effective CDNs that guarantee QoS. In this paper, we present our novel CP model, which optimally places content on surrogates in the cloud, to achieve (a) minimum cost of leasing storage and bandwidth resources for data coming into and going out of the cloud zones and regions, (b) guarantee Service Level Agreement (SLA), and (c) minimize degree of QoS violations. The CP problem is NP-Hard, hence we design a unique push-based heuristic, called Weighted Social Network Analysis (W-SNA) for CCDN providers. W-SNA is based on Betweeness Centrality (BC) from SNA and prioritizes surrogates based on their relationship to the other vertices in the network graph. To achieve our unique objectives, we further prioritize surrogates based on weights derived from storage cost and content requests. We compare our heuristic to current state of the art Greedy Site (GS) and purely Social Network Analysis (SNA) heuristics, which are relevant to our work. We show that W-SNA outperforms GS and SNA in minimizing cost and QoS. Moreover, W-SNA guarantees SLA but also minimizes the degree of QoS violations. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first model and heuristic of its kind, which is timely and gives a fundamental pre-allocation scheme for future online and dynamic resource provision for CCDNs.
Mar 19 2015 cs.NI
Virtualization enables the sharing of a same wireless sensor network (WSN) by multiple applications. However, in heterogeneous environments, virtualized wireless sensor networks (VWSN) raises new challenges such as the need for on-the-fly, dynamic, elastic and scalable provisioning of gateways. Network Functions Virtualization (NFV) is an emerging paradigm that can certainly aid in tackling these new challenges. It leverages standard virtualization technology to consolidate special-purpose network elements on top of commodity hardware. This article presents a case study on NFV based gateways for VWSNs. In the study, a VWSN gateway provider, operates and manages an NFV based infrastructure. We use two different brands of wireless sensors. The NFV infrastructure makes possible the dynamic, elastic and scalable deployment of gateway modules in this heterogeneous VWSN environment. The prototype built with Openstack as platform is described.
Mar 06 2015 cs.NI
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are the key components of the emerging Internet-of-Things (IoT) paradigm. They are now ubiquitous and used in a plurality of application domains. WSNs are still domain specific and usually deployed to support a specific application. However, as WSN nodes are becoming more and more powerful, it is getting more and more pertinent to research how multiple applications could share a very same WSN infrastructure. Virtualization is a technology that can potentially enable this sharing. This paper is a survey on WSN virtualization. It provides a comprehensive review of the state-of-the-art and an in-depth discussion of the research issues. We introduce the basics of WSN virtualization and motivate its pertinence with carefully selected scenarios. Existing works are presented in detail and critically evaluated using a set of requirements derived from the scenarios. The pertinent research projects are also reviewed. Several research issues are also discussed with hints on how they could be tackled.
Jan 29 2015 cs.NI
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have become very popular and are being used in many application domains (e.g. smart cities, security, gaming and agriculture). Virtualized WSNs allow the same WSN to be shared by multiple applications. Semantic applications are situation-aware and can potentially play a critical role in virtualized WSNs. However, provisioning them in such settings remains a challenge. The key reason is that semantic applications provisioning mandates data annotation. Unfortunately it is no easy task to annotate data collected in virtualized WSNs. This paper proposes a data annotation architecture for semantic applications in virtualized heterogeneous WSNs. The architecture uses overlays as the cornerstone, and we have built a prototype in the cloud environment using Google App Engine. The early performance measurements are also presented.
Jan 29 2015 cs.NI
Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) have become pervasive and are used in many applications and services. Usually the deployments of WSNs are task oriented and domain specific; thereby precluding re-use when other applications and services are contemplated. This inevitably leads to the proliferation of redundant WSN deployments. Virtualization is a technology that can aid in tackling this issue, as it enables the sharing of resources/infrastructure by multiple independent entities. In this paper we critically review the state of the art and propose a novel architecture for WSN virtualization. The proposed architecture has four layers (physical layer, virtual sensor layer, virtual sensor access layer and overlay layer) and relies on the constrained application protocol (CoAP). We illustrate its potential by using it in a scenario where a single WSN is shared by multiple applications; one of which is a fire monitoring application. We present the proof-of-concept prototype we have built along with the performance measurements, and discuss future research directions.