The engineering of Kerr interactions has great potential for quantum information processing applications in multipartite quantum systems and for investigation of many-body physics in a complex cavity-qubit network. We study how coupling multiple different types of superconducting qubits to the same cavity modes can be used to modify the self- and cross-Kerr effects acting on the cavities and demonstrate that this type of architecture could be of significant benefit for quantum technologies. Using both analytical perturbation theory results and numerical simulations, we first show that coupling two superconducting qubits with opposite anharmonicities to a single cavity enables the effective self-Kerr interaction to be diminished, while retaining the number splitting effect that enables control and measurement of the cavity field. We demonstrate that this reduction of the self-Kerr effect can maintain the fidelity of coherent states and generalised Schrödinger cat states for much longer than typical coherence times in realistic devices. Next, we find that the cross-Kerr interaction between two cavities can be modified by coupling them both to the same pair of qubit devices. When one of the qubits is tunable in frequency, the strength of entangling interactions between the cavities can be varied on demand, forming the basis for logic operations on the two modes. Finally, we discuss the feasibility of producing an array of cavities and qubits where intermediary and on-site qubits can tune the strength of self- and cross-Kerr interactions across the whole system. This architecture could provide a way to engineer interesting many-body Hamiltonians and a useful platform for quantum simulation in circuit quantum electrodynamics.
We present evidence of metastable rare quantum-fluctuation switching for the driven dissipative Jaynes-Cummings oscillator coupled to a zero-temperature bath in the strongly dispersive regime. We show that single-atom complex amplitude bistability is accompanied by the appearance of a low-amplitude long-lived transient state, hereinafter called `dark state', having a distribution with quasi-Poissonian statistics both for the coupled qubit and cavity mode. We find that the dark state is linked to a spontaneous flipping of the qubit state, detuning the cavity to a low-photon response. The appearance of the dark state is correlated with the participation of the two metastable states in the dispersive bistability, as evidenced by the solution of the Master Equation and single quantum trajectories.
Optimization of the fidelity of control operations is of critical importance in the pursuit of fault-tolerant quantum computation. We apply optimal control techniques to demonstrate that a single drive via the cavity in circuit quantum electrodynamics can implement a high-fidelity two-qubit all-microwave gate that directly entangles the qubits via the mutual qubit-cavity couplings. This is performed by driving at one of the qubits' frequencies which generates a conditional two-qubit gate, but will also generate other spurious interactions. These optimal control techniques are used to find pulse shapes that can perform this two-qubit gate with high fidelity, robust against errors in the system parameters. The simulations were all performed using experimentally relevant parameters and constraints.
We explore the joint activated dynamics exhibited by two quantum degrees of freedom: a cavity mode oscillator which is strongly coupled to a superconducting qubit in the strongly coherently driven dispersive regime. Dynamical simulations and complementary measurements show a range of parameters where both the cavity and the qubit exhibit sudden simultaneous switching between two metastable states. This manifests in ensemble averaged amplitudes of both the cavity and qubit exhibiting a partial coherent cancellation. Transmission measurements of driven microwave cavities coupled to transmon qubits show detailed features which agree with the theory in the regime of simultaneous switching.
We study exact solutions of the steady state behaviour of several non-linear open quantum systems which can be applied to the field of circuit quantum electrodynamics. Using Fokker-Planck equations in the generalised P-representation we investigate the analytical solutions of two fundamental models. First, we solve for the steady-state response of a linear cavity that is coupled to an approximate transmon qubit and use this solution to study both the weak and strong driving regimes, using analytical expressions for the moments of both cavity and transmon fields, along with the Husimi Q-function for the transmon. Second, we revisit exact solutions of quantum Duffing oscillator which is driven both coherently and parametrically while also experiencing decoherence by the loss of single and pairs of photons. We use this solution to discuss both stabilisation of Schroedinger cat states and the generation of squeezed states in parametric amplifiers, in addition to studying the Q-functions of the different phases of the quantum system. The field of superconducting circuits, with its strong nonlinearities and couplings, has provided access to a new parameter regime in which returning to these exact quantum optics methods can provide valuable insights.
The two degenerate ground states of the anisotropic Heisenberg (XY) spin model of a chain of qubits (pseudo-spins) can encode quantum information, but their degree of protection against local perturbations is known to be only partial. We examine the properties of the system in the presence of non-local spin-spin interactions, possibly emerging from the quantum electrodynamics of the device. We find a phase distinct from the XY phase admitting two ground states which are highly protected against all local field perturbations, persisting across a range of parameters. In the context of the XY chain we discuss how the coupling between two ground states can be used to observe signatures of topological edge states in a small controlled chain of superconducting transmon qubits.
We propose a deterministic scheme for teleporting an unknown qubit through continuous-variable entangled states in superconducting circuits. The qubit is a superconducting two-level system and the bipartite quantum channel is a photonic entangled coherent state between two cavities. A Bell-type measurement performed on the hybrid state of solid and photonic states brings a discrete-variable unknown electronic state to a continuous-variable photonic cat state in a cavity mode. This scheme further enables applications for quantum information processing in the same architecture of circuit-QED such as verification and error-detection schemes for entangled coherent states. Finally, a dynamical method of a self-Kerr tunability in a cavity state has been investigated for minimizing self-Kerr distortion and all essential ingredients are shown to be experimentally feasible with the state of the art superconducting circuits.
We propose a dynamical scheme for deterministically amplifying photonic Schroedinger cat states based on a set of optimal state-transfers. The scheme can be implemented in strongly coupled qubit-cavity systems and is well suited to the capabilities of state of the art superconducting circuits. The ideal analytical scheme is compared with a full simulation of the open Jaynes-Cummings model with realistic device parameters. This amplification tool can be utilized for practical quantum information processing in non-classical continuous-variable states.
We study the dynamics of a general quartic interaction Hamiltonian under the influence of dissipation and non-classical driving. We show that this scenario could be realised with a cascaded superconducting cavity-qubit system in the strong dispersive regime in a setup similar to recent experiments. In the presence of dissipation, we find that an effective Hartree-type decoupling with a Fokker-Planck equation yields a good approximation. We find that the stationary state is approximately a squeezed vacuum, which is enhanced by the $Q$-factor of the cavity but conserved by the interaction. The qubit non-linearity, therefore, does not significantly influence the highly squeezed intracavity microwave field but, for a range of realistic parameters, enables characterisation of itinerant squeezed fields.
We investigate the quantum electrodynamics of a device based on a topological superconducting circuit embedded in a microwave resonator. The device stores its quantum information in coherent superpositions of fermion parity states originating from Majorana fermion hybridization. This generates a highly isolated qubit whose coherence time could be greatly enhanced. We extend the conventional semiclassical method and obtain analytical derivations for strong transmon-photon coupling. Using this formalism, we develop protocols to initialize, control, and measure the parity states. We show that, remarkably, the parity eigenvalue can be detected via dispersive shifts of the optical cavity in the strong-coupling regime and its state can be coherently manipulated via a second-order sideband transition.
Coupling Majorana fermion excitations to coherent external fields is an important stage towards their manipulation and detection. We analyse the charge and transmon regimes of a topological nano-wire embedded within a Cooper-Pair-Box, where the superconducting phase difference is coupled to the zero energy parity states that arise from Majorana quasi-particles. We show that at special gate bias points, the photon-qubit coupling can be switched off via quantum interference, and in other points it is exponentially dependent on the control parameter $E_J/E_C$. As well as a probe for topological-superconductor excitations, we propose that this type of device could be used to realise a tunable high coherence four-level system in the superconducting circuits architecture.
Quantum fluctuations of the electromagnetic vacuum are responsible for physical effects such as the Casimir force and the radiative decay of atoms, and set fundamental limits on the sensitivity of measurements. Entanglement between photons can produce correlations that result in a reduction of these fluctuations below the vacuum level allowing measurements that surpass the standard quantum limit in sensitivity. Here we demonstrate that the radiative decay rate of an atom that is coupled to quadrature squeezed electromagnetic vacuum can be reduced below its natural linewidth. We observe a two-fold reduction of the transverse radiative decay rate of a superconducting artificial atom coupled to continuum squeezed vacuum generated by a Josephson parametric amplifier, allowing the transverse coherence time T_2 to exceed the vacuum decay limit of 2T_1. We demonstrate that the measured radiative decay dynamics can be used to tomographically reconstruct the Wigner distribution of the the itinerant squeezed state. Our results are the first confirmation of a canonical prediction of quantum optics and open the door to new studies of the quantum light-matter interaction.
Photons are ideal carriers for quantum information as they can have a long coherence time and can be transmitted over long distances. These properties are a consequence of their weak interactions within a nearly linear medium. To create and manipulate nonclassical states of light, however, one requires a strong, nonlinear interaction at the single photon level. One approach to generate suitable interactions is to couple photons to atoms, as in the strong coupling regime of cavity QED systems. In these systems, however, one only indirectly controls the quantum state of the light by manipulating the atoms. A direct photon-photon interaction occurs in so-called Kerr media, which typically induce only weak nonlinearity at the cost of significant loss. So far, it has not been possible to reach the single-photon Kerr regime, where the interaction strength between individual photons exceeds the loss rate. Here, using a 3D circuit QED architecture, we engineer an artificial Kerr medium which enters this regime and allows the observation of new quantum effects. We realize a Gedankenexperiment proposed by Yurke and Stoler, in which the collapse and revival of a coherent state can be observed. This time evolution is a consequence of the quantization of the light field in the cavity and the nonlinear interaction between individual photons. During this evolution non-classical superpositions of coherent states, i.e. multi-component Schroedinger cat states, are formed. We visualize this evolution by measuring the Husimi Q-function and confirm the non-classical properties of these transient states by Wigner tomography. The single-photon Kerr effect could be employed in QND measurement of photons, single photon generation, autonomous quantum feedback schemes and quantum logic operations.
When a frequency chirped excitation is applied to a classical high-Q nonlinear oscillator, its motion becomes dynamically synchronized to the drive and large oscillation amplitude is observed, provided the drive strength exceeds the critical threshold for autoresonance. We demonstrate that when such an oscillator is strongly coupled to a quantized superconducting qubit, both the effective nonlinearity and the threshold become a non-trivial function of the qubit-oscillator detuning. Moreover, the autoresonant threshold is sensitive to the quantum state of the qubit and may be used to realize a high fidelity, latching readout whose speed is not limited by the oscillator Q.
In this book chapter we analyze the high excitation nonlinear response of the Jaynes-Cummings model in quantum optics when the qubit and cavity are strongly coupled. We focus on the parameter ranges appropriate for transmon qubits in the circuit quantum electrodynamics architecture, where the system behaves essentially as a nonlinear quantum oscillator and we analyze the quantum and semi-classical dynamics. One of the central motivations is that under strong excitation tones, the nonlinear response can lead to qubit quantum state discrimination and we present initial results for the cases when the qubit and cavity are on resonance or far off-resonance (dispersive).
Electron spins in solids are promising candidates for quantum memories for superconducting qubits because they can have long coherence times, large collective couplings, and many quantum bits can be encoded into the spin-waves of a single ensemble. We demonstrate the coupling of electron spin ensembles to a superconducting transmission-line resonator at coupling strengths greatly exceeding the cavity decay rate and comparable to spin linewidth. We also use the enhanced coupling afforded by the small cross-section of the transmission line to perform broadband spectroscopy of ruby at millikelvin temperatures at low powers. In addition, we observe hyperfine structure in diamond P1 centers and time domain saturation-relaxation of the spins.
We analyze the Jaynes-Cummings model of quantum optics, in the strong-dispersive regime. In the bad cavity limit and on timescales short compared to the atomic coherence time, the dynamics are those of a nonlinear oscillator. A steady-state non-perturbative semiclassical analysis exhibits a finite region of bistability delimited by a pair of critical points, unlike the usual dispersive bistability from a Kerr nonlinearity. This analysis explains our quantum trajectory simulations that show qualitative agreement with recent experiments from the field of circuit quantum electrodynamics.
The driven-damped Jaynes-Cummings model in the regime of strong coupling is found to exhibit a coexistence between the quantum photon blockaded state and a quasi-coherent bright state. We characterize the slow time scales and the basin of attraction of these metastable states using full quantum simulations. This form of bistability can be useful for implementing a qubit readout scheme that does not require additional circuit elements. We propose a coherent control sequence that makes use of a simple linear chirp of drive amplitude and frequency as well as qubit frequency. By optimizing the parameters of the system and the control pulse we demonstrate theoretically very high readout fidelities (>98%) and high contrast, with experimentally realistic parameters for qubits implemented in the circuit QED architecture.
Thorough control of quantum measurement is key to the development of quantum information technologies. Many measurements are destructive, removing more information from the system than they obtain. Quantum non-demolition (QND) measurements allow repeated measurements that give the same eigenvalue. They could be used for several quantum information processing tasks such as error correction, preparation by measurement, and one-way quantum computing. Achieving QND measurements of photons is especially challenging because the detector must be completely transparent to the photons while still acquiring information about them. Recent progress in manipulating microwave photons in superconducting circuits has increased demand for a QND detector which operates in the gigahertz frequency range. Here we demonstrate a QND detection scheme which measures the number of photons inside a high quality-factor microwave cavity on a chip. This scheme maps a photon number onto a qubit state in a single-shot via qubit-photon logic gates. We verify the operation of the device by analyzing the average correlations of repeated measurements, and show that it is 90% QND. It differs from previously reported detectors because its sensitivity is strongly selective to chosen photon number states. This scheme could be used to monitor the state of a photon-based memory in a quantum computer.
Oct 19 2006 quant-ph
A broadband squeezed vacuum photon field is characterized by a complex squeezing function. We show that by controlling the wavelength dependence of its phase it is possible to change the dynamics of the atomic polarization interacting with the squeezed vacuum. Such a phase modulation effectively produces a finite range temporal interaction kernel between the two quadratures of the atomic polarization yielding the change in the decay rates as well as the appearance of additional oscillation frequencies. We show that decay rates slower than the spontaneous decay rate can be achieved even for a squeezed bath in the classic regime. For linear and quadratic phase modulations the power spectrum of the scattered light exhibits narrowing of the central peak due to the modified decay rates. For strong phase modulations side lobes appear symmetrically around the central peak reflecting additional oscillation frequencies.