results for au:Gilbert_S in:cs

- Mar 07 2018 cs.DC arXiv:1803.02216v1In this paper, we study local and global broadcast in the dual graph model, which describes communication in a radio network with both reliable and unreliable links. Existing work proved that efficient solutions to these problems are impossible in the dual graph model under standard assumptions. In real networks, however, simple back-off strategies tend to perform well for solving these basic communication tasks. We address this apparent paradox by introducing a new set of constraints to the dual graph model that better generalize the slow/fast fading behavior common in real networks. We prove that in the context of these new constraints, simple back-off strategies now provide efficient solutions to local and global broadcast in the dual graph model. We also precisely characterize how this efficiency degrades as the new constraints are reduced down to non-existent, and prove new lower bounds that establish this degradation as near optimal for a large class of natural algorithms. We conclude with a preliminary investigation of the performance of these strategies when we include additional generality to the model. These results provide theoretical foundations for the practical observation that simple back-off algorithms tend to work well even amid the complicated link dynamics of real radio networks.
- The Split Packing algorithm is an offline algorithm that packs a set of circles into shapes (triangles and squares) at an optimal packing density. In this paper, we develop an online alternative to Split Packing to handle an online sequence of insertions and deletions, where the algorithm is allowed to reallocate circles into new positions at a cost proportional to their areas. The algorithm can be used to pack circles into squares and right angled triangles. If only insertions are considered, our algorithm is also able to achieve optimal packing density as defined in our paper, with an amortized reallocation cost of $O(c\log \frac{1}{c})$ for squares, and $O(c(1+s^2)\log_{1+s^2}\frac{1}{c})$ for right angled triangles, where $s$ is the ratio of the lengths of the second shortest side to the shortest, when inserting a circle of area $c$. When insertions and deletions are considered, we achieve a packing density of $(1-\epsilon)$ of the optimal, where $\epsilon>0$ can be made arbitrarily small, for an additional amortized reallocation cost of $O(c\frac{1}{\epsilon})$.
- In this paper, we explore the use of multi-armed bandit online learning techniques to solve distributed resource selection problems. As an example, we focus on the problem of network selection. Mobile devices often have several wireless networks at their disposal. While choosing the right network is vital for good performance, a decentralized solution remains a challenge. The impressive theoretical properties of multi-armed bandit algorithms, like EXP3, suggest that it should work well for this type of problem. Yet, its real-word performance lags far behind. The main reasons are the hidden cost of switching networks and its slow rate of convergence. We propose Smart EXP3, a novel bandit-style algorithm that (a) retains the good theoretical properties of EXP3, (b) bounds the number of switches, and (c) yields significantly better performance in practice. We evaluate Smart EXP3 using simulations, controlled experiments, and real-world experiments. Results show that it stabilizes at the optimal state, achieves fairness among devices and gracefully deals with transient behaviors. In real world experiments, it can achieve 18% faster download over alternate strategies. We conclude that multi-armed bandit algorithms can play an important role in distributed resource selection problems, when practical concerns, such as switching costs and convergence time, are addressed.
- Mar 20 2017 cs.DC arXiv:1703.06130v1Cognitive radio networks are a new type of multi-channel wireless network in which different nodes can have access to different sets of channels. By providing multiple channels, they improve the efficiency and reliability of wireless communication. However, the heterogeneous nature of cognitive radio networks also brings new challenges to the design and analysis of distributed algorithms. In this paper, we focus on two fundamental problems in cognitive radio networks: neighbor discovery, and global broadcast. We consider a network containing $n$ nodes, each of which has access to $c$ channels. We assume the network has diameter $D$, and each pair of neighbors have at least $k\geq 1$, and at most $k_{max}\leq c$, shared channels. We also assume each node has at most $\Delta$ neighbors. For the neighbor discovery problem, we design a randomized algorithm CSeek which has time complexity $\tilde{O}((c^2/k)+(k_{max}/k)\cdot\Delta)$. CSeek is flexible and robust, which allows us to use it as a generic "filter" to find "well-connected" neighbors with an even shorter running time. We then move on to the global broadcast problem, and propose CGCast, a randomized algorithm which takes $\tilde{O}((c^2/k)+(k_{max}/k)\cdot\Delta+D\cdot\Delta)$ time. CGCast uses CSeek to achieve communication among neighbors, and uses edge coloring to establish an efficient schedule for fast message dissemination. Towards the end of the paper, we give lower bounds for solving the two problems. These lower bounds demonstrate that in many situations, CSeek and CGCast are near optimal.
- Consider the classical problem of information dissemination: one (or more) nodes in a network have some information that they want to distribute to the remainder of the network. In this paper, we study the cost of information dissemination in networks where edges have latencies, i.e., sending a message from one node to another takes some amount of time. We first generalize the idea of conductance to weighted graphs by defining $\phi_*$ to be the "critical conductance" and $\ell_*$ to be the "critical latency". % One goal of this paper is to argue that $\phi_*$ % characterizes the connectivity of a weighted graph with latencies in much the same way that conductance characterizes the connectivity of unweighted graphs. % We give near tight lower and upper bounds on the problem of information dissemination, up to polylogarithmic factors. Specifically, we show that in a graph with (weighted) diameter $D$ (with latencies as weights) and maximum degree $\Delta$, any information dissemination algorithm requires at least $\Omega(\min(D+\Delta, \ell_*/\phi_*))$ time % in the worst case. We show several variants of the lower bound (e.g., for graphs with small diameter, graphs with small max-degree, etc.) by reduction to a simple combinatorial game.
- In collaborative recommendation systems, privacy may be compromised, as users' opinions are used to generate recommendations for others. In this paper, we consider an online collaborative recommendation system, and we measure users' privacy in terms of the standard differential privacy. We give the first quantitative analysis of the trade-offs between recommendation quality and users' privacy in such a system by showing a lower bound on the best achievable privacy for any non-trivial algorithm, and proposing a near-optimal algorithm. From our results, we find that there is actually little trade-off between recommendation quality and privacy for any non-trivial algorithm. Our results also identify the key parameters that determine the best achievable privacy.
- In this paper, we study the quantity of computational resources (state machine states and/or probabilistic transition precision) needed to solve specific problems in a single hop network where nodes communicate using only beeps. We begin by focusing on randomized leader election. We prove a lower bound on the states required to solve this problem with a given error bound, probability precision, and (when relevant) network size lower bound. We then show the bound tight with a matching upper bound. Noting that our optimal upper bound is slow, we describe two faster algorithms that trade some state optimality to gain efficiency. We then turn our attention to more general classes of problems by proving that once you have enough states to solve leader election with a given error bound, you have (within constant factors) enough states to simulate correctly, with this same error bound, a logspace TM with a constant number of unary input tapes: allowing you to solve a large and expressive set of problems. These results identify a key simplicity threshold beyond which useful distributed computation is possible in the beeping model.
- Aug 17 2015 cs.DC arXiv:1508.03579v1We generalize the technique of smoothed analysis to distributed algorithms in dynamic network models. Whereas standard smoothed analysis studies the impact of small random perturbations of input values on algorithm performance metrics, dynamic graph smoothed analysis studies the impact of random perturbations of the underlying changing network graph topologies. Similar to the original application of smoothed analysis, our goal is to study whether known strong lower bounds in dynamic network models are robust or fragile: do they withstand small (random) perturbations, or do such deviations push the graphs far enough from a precise pathological instance to enable much better performance? Fragile lower bounds are likely not relevant for real-world deployment, while robust lower bounds represent a true difficulty caused by dynamic behavior. We apply this technique to three standard dynamic network problems with known strong worst-case lower bounds: random walks, flooding, and aggregation. We prove that these bounds provide a spectrum of robustness when subjected to smoothing---some are extremely fragile (random walks), some are moderately fragile / robust (flooding), and some are extremely robust (aggregation).
- Jul 09 2015 cs.DS arXiv:1507.01981v2In this paper we look at the problem of scheduling tasks on a single-processor system, where each task requires unit time and must be scheduled within a certain time window, and each task can be added to or removed from the system at any time. On each operation, the system is allowed to reschedule any tasks, but the goal is to minimize the number of rescheduled tasks. Our main result is an allocator that maintains a valid schedule for all tasks in the system if their time windows have constant size and reschedules O(1/\epsilon*log(1/\epsilon)) tasks on each insertion as \epsilon->0, where \epsilon is a certain measure of the schedule flexibility of the system. We also show that it is optimal for any allocator that works on arbitrary instances. We also briefly mention a few variants of the problem, such as if the tasks have time windows of difference sizes, for which we have an allocator that we conjecture reschedules only 1 task on each insertion if the schedule flexibility remains above a certain threshold.
- Apr 09 2014 cs.DS arXiv:1404.2019v3Databases need to allocate and free blocks of storage on disk. Freed blocks introduce holes where no data is stored. Allocation systems attempt to reuse such deallocated regions in order to minimize the footprint on disk. If previously allocated blocks cannot be moved, the problem is called the memory allocation problem, which is known to have a logarithmic overhead in the footprint. This paper defines the storage reallocation problem, where previously allocated blocks can be moved, or reallocated, but at some cost. The algorithms presented here are cost oblivious, in that they work for a broad and reasonable class of cost functions, even when they do not know what the cost function is. The objective is to minimize the storage footprint, that is, the largest memory address containing an allocated object, while simultaneously minimizing the reallocation costs. This paper gives asymptotically optimal algorithms for storage reallocation, in which the storage footprint is at most (1+epsilon) times optimal, and the reallocation cost is at most (1/epsilon) times the original allocation cost, which is also optimal. The algorithms are cost oblivious as long as the allocation/reallocation cost function is subadditive.
- Randomized exponential backoff is a widely deployed technique for coordinating access to a shared resource. A good backoff protocol should, arguably, satisfy three natural properties: (i) it should provide constant throughput, wasting as little time as possible; (ii) it should require few failed access attempts, minimizing the amount of wasted effort; and (iii) it should be robust, continuing to work efficiently even if some of the access attempts fail for spurious reasons. Unfortunately, exponential backoff has some well-known limitations in two of these areas: it provides poor (sub-constant) throughput (in the worst case), and is not robust (to resource acquisition failures). The goal of this paper is to "fix" exponential backoff by making it scalable, particularly focusing on the case where processes arrive in an on-line, worst-case fashion. We present a relatively simple backoff protocol~Re-Backoff~that has, at its heart, a version of exponential backoff. It guarantees expected constant throughput with dynamic process arrivals and requires only an expected polylogarithmic number of access attempts per process. Re-Backoff is also robust to periods where the shared resource is unavailable for a period of time. If it is unavailable for $D$ time slots, Re-Backoff provides the following guarantees. When the number of packets is a finite $n$, the average expected number of access attempts for successfully sending a packet is $O(\log^2( n + D))$. In the infinite case, the average expected number of access attempts for successfully sending a packet is $O( \log^2(\eta) + \log^2(D) )$ where $\eta$ is the maximum number of processes that are ever in the system concurrently.
- May 29 2013 cs.DS arXiv:1305.6555v1In traditional on-line problems, such as scheduling, requests arrive over time, demanding available resources. As each request arrives, some resources may have to be irrevocably committed to servicing that request. In many situations, however, it may be possible or even necessary to reallocate previously allocated resources in order to satisfy a new request. This reallocation has a cost. This paper shows how to service the requests while minimizing the reallocation cost. We focus on the classic problem of scheduling jobs on a multiprocessor system. Each unit-size job has a time window in which it can be executed. Jobs are dynamically added and removed from the system. We provide an algorithm that maintains a valid schedule, as long as a sufficiently feasible schedule exists. The algorithm reschedules only a total number of O(minlog^* n, log^* Delta) jobs for each job that is inserted or deleted from the system, where n is the number of active jobs and Delta is the size of the largest window.
- Consider a time-slotted, single-hop, wireless sensor network (WSN) consisting of n correct devices and and t=f*n Byzantine devices where f>=0 is any constant; that is, the Byzantine devices may outnumber the correct ones. There exists a trusted sender Alice who wishes to deliver a message m over a single channel to the correct devices. There also exists a malicious user Carol who controls the t Byzantine devices and uses them to disrupt the communication channel. For a constant k>=2, the correct and Byzantine devices each possess a meager energy budget of O(n^1/k), Alice and Carol each possess a limited budget of \tildeO(n^1/k), and sending or listening in a slot incurs unit cost. This general setup captures the inherent challenges of guaranteeing communication despite scarce resources and attacks on the network. Given this Alice versus Carol scenario, we ask: Is communication of m feasible and, if so, at what cost? We develop a protocol which, for an arbitrarily small constant \epsilon>0, ensures that at least (1-\epsilon)n correct devices receive m with high probability. Furthermore, if Carol's devices expend T energy jamming the channel, then Alice and the correct devices each spend only \tildeO(T^1/(k+1)). In other words, delaying the transmission of m forces a jammer to rapidly deplete its energy supply and, consequently, cease attacks on the network.
- Dec 06 2011 cs.DS arXiv:1112.0784v1We consider the problem of detecting a cycle in a directed graph that grows by arc insertions, and the related problems of maintaining a topological order and the strong components of such a graph. For these problems, we give two algorithms, one suited to sparse graphs, and the other to dense graphs. The former takes the minimum of O(m^3/2) and O(mn^2/3) time to insert m arcs into an n-vertex graph; the latter takes O(n^2 log(n)) time. Our sparse algorithm is considerably simpler than a previous O(m^3/2)-time algorithm; it is also faster on graphs of sufficient density. The time bound of our dense algorithm beats the previously best time bound of O(n^5/2) for dense graphs. Our algorithms rely for their efficiency on topologically ordered vertex numberings; bounds on the size of the numbers give bound on running times.