results for au:Gasenzer_T in:cond-mat

- We outline a kinetic theory of non-thermal fixed points for the example of a dilute Bose gas, partially reviewing results obtained earlier, thereby extending, complementing, generalizing and straightening them out. We study universal dynamics after a cooling quench, focusing on situations where the time evolution represents a pure rescaling of spatial correlations, with time defining the scale parameter. The non-equilibrium initial condition set by the quench induces a redistribution of particles in momentum space. Depending on conservation laws, this can take the form of a wave-turbulent flux or of a more general self-similar evolution, signaling the critically slowed approach to a non-thermal fixed point. We identify such fixed points using a non-perturbative kinetic theory of collective scattering between highly occupied long-wavelength modes. In contrast, a wave-turbulent flux, possible in the perturbative Boltzmann regime, builds up in a critically accelerated self-similar manner. A key result is the simple analytical universal scaling form of the non-perturbative many-body scattering matrix, for which we lay out the concrete conditions under which it applies. We derive the scaling exponents for the time evolution as well as for the power-law tail of the momentum distribution function, for a general dynamical critical exponent $z$ and an anomalous scaling dimension $\eta$. The approach of the non-thermal fixed point is, in particular, found to involve a rescaling of momenta in time $t$ by $t^{\beta}$, with $\beta=1/z$, within our kinetic approach independent of $\eta$. We confirm our analytical predictions by numerically evaluating the kinetic scattering integral as well as the non-perturbative many-body coupling function. As a side result we obtain a possible finite-size interpretation of wave-turbulent scaling recently measured by Navon et al.
- Aug 09 2017 cond-mat.quant-gas quant-ph arXiv:1708.02407v1A key resource for distributed quantum-enhanced protocols is entanglement between spatially separated modes. Yet, the robust generation and detection of nonlocal entanglement between spatially separated regions of an ultracold atomic system remains a challenge. Here, we use spin mixing in a tightly confined Bose-Einstein condensate to generate an entangled state of indistinguishable particles in a single spatial mode. We show experimentally that this local entanglement can be spatially distributed by self-similar expansion of the atomic cloud. Spatially resolved spin read-out is used to reveal a particularly strong form of quantum correlations known as Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering between distinct parts of the expanded cloud. Based on the strength of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen steering we construct a witness, which testifies up to genuine five-partite entanglement.
- We use the coordinate Bethe ansatz to study the Lieb-Liniger model of a one-dimensional gas of bosons on a finite-sized ring interacting via an attractive delta-function potential. We calculate zero-temperature correlation functions for seven particles in the vicinity of the crossover to a localized solitonic state and study the dynamics of a system of four particles quenched to attractive interactions from the ideal-gas ground state. We determine the time evolution of correlation functions, as well as their temporal averages, and discuss the role of bound states in shaping the postquench correlations and relaxation dynamics.
- By analyzing spin-spin correlation functions at relatively short distances, we show that equilibrium near-critical properties can be extracted at short times after quenches into the vicinity of a quantum critical point. The time scales after which equilibrium properties can be extracted are sufficiently short so that the proposed scheme should be viable for quantum simulators of spin models based on ultracold atoms or trapped ions. Our results, analytic as well as numeric, are for one-dimensional spin models, either integrable or nonintegrable, but we expect our conclusions to be valid in higher dimensions as well.
- Universal scaling behavior in the relaxation dynamics of an isolated two-dimensional Bose gas is studied by means of semi-classical stochastic simulations of the Gross-Pitaevskii model. The system is quenched far out of equilibrium by imprinting vortex defects into an otherwise phase-coherent condensate. A strongly anomalous non-thermal fixed point is identified, associated with a slowed decay of the defects in the case that the dissipative coupling to the thermal background noise is suppressed. At this fixed point, a large anomalous exponent $\eta \simeq -3$ and, related to this, a large dynamical exponent $z \simeq 5$ are identified. The corresponding power-law decay is found to be consistent with three-vortex-collision induced loss. The article discusses these aspects of non-thermal fixed points in the context of phase-ordering kinetics and coarsening dynamics, thus relating phenomenological and analytical approaches to classifying far-from-equilibrium scaling dynamics with each other. In particular, a close connection between the anomalous scaling exponent $\eta$, introduced in a quantum-field theoretic approach, and conservation-law induced scaling in classical phase-ordering kinetics is revealed. Moreover, the relation to superfluid turbulence as well as to driven stationary systems is discussed.
- We review the recent progress in the understanding of the relaxation of isolated near-integrable quantum many-body systems. Focusing on prethermalization and universal dynamics following a quench, we describe the experiments with ultracold atomic gases that illustrate these phenomena and summarize the essential theoretical concepts employed to interpret them. Our discussion highlights the key topics that link the different approaches to this interdisciplinary field, including the generalized Gibbs ensemble, non-thermal fixed points, critical slowing and universal scaling. Finally, we point to new experimental challenges demonstrating these fundamental features of many-body quantum systems out of equilibrium.
- Jan 26 2016 cond-mat.quant-gas arXiv:1601.06197v1The problem of understanding how a coherent, macroscopic Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) emerges from the cooling of a thermal Bose gas has attracted significant theoretical and experimental interest over several decades. The pioneering achievement of BEC in weakly-interacting dilute atomic gases in 1995 was followed by a number of experimental studies examining the growth of the BEC number, as well as the development of its coherence. More recently there has been interest in connecting such experiments to universal aspects of nonequilibrium phase transitions, in terms of both static and dynamical critical exponents. Here, the spontaneous formation of topological structures such as vortices and solitons in quenched cold-atom experiments has enabled the verification of the Kibble-Zurek mechanism predicting the density of topological defects in continuous phase transitions, first proposed in the context of the evolution of the early universe. This chapter reviews progress in the understanding of BEC formation, and discusses open questions and future research directions in the dynamics of phase transitions in quantum gases.
- We use the coordinate Bethe ansatz to exactly calculate matrix elements between eigenstates of the Lieb-Liniger model of one-dimensional bosons interacting via a two-body delta-potential. We investigate the static correlation functions of the zero-temperature ground state and their dependence on interaction strength, and analyze the effects of system size in the crossover from few-body to mesoscopic regimes for up to seven particles. We also obtain time-dependent nonequilibrium correlation functions for five particles following quenches of the interaction strength from two distinct initial states. One quench is from the non-interacting ground state and the other from a correlated ground state near the strongly interacting Tonks-Girardeau regime. The final interaction strength and conserved energy are chosen to be the same for both quenches. The integrability of the model highly constrains its dynamics, and we demonstrate that the time-averaged correlation functions following quenches from these two distinct initial conditions are both nonthermal and moreover distinct from one another.
- The nonequilibrium time evolution of a quantum dot is studied by means of dynamic equations for time-dependent Greens functions derived from a two-particle-irreducible (2PI) effective action for the Anderson impurity model. Coupling the dot between two leads at different voltages, the dynamics of the current through the dot is investigated. We show that the 2PI approach is capable to describe the dynamical build-up of the Kondo effect, which shows up as a sharp resonance in the spectral function, with a width exponentially suppressed in the electron self coupling on the dot. An external voltage applied to the dot is found to deteriorate the Kondo effect at the hybridization scale. The dynamic equations are evaluated within different nonperturbative resummation schemes, within the direct, particle-particle, and particle-hole channels, as well as their combination, and the results compared with that from other methods.
- We report on the experimental observation of scaling in the time evolution following a sudden quench into the vicinity of a quantum critical point. The experimental system, a two-component Bose gas with coherent exchange between the constituents, allows for the necessary high level of control of parameters as well as the access to time-resolved spatial correlation functions. The theoretical analysis reveals that when quenching the system close to the critical point, the energy introduced by the quench leads to a short-time evolution exhibiting crossover reminiscent of the finite-temperature critical properties in the system's universality class. Observing the time evolution after a quench represents a paradigm shift in accessing and probing experimentally universal properties close to a quantum critical point and allows in a new way benchmarking of quantum many-body theory with experiments.
- Knowledge of all correlation functions of a system is equivalent to solving the corresponding many-body problem. Already a finite set of correlation functions can be sufficient to describe a quantum many-body system if correlations factorise, at least approximately. While being a powerful theoretical concept, an implementation based on experimental data has so far remained elusive. Here, this is achieved by applying it to a non-trivial quantum many-body problem: A pair of tunnel-coupled one-dimensional atomic superfluids. From measured interference patterns we extract phase correlation functions up to tenth order and analyse if, and under which conditions, they factorise. This characterises the essential features of the system, the relevant quasiparticles, their interactions and possible topologically distinct vacua. We verify that in thermal equilibrium the physics can be described by the quantum sine-Gordon model, relevant for a wide variety of disciplines from particle to condensed-matter physics. Our experiment establishes a general method to analyse quantum many-body systems in experiments. It represents a crucial ingredient towards the implementation and verification of quantum simulators.
- The connection between the non-equilibrium dynamics of isolated quantum many-body systems and statistical mechanics is a fundamental open question. It is generally believed that the unitary quantum evolution of a sufficiently complex system leads to an apparent maximum-entropy state that can be described by thermodynamical ensembles. However, conventional ensembles fail to describe the large class of systems that exhibit non-trivial conserved quantities. Instead, generalized ensembles have been predicted to maximize entropy in these systems. In our experiments we explicitly show that a degenerate one-dimensional Bose gas relaxes to a state that can be described by such a generalized ensemble. This is verified through a detailed study of correlation functions up to 10th order. The applicability of the generalized ensemble description for isolated quantum many-body systems points to a natural emergence of classical statistical properties from the microscopic unitary quantum evolution.
- We study the far-from-equilibrium dynamics of a (2+1)-dimensional superfluid at finite temperature and chemical potential using its holographic description in terms of a gravitational system in 3+1 dimensions. Starting from various initial conditions corresponding to ensembles of vortex defects we numerically evolve the system to long times. At intermediate times the system exhibits Kolmogorov scaling the emergence of which depends on the choice of initial conditions. We further observe a universal late-time regime in which the occupation spectrum and different length scales of the superfluid exhibit scaling behaviour. We study these scaling laws in view of superfluid turbulence and interpret the universal late-time regime as a non-thermal fixed point of the dynamical evolution. In the holographic superfluid the non-thermal fixed point can be understood as a stationary point of the classical equations of motion of the dual gravitational description.
- Jul 21 2014 cond-mat.quant-gas cond-mat.stat-mech arXiv:1407.4998v3We investigate the relaxation dynamics of the integrable Lieb-Liniger model of contact-interacting bosons in one dimension following a sudden quench of the collisional interaction strength. The system is initially prepared in its noninteracting ground state and the interaction strength is then abruptly switched to a positive value, corresponding to repulsive interactions between the bosons. We calculate equal-time correlation functions of the nonequilibrium Bose field for small systems of up to five particles via symbolic evaluation of coordinate Bethe-ansatz expressions for operator matrix elements between Lieb-Liniger eigenstates. We characterize the relaxation of the system by comparing the time-evolving correlation functions following the quench to the equilibrium correlations predicted by the diagonal ensemble and relate the behavior of these correlations to that of the quantum fidelity between the many-body wave function and the initial state of the system. Our results for the asymptotic scaling of local second-order correlations with increasing interaction strength agree with the predictions of recent generalized thermodynamic Bethe-ansatz calculations. By contrast, third-order correlations obtained within our approach exhibit a markedly different power-law dependence on the interaction strength as the Tonks-Girardeau limit of infinitely strong interactions is approached.
- Scaling in the dynamical properties of complex many-body systems has been of strong interest since turbulence phenomena became the subject of systematic mathematical studies. In this article, dynamical critical phenomena far from equilibrium are investigated with functional renormalisation group equations. The focus is set on scaling solutions of the stochastic driven-dissipative Burgers equation and their relation to solutions known in the literature for Burgers and Kardar-Parisi-Zhang dynamics. We furthermore relate superfluid as well as acoustic turbulence described by the Gross-Pitaevskii model to known analytic and numerical results for scaling solutions. In this way, the canonical Kolmogorov exponent 5/3 for the energy cascade in superfluid turbulence is obtained analytically. We also get first results for anomalous exponents of acoustic and quantum turbulence. These are consistent with existing experimental data. Our results should be relevant for future experiments with, e.g., exciton-polariton condensates in solid-state systems as well as with ultra-cold atomic gases.
- Quasi-stationary far-from-equilibrium critical states of a two-component Bose gas are studied in two spatial dimensions. After the system has undergone an initial dynamical instability it approaches a non-thermal fixed point. At this critical point the structure of the gas is characterised by ensembles of (quasi-)topological defects such as vortices, skyrmions and solitons which give rise to universal power-law behaviour of momentum correlation functions. The resulting power-law spectra can be interpreted in terms of strong-wave-turbulence cascades driven by particle transport into long-wave-length excitations. Scaling exponents are determined on both sides of the miscible-immiscible transition controlled by the ratio of the intra-species to inter-species couplings. Making use of quantum turbulence methods, we explain the specific values of the exponents from the presence of transient (quasi-)topological defects.
- The real-time dynamics of topological defects and turbulent configurations of gauge fields for electric and magnetic confinement are studied numerically within a 2+1D Abelian Higgs model. It is shown that confinement is appearing in such systems equilibrating after a strong initial quench such as the overpopulation of the infrared modes. While the final equilibrium state does not support confinement, metastable vortex defect configurations appear in the gauge field which are found to be closely related to the appearance of physically observable confined electric and magnetic charges. These phenomena are seen to be intimately related to the approach of a non-thermal fixed point of the far-from-equilibrium dynamical evolution, signalled by universal scaling in the gauge-invariant correlation function of the Higgs field. Even when the parameters of the Higgs action do not support condensate formation in the vacuum, during this approach, transient Higgs condensation is observed. We discuss implications of these results for the far-from-equilibrium dynamics of Yang-Mills fields and potential mechanisms how confinement and condensation in non-abelian gauge fields can be understood in terms of the dynamics of Higgs models. These suggest that there is an interesting new class of dynamics of strong coherent turbulent gauge fields with condensates.
- In these notes we discuss recent developments in the field of non-equilibrium quantum dynamics. Specifically, we consider nearly coherent Bose gases brought far out of equilibrium and study their behaviour in view of connections between universal properties, (quasi-)topological field configurations and turbulent dynamics. We demonstrate that the isolated Bose gas, on its way back to thermal equilibrium, can approach metastable non-equilibrium configurations and spend a long time in their vicinity. In such configurations, which have been termed non-thermal fixed points, the system shows universal long-range properties manifest through scaling, i.e., self-similar correlations. The spatial field pattern, at the same time, is characterized by the appearance of defects and domain formation whose geometry gives rise to the particular scaling laws seen in the correlation functions. We obtain an overall picture which connects well-known concepts for describing universal dynamics such as wave-turbulence, superfluid turbulence, and (quasi-)topological excitations. This allows to bring together a wide range of concepts and methods with a large spectrum of applications.
- Possible universal dynamics of a many-body system far from thermal equilibrium are explored. A focus is set on meta-stable non-thermal states exhibiting critical properties such as self-similarity and independence of the details of how the respective state has been reached. It is proposed that universal dynamics far from equilibrium can be tuned to exhibit a dynamical phase transition where these critical properties change qualitatively. This is demonstrated for the case of a superfluid two-component Bose gas exhibiting different types of long-lived but non-thermal critical order. Scaling exponents controlled by the ratio of experimentally tuneable coupling parameters offer themselves as natural smoking guns. The results shed light on the wealth of universal phenomena expected to exist in the far-from-equilibrium realm.
- It is demonstrated how a many-body system far from thermal equilibrium can exhibit universal dynamics in passing a non-thermal fixed point. As an example, the process of Bose-Einstein (BE) condensation of a dilute cold gas is considered. If the particle flux into the low-energy modes, induced, e.g., by a cooling quench, is sufficiently strong, the Bose gas develops a characteristic power-law single-particle spectrum $n(k)\sim k^{-5}$, and critical slowing down in time occurs. The fixed point is shown to be marked by the creation and dilution of tangled vortex lines. Alternatively, for a weak cooling quench and particle flux, the condensation process runs quasi adiabatically, passing by the fixed point in far distance, and signatures of critical scaling remain absent.
- Critical dynamics of an ultracold Bose gas far from equilibrium is studied in two spatial dimensions. Superfluid turbulence is created by quenching the equilibrium state close to zero temperature. Instead of immediately re-thermalizing, the system approaches a meta-stable transient state, characterized as a non-thermal fixed point. A focus is set on the vortex density and vortex-antivortex correlations which characterize the evolution towards the non-thermal fixed point and the departure to final (quasi-)condensation. Two distinct power-law regimes in the vortex-density decay are found and discussed in terms of a vortex binding-unbinding transition and a kinetic description of vortex scattering. A possible relation to decaying turbulence in classical fluids is pointed out. By comparing the results to equilibrium studies of a two-dimensional Bose gas, an intuitive understanding of the location of the non-thermal fixed point in a reduced phase space is developed.
- Single-particle momentum spectra for a dynamically evolving one-dimensional Bose gas are analysed in the semi-classical wave limit. Representing one of the simplest correlation functions these give information about possible universal scaling behaviour. Motivated by the previously discovered connection between (quasi-)topological field configurations, strong wave turbulence, and nonthermal fixed points of quantum field dynamics, soliton formation is studied with respect to the appearance of transient power-law spectra. A random-soliton model is developed to describe the spectra analytically, and the analogies and difference between the appearing power laws and those found in a field theory approach to strong wave turbulence are discussed. The results open a view on solitary wave dynamics from the point of view of critical phenomena far from thermal equilibrium and on a possibility to study this dynamics in experiment without the necessity of detecting solitons in situ.
- Nonthermal fixed points of the dynamics of a dilute degenerate Bose gas far from thermal equilibrium are analyzed in two and three spatial dimensions. Universal power-law distributions, previously found within a nonperturbative quantum-field theoretical approach and recently shown to be related to vortical dynamics and superfluid turbulence [Phys. Rev. B 84, 020506(R) (2011)], are studied in detail. The results imply an interpretation of the scaling behavior in terms of independent vortex excitations of the superfluid and show that the statistics of topological excitations can be described in the framework of wave turbulence. The particular scaling exponents observed in the single-particle momentum distributions are found to be consistent with irreversibility as well as conservation laws obeyed by the wave interactions. Moreover, long-wavelength acoustic excitations of the vortex-bearing condensate, driven by vortex annihilations, are found to follow a nonthermal power law. Considering vortex correlations in a statistical model, the long-time departure from the nonthermal fixed point is related to vortex-antivortex pairing. The studied nonthermal fixed points are accessible in cold-gas experiments. The results shed light on fundamental aspects of superfluid turbulence and have strong potential implications for related phenomena, e.g., in early-universe inflation or quark-gluon plasma dynamics.
- New aspects of parametrically resonant heating of a relativistic scalar O(2)-symmetric self-interacting field are presented. This process is a candidate for reheating at the end of the early-universe epoch of inflation. Although a model with a fully O(2)-symmetric ground state is used, transient, metastable spontaneous symmetry breaking can be observed. This manifests itself in the form of persistent regimes of opposite and, inside these, uniform charge overdensities separated by thin lines and walls similar to topological defects, in two and three spatial dimensions, respectively. The configuration is found to correspond to an attractive non-equilibrium fixed point of the underlying dynamic equations which prevents thermalisation over an extended period of time.
- Jan 04 2011 cond-mat.quant-gas hep-ph arXiv:1101.0397v2We discuss functional-integral approaches to far-from-equilibrium quantum many-body dynamics. Specific techniques considered include the two-particle-irreducible effective action and the real-time flow-equation approach. Different applications, including equilibration after a sudden parameter change and non-equilibrium critical phenomena, illustrate the potential of these methods.
- The non-equilibrium time evolution of an Anderson quantum dot is investigated. The quantum dot is coupled between two leads forming a chemical-potential gradient. We use Kadanoff-Baym dynamic equations within a non-perturbative resummation of the s-channel bubble chains. The effect of the resummation leads to the introduction of a frequency-dependent 4-point vertex. The tunneling to the leads is taken into account exactly. The method allows the determination of the transient as well as stationary transport through the quantum dot, and results are compared with different schemes discussed in the literature (fRG, ISPI, tDMRG and QMC).
- Nonthermal fixed points of far-from-equilibrium dynamics of a dilute degenerate Bose gas are analysed in two and three spatial dimensions. For such systems, universal power-law distributions, previously found within a nonperturbative quantum-field theoretic approach, are shown to be related to vortical dynamics and superfluid turbulence. The results imply an interpretation of the momentum scaling at the nonthermal fixed points in terms of independent vortex excitations of the superfluid. Long-wavelength acoustic excitations on the top of these are found to follow a non-thermal power law. The results shed light on fundamental aspects of superfluid turbulence and have strong potential implications for related phenomena studied, e.g., in early-universe inflation or quark-gluon plasma dynamics.
- Nonequilibrium dynamics of an N-fold spin-degenerate ultracold Fermi gas is described in terms of beyond-mean-field Kadanoff-Baym equations for correlation functions. Using a nonperturbative expansion in powers of 1/N, the equations are derived from the two-particle irreducible effective action in Schwinger-Keldysh formulation. The definition of the nonperturbative approximation on the level of the effective action ensures vital conservation laws as, e.g., for the total energy and particle number. As an example, the long-time evolution of a homogeneous, twofold spin-degenerate Fermi gas is studied in one spatial dimension after an initial preparation far from thermal equilibrium. Analysis of the fluctuation-dissipation relation shows that, at low energies, the gas does not thermalise.
- Equilibration of an isolated Fermi gas in one spatial dimension after an interaction quench is studied. Evaluating Kadanoff-Beym dynamic equations for correlation functions obtained from the two-particle-irreducible effective action in nonperturbative approximation, the gas is seen to evolve to states characterized by thermal as well as nonthermal momentum distributions, depending on the assumed initial conditions. For total energies near the Fermi temperature, stationary power laws emerge for the high-momentum tails while at lower momenta the distributions are of Fermi-Dirac type. The relation found between fluctuations and dissipation exhibits nonthermal final states.
- The theory of real-time quantum many-body dynamics as put forward in Ref. [arXiv:0710.4627] is evaluated in detail. The formulation is based on a generating functional of correlation functions where the Keldysh contour is closed at a given time. Extending the Keldysh contour from this time to a later time leads to a dynamic flow of the generating functional. This flow describes the dynamics of the system and has an explicit causal structure. In the present work it is evaluated within a vertex expansion of the effective action leading to time evolution equations for Green functions. These equations are applicable for strongly interacting systems as well as for studying the late-time behaviour of nonequilibrium time evolution. For the specific case of a bosonic N-component phi^4 theory with contact interactions an s-channel truncation is identified to yield equations identical to those derived from the 2PI effective action in next-to-leading order of a 1/N expansion. The presented approach allows to directly obtain non-perturbative dynamic equations beyond the widely used 2PI approximations.
- Feb 15 2010 cond-mat.quant-gas arXiv:1002.2504v1The dynamical evolution of squeezing correlations in an ultracold Bose-Einstein distributed across two modes is investigated theoretically in the framework of the Bose-Hubbard model. It is shown that the eigenstates of the Hamiltonian do not exploit the full region allowed by Heisenberg's uncertainty relation for number and phase fluctuations. The development of non-classical correlations and relative number squeezing is studied in the transition from the Josephson to the Fock regime. Comparing the full quantum evolution with classical statistical simulations allows to identify quantum aspects of the squeezing formation. In the quantum regime, the measurement of squeezing allows to distinguish even and odd total particle numbers.
- Turbulent scaling phenomena are studied in an ultracold Bose gas away from thermal equilibrium. Fixed points of the dynamical evolution are characterized in terms of universal scaling exponents of correlation functions. The scaling behavior is determined analytically in the framework of quantum field theory, using a nonperturbative approximation of the two-particle irreducible effective action. While perturbative Kolmogorov scaling is recovered at higher energies, scaling solutions with anomalously large exponents arise in the infrared regime of the turbulence spectrum. The extraordinary enhancement in the momentum dependence of long-range correlations could be experimentally accessible in dilute ultracold atomic gases. Such experiments have the potential to provide insight into dynamical phenomena directly relevant also in other present-day focus areas like heavy-ion collisions and early-universe cosmology.
- Jul 28 2009 cond-mat.quant-gas arXiv:0907.4608v1We derive a $1/c$-expansion for the single-particle density matrix of a strongly interacting time-dependent one-dimensional Bose gas, described by the Lieb-Liniger model ($c$ denotes the strength of the interaction). The formalism is derived by expanding Gaudin's Fermi-Bose mapping operator up to $1/c$-terms. We derive an efficient numerical algorithm for calculating the density matrix for time-dependent states in the strong coupling limit, which evolve from a family of initial conditions in the absence of an external potential. We have applied the formalism to study contraction dynamics of a localized wave packet upon which a parabolic phase is imprinted initially.
- Dec 02 2008 cond-mat.other arXiv:0812.0004v2Ultracold atomic quantum gases belong to the most exciting challenges of modern physics. Their theoretical description has drawn much from classical field equations. These mean-field approximations are in general reliable for dilute gases in which the atoms collide only rarely with each other, and for situations where the gas is not too far from thermal equilibrium. With present-day technology it is, however, possible to drive and observe a system far away from equilibrium. Functional quantum field theory provides powerful tools to achieve both, analytical understanding and numerical computability, also in higher dimensions, of far-from-equilibrium quantum many-body dynamics. In the article, an outline of these approaches is given, including methods based on the two-particle irreducible effective action as well as on renormalisation-group theory. Their relation to near-equilibrium kinetic theory is discussed, and the distinction between quantum and classical statistical fluctuations is shown to naturally emerge from the functional-integral description. Example applications to the evolution of an ultracold atomic Bose gas in one spatial dimension underline the power of the methods. The article is compiled from the notes for lectures held at 46. Internationale Universitaetswochen fuer Theoretische Physik 2008 in Schladming, Austria.
- Apr 17 2008 cond-mat.other arXiv:0804.2580v3The asymptotic form of the wave functions describing a freely expanding Lieb-Liniger gas is derived by using a Fermi-Bose transformation for time-dependent states, and the stationary phase approximation. We find that asymptotically the wave functions approach the Tonks-Girardeau (TG) structure as they vanish when any two of the particle coordinates coincide. We point out that the properties of these asymptotic states can significantly differ from the properties of a TG gas in a ground state of an external potential. The dependence of the asymptotic wave function on the initial state is discussed. The analysis encompasses a large class of initial conditions, including the ground states of a Lieb-Liniger gas in physically realistic external potentials. It is also demonstrated that the interaction energy asymptotically decays as a universal power law with time, $E_\mathrm{int}\propto t^{-3}$.
- Jan 30 2008 cond-mat.other hep-ph arXiv:0801.4466v2The far-from-equilibrium dynamics of an ultracold, one-dimensional Bose gas is studied. The focus is set on the comparison between the solutions of fully dynamical evolution equations derived from the 2PI effective action and their corresponding kinetic approximation in the form of Boltzmann-type transport equations. It is shown that during the time evolution of the gas a kinetic description which includes non-Markovian memory effects in a gradient expansion becomes valid. The time scale at which this occurs is shown to exceed significantly the time scale at which the system's evolution enters a near-equilibrium drift period where a fluctuation dissipation relation is found to hold and which would seem to be predestined for the kinetic approximation.
- Dynamic equations for quantum fields far from equilibrium are derived by use of functional renormalisation group techniques. The obtained equations are non-perturbative and lead substantially beyond mean-field and quantum Boltzmann type approximations. The approach is based on a regularised version of the generating functional for correlation functions where times greater than a chosen cutoff time are suppressed. As a central result, a time evolution equation for the non-equilibrium effective action is derived, and the time-evolution of the Green functions is computed within a vertex expansion. It is shown that this agrees with the dynamics derived from the 1/N-expansion of the two-particle irreducible effective action.
- Sep 11 2007 cond-mat.other arXiv:0709.1444v2Exact solutions of the Schrodinger equation describing a freely expanding Lieb-Liniger (LL) gas of delta-interacting bosons in one spatial dimension are constructed. The many-body wave function is obtained by transforming a fully antisymmetric (fermionic) time-dependent wave function which obeys the Schrodinger equation for a free gas. This transformation employs a differential Fermi-Bose mapping operator which depends on the strength of the interaction and the number of particles.
- We investigate the conditions under which quantum fluctuations are relevant for the quantitative interpretation of experiments with ultracold Bose gases. This requires to go beyond the description in terms of the Gross-Pitaevskii and Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov mean-field theories, which can be obtained as classical (statistical) field-theory approximations of the quantum many-body problem. We employ functional-integral techniques based on the two-particle irreducible (2PI) effective action. The role of quantum fluctuations is studied within the nonperturbative 2PI 1/N expansion to next-to-leading order. At this accuracy level memory-integrals enter the dynamic equations, which differ for quantum and classical statistical descriptions. This can be used to obtain a 'classicality' condition for the many-body dynamics. We exemplify this condition by studying the nonequilibrium evolution of a 1D Bose gas of sodium atoms, and discuss some distinctive properties of quantum versus classical statistical dynamics.
- Aug 28 2006 cond-mat.other hep-ph arXiv:cond-mat/0608553v1We calculate the time evolution of a far-from-equilibrium initial state of a non-relativistic ultracold Bose gas in one spatial dimension. The non-perturbative approximation scheme is based on a systematic expansion of the two-particle irreducible effective action in powers of the inverse number of field components. This yields dynamic equations which contain direct scattering, memory and off-shell effects that are not captured in mean-field theory.
- Jul 06 2006 cond-mat.other arXiv:cond-mat/0607116v1The dynamical evolution of a Bose-Einstein condensate trapped in a one-dimensional lattice potential is investigated theoretically in the framework of the Bose-Hubbard model. The emphasis is set on the far-from-equilibrium evolution in a case where the gas is strongly interacting. This is realized by an appropriate choice of the parameters in the Hamiltonian, and by starting with an initial state, where one lattice well contains a Bose-Einstein condensate while all other wells are empty. Oscillations of the condensate as well as non-condensate fractions of the gas between the different sites of the lattice are found to be damped as a consequence of the collisional interactions between the atoms. Functional integral techniques involving self-consistently determined mean fields as well as two-point correlation functions are used to derive the two-particle-irreducible (2PI) effective action. The action is expanded in inverse powers of the number of field components N, and the dynamic equations are derived from it to next-to-leading order in this expansion. This approach reaches considerably beyond the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov mean-field theory, and its results are compared to the exact quantum dynamics obtained by A.M. Rey et al., Phys. Rev. A 69, 033610 (2004) for small atom numbers.
- A dynamical many-body theory is presented which systematically extends beyond mean-field and perturbative quantum-field theoretical procedures. It allows us to study the dynamics of strongly interacting quantum-degenerate atomic gases. The non-perturbative approximation scheme is based on a systematic expansion of the two-particle irreducible effective action in powers of the inverse number of field components. This yields dynamic equations which contain direct scattering, memory and ``off-shell'' effects that are not captured by the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. This is relevant to account for the dynamics of, e.g., strongly interacting quantum gases atoms near a scattering resonance, or of one-dimensional Bose gases in the Tonks-Girardeau regime. We apply the theory to a homogeneous ultracold Bose gas in one spatial dimension. Considering the time evolution of an initial state far from equilibrium we show that it quickly evolves to a non-equilibrium quasistationary state and discuss the possibility to attribute an effective temperature to it. The approach to thermal equilibrium is found to be extremely slow.
- Jun 28 2004 cond-mat.other arXiv:cond-mat/0406629v1A dynamical many body theory of single color photoassociation in a Bose-Einstein condensate is presented. The theory describes the time evolution of a condensed atomic ensemble under the influence of an arbitrarily varying near resonant laser pulse, which strongly modifies the binary scattering properties. In particular, when considering situations with rapid variations and high light intensities the approach described in this article leads, in a consistent way, beyond standard mean field techniques. This allows to address the question of limits to the photoassociation rate due to many body effects which has caused extensive discussions in the recent past. Both, the possible loss rate of condensate atoms and the amount of stable ground state molecules achievable within a certain time are found to be stronger limited than according to mean field theory. By systematically treating the dynamics of the connected Green's function for pair correlations the resonantly driven population of the excited molecular state as well as scattering into the continuum of non-condensed atomic states are taken into account. A detailed analysis of the low energy stationary scattering properties of two atoms modified by the near resonant photoassociation laser, in particular of the dressed state spectrum of the relative motion prepares for the analysis of the many body dynamics. The consequences of the finite lifetime of the resonantly coupled bound state are discussed in the two body as well as in the many body context. Extending the two body description to scattering in a tight trap reveals the modifications to the near resonant adiabatic dressed levels caused by the decay of the excited molecular state.
- Jan 14 2004 cond-mat.other arXiv:cond-mat/0401219v2We investigate theoretically the molecular yield in photoassociation of Bose-Einstein condensed sodium atoms for light intensities of the order of and above those applied in a recent experiment. Our results show that the rate at which ground state molecules may be formed saturates at high light intensities whereas the loss rate of condensate atoms does not. This is caused by the opposing roles of the short and long range pair correlations present near resonance under the influence of the laser and is crucial for the development of efficient photoassociation procedures in a condensate.
- The Gross-Pitaevskii equation has been extremely successful in the theory of weakly-interacting Bose-Einstein condensates. However, present-day experiments reach beyond the regime of its validity due to the significant role of correlations. We review a method of tackling the dynamics of correlations in Bose condensed gases, in terms of noncommutative cumulants. This new approach has a wide range of applicability in the areas of current interest, e.g. the production of molecules and the manipulation of interactions in condensates. It also offers an interesting perspective on the classical-field methods for partly condensed Bose gases.
- We theoretically study a pulsed stimulated two-photon Raman outcoupler for an atom laser using a full three-dimensional description. A finite-temperature trapped Bose-condensed atomic gas is treated self-consistently by the Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov equations. The model is closely related to a recent experiment on optical outcoupling [E.W. Hagley et al., Science 283, 1706 (1999)]. We analyze the momentum distribution of the output atoms and show how the output beam may be used as a probe of the quantum state for the trapped atomic gas and how it could be engineered and controlled in a nonlinear way.
- May 06 2003 cond-mat.other arXiv:cond-mat/0305060v4The production of pairs of fast atoms leads to a pronounced loss of atoms during upward ramps of Feshbach resonance levels in dilute Bose-Einstein condensates. We provide comparative studies on the formation of these bursts of atoms containing the physical predictions of several theoretical approaches at different levels of approximation. We show that despite their very different description of the microscopic binary physics during the passage of a Feshbach resonance, all approaches lead to virtually the same prediction on the total loss of condensate atoms, provided that the ramp of the magnetic field strength is purely linear. We give the reasons for this remarkable insensitivity of the remnant condensate fraction to the microscopic physical processes and compare the theoretical predictions with recent Feshbach resonance crossing experiments on 23Na and 85Rb.
- Feb 05 2003 cond-mat arXiv:cond-mat/0302082v1We discuss the long range nature of the molecules produced in recent experiments on molecular Bose-Einstein condensation. The properties of these molecules depend on the full two-body Hamiltonian and not just on the states of the system in the absence of interchannel couplings. The very long range nature of the state is crucial to the efficiency of production in the experiments. Our many-body treatment of the gas accounts for the full binary physics and describes properly how these molecular condensates can be directly probed.
- Sep 05 2002 cond-mat arXiv:cond-mat/0209100v1In a recent experiment at JILA [E.A. Donley et al., Nature (London) 417, 529 (2002)] an initially pure condensate of Rb-85 atoms was exposed to a specially designed time dependent magnetic field pulse in the vicinity of a Feshbach resonance. The production of new components of the gas as well as their oscillatory behavior have been reported. We apply a microscopic theory of the gas to identify these components and determine their physical properties. Our time dependent studies allow us to explain the observed dynamic evolution of all fractions, and to identify the physical relevance of the pulse shape. Based on ab initio predictions, our theory strongly supports the view that the experiments have produced a molecular condensate.