results for au:Fuchs_C in:quant-ph

- May 11 2017 quant-ph physics.hist-ph arXiv:1705.03483v1Without Niels Bohr, QBism would be nothing. But QBism is not Bohr. This paper attempts to show that, despite a popular misconception, QBism is no minor tweak to Bohr's interpretation of quantum mechanics. It is something quite distinct. Along the way, we lay out three tenets of QBism in some detail: 1) The Born Rule---the foundation of what quantum theory means for QBism---is a normative statement. It is about the decision-making behavior any individual agent should strive for; it is not a descriptive "law of nature" in the usual sense. 2) All probabilities, including all quantum probabilities, are so subjective they never tell nature what to do. This includes probability-1 assignments. Quantum states thus have no "ontic hold" on the world. 3) Quantum measurement outcomes just are personal experiences for the agent gambling upon them. Particularly, quantum measurement outcomes are not, to paraphrase Bohr, instances of "irreversible amplification in devices whose design is communicable in common language suitably refined by the terminology of classical physics." Finally, an explicit comparison is given between QBism and Bohr with regard to three subjects: a) The issue of the "detached observer" as it arose in a debate between Pauli and Bohr, b) Bohr's reply to Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen, and c) Bohr's mature notion of "quantum phenomena." At the end, we discuss how Bohr's notion of phenomena may have something to offer the philosophy of William James: A physics from which to further develop his vision of the world---call it an ontology if you will---in which "new being comes in local spots and patches."
- Mar 27 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1703.08272v2The appearance of negative terms in quasiprobability representations of quantum theory is known to be inevitable, and, due to its equivalence with the onset of contextuality, of central interest in quantum computation and information. Until recently, however, nothing has been known about how much negativity is necessary in a quasiprobability representation. Zhu proved that the upper and lower bounds with respect to one type of negativity measure are saturated by quasiprobability representations which are in one-to-one correspondence with the elusive symmetric informationally complete quantum measurements (SICs). We define a family of negativity measures which includes Zhu's as a special case and consider another member of the family which we call "sum negativity." We prove a sufficient condition for local maxima in sum negativity and find exact global maxima in dimensions $3$ and $4$. Notably, we find that Zhu's result on the SICs does not generally extend to sum negativity, although the analogous result does hold in dimension $4$. Finally, the Hoggar lines in dimension $8$ make an appearance in a conjecture on sum negativity.
- Mar 24 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1703.07901v3Recent years have seen significant advances in the study of symmetric informationally complete (SIC) quantum measurements, also known as maximal sets of complex equiangular lines. Previously, the published record contained solutions up to dimension 67, and was with high confidence complete up through dimension 50. Computer calculations have now furnished solutions in all dimensions up to 151, and in several cases beyond that, as large as dimension 844. These new solutions exhibit an additional type of symmetry beyond the basic definition of a SIC, and so verify a conjecture of Zauner in many new cases. The solutions in dimensions 68 through 121 were obtained by Andrew Scott, and his catalogue of distinct solutions is, with high confidence, complete up to dimension 90. Additional results in dimensions 122 through 151 were calculated by the authors using Scott's code. We recap the history of the problem, outline how the numerical searches were done, and pose some conjectures on how the search technique could be improved. In order to facilitate communication across disciplinary boundaries, we also present a comprehensive bibliography of SIC research.
- Dec 22 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1612.07308v2This paper represents an elaboration of the lectures delivered by one of us (CAF) during "Course 197 -- Foundations of Quantum Physics" at the International School of Physics "Enrico Fermi" in Varenna, Italy, July 2016. Much of the material for it is drawn from arXiv:1003.5209, arXiv:1401.7254, and arXiv:1405.2390. However there are substantial additions of original material in Sections 4, 7, 8 and 9, along with clarifications and expansions of the older content throughout. Topics include the meaning of subjective probability; no-cloning, teleportation, and quantum tomography from the subjectivist Bayesian perspective; the message QBism receives from Bell inequality violations (namely, that nature is creative); the import of symmetric informationally complete (SIC) quantum measurements for the technical side of QBism; quantum cosmology QBist-style; and a potential meaning for the holographic principle within QBism.
- Dec 13 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1612.03234v2We reconstruct quantum theory starting from the premise that, as Asher Peres remarked, "Unperformed experiments have no results." The tools of modern quantum information theory, and in particular the symmetric informationally complete (SIC) measurements, provide a concise expression of how exactly Peres's dictum holds true. That expression is a constraint on how the probability distributions for outcomes of different, mutually exclusive experiments mesh together, a type of constraint not foreseen in classical thinking. Taking this as our foundational principle, we show how to reconstruct the formalism of quantum theory in finite-dimensional Hilbert spaces. Along the way, we derive a condition for the existence of a d-dimensional SIC.
- Jan 19 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1601.04360v3In the Philosophical Investigations, Ludwig Wittgenstein wrote, " 'I' is not the name of a person, nor 'here' of a place, .... But they are connected with names. ... [And] it is characteristic of physics not to use these words." This statement expresses the dominant way of thinking in physics: Physics is about the impersonal laws of nature; the "I" never makes an appearance in it. Since the advent of quantum theory, however, there has always been a nagging pressure to insert a first-person perspective into the heart of physics. In incarnations of lesser or greater strength, one may consider the "Copenhagen" views of Bohr, Heisenberg, and Pauli, the observer-participator view of John Wheeler, the informational interpretation of Anton Zeilinger and Caslav Brukner, the relational interpretation of Carlo Rovelli, and, most radically, the QBism of N. David Mermin, Ruediger Schack, and the present author, as acceding to the pressure. These views have lately been termed "participatory realism" to emphasize that rather than relinquishing the idea of reality (as they are often accused of), they are saying that reality is more than any third-person perspective can capture. Thus, far from instances of instrumentalism or antirealism, these views of quantum theory should be regarded as attempts to make a deep statement about the nature of reality. This paper explicates the idea for the case of QBism. As well, it highlights the influence of John Wheeler's "law without law" on QBism's formulation.
- Sep 02 2015 quant-ph arXiv:1509.00088v2We compare the standard 50%-efficient single beam splitter method for Bell-state measurement to a proposed 75%-efficient auxiliary-photon-enhanced scheme [W. P. Grice, Phys. Rev. A 84, 042331 (2011)] in light of realistic conditions. The two schemes are compared with consideration for high input state photon loss, auxiliary state photon loss, detector inefficiency and coupling loss, detector dark counts, and non-number-resolving detectors. We also analyze the two schemes when multiplexed arrays of non-number-resolving detectors are used. Furthermore, we explore the possibility of utilizing spontaneous parametric down-conversion as the auxiliary photon pair source required by the enhanced scheme. In these different cases, we determine the bounds on the detector parameters at which the enhanced scheme becomes superior to the standard scheme and describe the impact of the different imperfections on measurement success rate and discrimination fidelity. This is done using a combination of numeric and analytic techniques. For many of the cases discussed, the size of the Hilbert space and the number of measurement outcomes can be very large, which makes direct numerical solutions computationally costly. To alleviate this problem, all of our numerical computations are performed using pure states. This requires tracking the loss modes until measurement and treating dark counts as variations on measurement outcomes rather than modifications to the state itself. In addition, we provide approximate analytic expressions that illustrate the effect of different imperfections on the Bell-state analyzer quality.
- Feb 11 2015 quant-ph arXiv:1502.02841v1This is a reply to Michael Nauenberg's arXiv:1502.00123, to be published in the American Journal of Physics, in which he comments critically on our paper "An introduction to QBism with an application to the locality of quantum mechanics", Am. J. Phys. 82, 749--754 (2014) and arXiv:1311.5253.
- Dec 16 2014 quant-ph arXiv:1412.4211v2In QBism (or Quantum Bayesianism) a quantum state does not represent an element of physical reality but an agent's personal probability assignments, reflecting his subjective degrees of belief about the future content of his experience. In this paper, we contrast QBism with hidden-variable accounts of quantum mechanics and show the sense in which QBism explains quantum correlations. QBism's agent-centered worldview can be seen as a development of ideas expressed in SchrÃ¶dinger's essay "Nature and the Greeks".
- Dec 16 2014 quant-ph physics.hist-ph arXiv:1412.4209v2In the quantum Bayesian (or QBist) conception of quantum theory, "quantum measurement" is understood not as a comparison of something pre-existent with a standard, but instead indicative of the creation of something new in the universe: Namely, the fresh experience any agent receives upon taking an action on the world. We explore the implications of this for any would-be ontology underlying QBism. The concept that presently stands out as a candidate "material for our universe's composition" is "experience" itself, or what John Wheeler called "observer-participancy".
- May 13 2014 quant-ph physics.hist-ph arXiv:1405.2390v2This document is the second installment of three in the Cerro Grande Fire Series. Like its predecessor arXiv:quant-ph/0105039, "Notes on a Paulian Idea," it is a collection of letters written to various friends and colleagues, most of whom regularly circuit this archive. The unifying theme of all the letters is that each has something to do with the quantum. Particularly, the collection chronicles the emergence of Quantum Bayesianism as a robust view of quantum theory, eventually evolving into the still-more-radical "QBism" (with the B standing for no particular designation anymore), as it took its most distinctive turn away from various Copenhagen Interpretations. Included are many anecdotes from the history of quantum information theory: for instance, the story of the origin of the terms "qubit" and "quantum information" from their originator's own mouth, a copy of a rejection letter written by E. T. Jaynes for one of Rolf Landauer's original erasure-cost principle papers, and much more. Specialized indices are devoted to historical, technical, and philosophical matters. More roundly, the document is an attempt to provide an essential ingredient, unavailable anywhere else, for turning QBism into a live option within the vast spectrum of quantum foundational thought.
- Apr 30 2014 quant-ph arXiv:1404.7183v5We analyze an entanglement-based quantum key distribution (QKD) architecture that uses a linear chain of quantum repeaters employing photon-pair sources, spectral-multiplexing, linear-optic Bell-state measurements, multi-mode quantum memories and classical-only error correction. Assuming perfect sources, we find an exact expression for the secret-key rate, and an analytical description of how errors propagate through the repeater chain, as a function of various loss and noise parameters of the devices. We show via an explicit analytical calculation, which separately addresses the effects of the principle non-idealities, that this scheme achieves a secret key rate that surpasses the TGW bound---a recently-found fundamental limit to the rate-vs.-loss scaling achievable by any QKD protocol over a direct optical link---thereby providing one of the first rigorous proofs of the efficacy of a repeater protocol. We explicitly calculate the end-to-end shared noisy quantum state generated by the repeater chain, which could be useful for analyzing the performance of other non-QKD quantum protocols that require establishing long-distance entanglement. We evaluate that shared state's fidelity and the achievable entanglement distillation rate, as a function of the number of repeater nodes, total range, and various loss and noise parameters of the system. We extend our theoretical analysis to encompass sources with non-zero two-pair-emission probability, using an efficient exact numerical evaluation of the quantum state propagation and measurements. We expect our results to spur formal rate-loss analysis of other repeater protocols, and also to provide useful abstractions to seed analyses of quantum networks of complex topologies.
- Jan 29 2014 quant-ph arXiv:1401.7254v1Over the last 10 years there has been an explosion of "operational reconstructions" of quantum theory. This is great stuff: For, through it, we come to see the myriad ways in which the quantum formalism can be chopped into primitives and, through clever toil, brought back together to form a smooth whole. An image of an IQ-Block puzzle comes to mind, http://www.prismenfernglas.de/iqblock_e.htm. There is no doubt that this is invaluable work, particularly for our understanding of the intricate connections between so many quantum information protocols. But to me, it seems to miss the mark for an ultimate understanding of quantum theory; I am left hungry. I still want to know what strange property of matter forces this formalism upon our information accounting. To play on something Einstein once wrote to Max Born, "The quantum reconstructions are certainly imposing. But an inner voice tells me that they are not yet the real thing. The reconstructions say a lot, but do not really bring us any closer to the secret of the `old one'." In this talk, I hope to expand on these points and convey some sense of why I am fascinated with the problem of the symmetric informationally complete POVMs to an extent greater than axiomatic reconstructions.
- Dec 03 2013 quant-ph arXiv:1312.0555v3Although symmetric informationally complete positive operator valued measures (SIC POVMs, or SICs for short) have been constructed in every dimension up to 67, a general existence proof remains elusive. The purpose of this paper is to show that the SIC existence problem is equivalent to three other, on the face of it quite different problems. Although it is still not clear whether these reformulations of the problem will make it more tractable, we believe that the fact that SICs have these connections to other areas of mathematics is of some intrinsic interest. Specifically, we reformulate the SIC problem in terms of (1) Lie groups, (2) Lie algebras and (3) Jordan algebras (the second result being a greatly strengthened version of one previously obtained by Appleby, Flammia and Fuchs). The connection between these three reformulations is non-trivial: It is not easy to demonstrate their equivalence directly, without appealing to their common equivalence to SIC existence. In the course of our analysis we obtain a number of other results which may be of some independent interest.
- Nov 22 2013 quant-ph physics.hist-ph arXiv:1311.5253v1We give an introduction to the QBist interpretation of quantum mechanics. We note that it removes the paradoxes, conundra, and pseudo-problems that have plagued quantum foundations for the past nine decades. As an example, we show in detail how it eliminates quantum "nonlocality".
- Jan 16 2013 quant-ph arXiv:1301.3274v1In the Quantum-Bayesian interpretation of quantum theory (or QBism), the Born Rule cannot be interpreted as a rule for setting measurement-outcome probabilities from an objective quantum state. But if not, what is the role of the rule? In this paper, we argue that it should be seen as an empirical addition to Bayesian reasoning itself. Particularly, we show how to view the Born Rule as a normative rule in addition to usual Dutch-book coherence. It is a rule that takes into account how one should assign probabilities to the consequences of various intended measurements on a physical system, but explicitly in terms of prior probabilities for and conditional probabilities consequent upon the imagined outcomes of a special counterfactual reference measurement. This interpretation is seen particularly clearly by representing quantum states in terms of probabilities for the outcomes of a fixed, fiducial symmetric informationally complete (SIC) measurement. We further explore the extent to which the general form of the new normative rule implies the full state-space structure of quantum mechanics.
- Jul 10 2012 quant-ph physics.hist-ph arXiv:1207.2141v1This paper collects into one place (most of) my answers to the questions Maximilian Schlosshauer posed in his interview volume, "Elegance and Enigma: The Quantum Interviews" (Springer, Frontiers Collection, 2011).
- Mar 31 2011 quant-ph arXiv:1103.5950v1The probabilities a Bayesian agent assigns to a set of events typically change with time, for instance when the agent updates them in the light of new data. In this paper we address the question of how an agent's probabilities at different times are constrained by Dutch-book coherence. We review and attempt to clarify the argument that, although an agent is not forced by coherence to use the usual Bayesian conditioning rule to update his probabilities, coherence does require the agent's probabilities to satisfy van Fraassen's [1984] reflection principle (which entails a related constraint pointed out by Goldstein [1983]). We then exhibit the specialized assumption needed to recover Bayesian conditioning from an analogous reflection-style consideration. Bringing the argument to the context of quantum measurement theory, we show that "quantum decoherence" can be understood in purely personalist terms---quantum decoherence (as supposed in a von Neumann chain) is not a physical process at all, but an application of the reflection principle. From this point of view, the decoherence theory of Zeh, Zurek, and others as a story of quantum measurement has the plot turned exactly backward.
- Jun 28 2010 quant-ph arXiv:1006.4905v1Generalized quantum measurements (also known as POVMs) are of great importance in quantum information and quantum foundations, but often difficult to perform. We present an experimental approach which can in principle be used to perform arbitrary POVMs in a linear-optical context. One of the most interesting POVMs, the SIC-POVM, is the most compact, set of measurements that can be used to fully describe a quantum state. We use our technique to carry out the first experimental characterization of the state of a qutrit using SIC-POVMs. Because of the highly symmetric nature of this measurement, such a representation has the unique property that it permits all other measurement outcomes to be predicted by a simple extension of the classical Bayesian sum rule, making no use of complex amplitudes or Hilbert-space operators. We demonstrate this approach on several qutrit states encoded in single photons.
- Mar 29 2010 quant-ph arXiv:1003.5182v1The author summarizes the Quantum Bayesian viewpoint of quantum mechanics, developed originally by C. M. Caves, R. Schack, and himself. It is a view crucially dependent upon the tools of quantum information theory. Work at the Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics continues the development and is focused on the hard technical problem of a finding a good representation of quantum mechanics purely in terms of probabilities, without amplitudes or Hilbert-space operators. The best candidate representation involves a mysterious entity called a symmetric informationally complete quantum measurement. Contemplation of it gives a way of thinking of the Born Rule as an addition to the rules of probability theory, applicable when one gambles on the consequences of interactions with physical systems. The article ends by outlining some directions for future work.
- Mar 29 2010 quant-ph arXiv:1003.5209v1This article summarizes the Quantum Bayesian point of view of quantum mechanics, with special emphasis on the view's outer edges---dubbed QBism. QBism has its roots in personalist Bayesian probability theory, is crucially dependent upon the tools of quantum information theory, and most recently, has set out to investigate whether the physical world might be of a type sketched by some false-started philosophies of 100 years ago (pragmatism, pluralism, nonreductionism, and meliorism). Beyond conceptual issues, work at Perimeter Institute is focused on the hard technical problem of finding a good representation of quantum mechanics purely in terms of probabilities, without amplitudes or Hilbert-space operators. The best candidate representation involves a mysterious entity called a symmetric informationally complete quantum measurement. Contemplation of it gives a way of thinking of the Born Rule as an addition to the rules of probability theory, applicable when an agent considers gambling on the consequences of his interactions with a newly recognized universal capacity: dimension (formerly Hilbert-space dimension). (The word "capacity" should conjure up an image of something like gravitational mass---a body's mass measures its capacity to attract other bodies. With hindsight one can say that the founders of quantum mechanics discovered another universal capacity, "dimension.") The article ends by showing that the egocentric elements in QBism represent no impediment to pursuing quantum cosmology and outlining some directions for future work.
- Examples of symmetric informationally complete positive operator valued measures (SIC-POVMs) have been constructed in every dimension less than or equal to 67. However, it remains an open question whether they exist in all finite dimensions. A SIC-POVM is usually thought of as a highly symmetric structure in quantum state space. However, its elements can equally well be regarded as a basis for the Lie algebra gl(d,C). In this paper we examine the resulting structure constants, which are calculated from the traces of the triple products of the SIC-POVM elements and which, it turns out, characterize the SIC-POVM up to unitary equivalence. We show that the structure constants have numerous remarkable properties. In particular we show that the existence of a SIC-POVM in dimension d is equivalent to the existence of a certain structure in the adjoint representation of gl(d,C). We hope that transforming the problem in this way, from a question about quantum state space to a question about Lie algebras, may help to make the existence problem tractable.
- Dec 22 2009 quant-ph arXiv:0912.4252v1In the quantum-Bayesian approach to quantum foundations, a quantum state is viewed as an expression of an agent's personalist Bayesian degrees of belief, or probabilities, concerning the results of measurements. These probabilities obey the usual probability rules as required by Dutch-book coherence, but quantum mechanics imposes additional constraints upon them. In this paper, we explore the question of deriving the structure of quantum-state space from a set of assumptions in the spirit of quantum Bayesianism. The starting point is the representation of quantum states induced by a symmetric informationally complete measurement or SIC. In this representation, the Born rule takes the form of a particularly simple modification of the law of total probability. We show how to derive key features of quantum-state space from (i) the requirement that the Born rule arises as a simple modification of the law of total probability and (ii) a limited number of additional assumptions of a strong Bayesian flavor.
- Oct 16 2009 quant-ph arXiv:0910.2750v3Every quantum state can be represented as a probability distribution over the outcomes of an informationally complete measurement. But not all probability distributions correspond to quantum states. Quantum state space may thus be thought of as a restricted subset of all potentially available probabilities. A recent publication [1] advocates such a representation using symmetric informationally complete (SIC) measurements. Building upon this work we study how this subset--quantum-state space--might be characterized. Our leading characteristic is that the inner products of the probabilities are bounded, a simple condition with nontrivial consequences. To get quantum-state space something more detailed about the extreme points is needed. No definitive characterization is reached, but we see several new interesting features over those in [1], and all in conformity with quantum theory.
- Jun 12 2009 quant-ph arXiv:0906.2187v1In a quantum-Bayesian take on quantum mechanics, the Born Rule cannot be interpreted as a rule for setting measurement-outcome probabilities from an objective quantum state. But if not, what is the role of the rule? In this paper, we argue that it should be seen as an empirical addition to Bayesian reasoning itself. Particularly, we show how to view the Born Rule as a normative rule in addition to usual Dutch-book coherence. It is a rule that takes into account how one should assign probabilities to the consequences of various intended measurements on a physical system, but explicitly in terms of prior probabilities for and conditional probabilities consequent upon the imagined outcomes of a special counterfactual reference measurement. This interpretation is seen particularly clearly by representing quantum states in terms of probabilities for the outcomes of a fixed, fiducial symmetric informationally complete (SIC) measurement. We further explore the extent to which the general form of the new normative rule implies the full state-space structure of quantum mechanics. It seems to get quite far.
- Jun 11 2009 quant-ph arXiv:0906.1968v1This pseudo-paper consists of excerpts drawn from two of my quantum-email samizdats. Section 1 draws a picture of a physical world whose essence is ``Darwinism all the way down.'' Section 2 outlines how quantum theory should be viewed in light of this, i.e., as being an expression of probabilism (in Bruno de Finetti or Richard Jeffrey's sense) all the way back up. Section 3 describes how the idea of ``identical'' quantum measurement outcomes, though sounding atomistic in character, nonetheless meshes well with a Jamesian style ``radical pluralism.'' Sections 4 and 5 further detail how quantum theory should not be viewed so much as a ``theory of the world,'' but rather as a theory of decision-making for agents immersed within a world of a particular character--the quantum world. Finally, Sections 6 and 7 attempt to sketch the very positive sense in which quantum theory is incomplete, but still just as complete is it can be. In total, I hope these heady speculations convey some of the excitement and potential I see for the malleable world quantum mechanics hints of.
- Jun 10 2009 quant-ph arXiv:0906.1714v1In quantum Bayesian inference problems, any conclusions drawn from a finite number of measurements depend not only on the outcomes of the measurements but also on a prior. Here we show that, in general, the prior remains important even in the limit of an infinite number of measurements. We illustrate this point with several examples where two priors lead to very different conclusions given the same measurement data.
- Jul 16 2007 quant-ph arXiv:0707.2071v2Since Renes et al. [J. Math. Phys. 45, 2171 (2004)], there has been much effort in the quantum information community to prove (or disprove) the existence of symmetric informationally complete (SIC) sets of quantum states in arbitrary finite dimension. This paper strengthens the urgency of this question by showing that if SIC-sets exist: 1) by a natural measure of orthonormality, they are as close to being an orthonormal basis for the space of density operators as possible, and 2) in prime dimensions, the standard construction for complete sets of mutually unbiased bases and Weyl-Heisenberg covariant SIC-sets are intimately related: The latter represent minimum uncertainty states for the former in the sense of Wootters and Sussman. Finally, we contribute to the question of existence by conjecturing a quadratic redundancy in the equations for Weyl-Heisenberg SIC-sets.
- Aug 25 2006 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0608190v2In the Bayesian approach to quantum mechanics, probabilities--and thus quantum states--represent an agent's degrees of belief, rather than corresponding to objective properties of physical systems. In this paper we investigate the concept of certainty in quantum mechanics. Particularly, we show how the probability-1 predictions derived from pure quantum states highlight a fundamental difference between our Bayesian approach, on the one hand, and Copenhagen and similar interpretations on the other. We first review the main arguments for the general claim that probabilities always represent degrees of belief. We then argue that a quantum state prepared by some physical device always depends on an agent's prior beliefs, implying that the probability-1 predictions derived from that state also depend on the agent's prior beliefs. Quantum certainty is therefore always some agent's certainty. Conversely, if facts about an experimental setup could imply agent-independent certainty for a measurement outcome, as in many Copenhagen-like interpretations, that outcome would effectively correspond to a preexisting system property. The idea that measurement outcomes occurring with certainty correspond to preexisting system properties is, however, in conflict with locality. We emphasize this by giving a version of an argument of Stairs [A. Stairs, Phil. Sci. 50, 578 (1983)], which applies the Kochen-Specker theorem to an entangled bipartite system.
- In quantum mechanics, systems can be described in phase space in terms of the Wigner function and the star-product operation. Quantum characteristics, which appear in the Heisenberg picture as the Weyl's symbols of operators of canonical coordinates and momenta, can be used to solve the evolution equations for symbols of other operators acting in the Hilbert space. To any fixed order in the Planck's constant, many-body potential scattering problem simplifies to a statistical-mechanical problem of computing an ensemble of quantum characteristics and their derivatives with respect to the initial canonical coordinates and momenta. The reduction to a system of ordinary differential equations pertains rigorously at any fixed order in $\hbar$. We present semiclassical expansion of quantum characteristics for many-body scattering problem and provide tools for calculation of average values of time-dependent physical observables and cross sections. The method of quantum characteristics admits the consistent incorporation of specific quantum effects, such as non-locality and coherence in propagation of particles, into the semiclassical transport models. We formulate the principle of stationary action for quantum Hamilton's equations and give quantum-mechanical extensions of the Liouville theorem on the conservation of phase-space volume and the PoincarÃ© theorem on the conservation of $2p$ forms. The lowest order quantum corrections to the Kepler periodic orbits are constructed. These corrections show the resonance behavior.
- Jul 13 2005 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0507108v1Let Alice and Bob be able to make local quantum measurements and communicate classically. The set of mathematically consistent joint probability assignments (``states'') for such measurements is properly larger than the set of quantum-mechanical mixed states for the Alice-Bob system. It is canonically isomorphic to the set of positive (not necessarily completely positive) linear maps Phi from the bounded linear operators on Alice's space to those on Bob's, for which Tr Phi(I)=1. We review the fact that allowing classical communication is equivalent to enforcing ``no-instantaneous-signalling'' (``no--influence'') in the direction opposite the communication. We establish that in the subclass of ``decomposable'' states, i.e. convex combinations of positive states with "PTP" ones whose partial transpose is positive, the extremal states are just the extremal positive and extremal PTP states. We show that two such states, shared by the same pair of parties, cannot necessarily be combined as independent states (their tensor product) if the full set of quantum operations is allowed locally to each party. We use a framework of ``test spaces'' and states on these, suited for exhibiting the analogies and deviations of empirical probabilistic theories from classical probability theory. This leads to a deeper understanding of analogies between quantum mechanics and Bayesian probability theory. The existence of a ``most Bayesian'' quantum rule for updating states after measurement, and its association with the situation when information on one system is gained by measuring another, is a case of a general proposition holding for test spaces combined subject to the no-signalling requirement.
- May 26 2005 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0505187v4This is a collection of statements gathered on the occasion of the Quantum Physics of Nature meeting in Vienna.
- Systems under holonomic constraints are classified within the generalized Hamiltonian framework as second-class constraints systems. We show that each system of point particles with holonomic constraints has a hidden gauge symmetry which allows to quantize it in the original phase space as a first-class constraints system. The proposed method is illustrated with quantization of a point particle moving on an $n-1$-dimensional sphere $S^{n-1}$ as well as its field theory analog the O(n) nonlinear sigma model.
- Apr 28 2004 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0404156v1The classical de Finetti theorem provides an operational definition of the concept of an unknown probability in Bayesian probability theory, where probabilities are taken to be degrees of belief instead of objective states of nature. In this paper, we motivate and review two results that generalize de Finetti's theorem to the quantum mechanical setting: Namely a de Finetti theorem for quantum states and a de Finetti theorem for quantum operations. The quantum-state theorem, in a closely analogous fashion to the original de Finetti theorem, deals with exchangeable density-operator assignments and provides an operational definition of the concept of an "unknown quantum state" in quantum-state tomography. Similarly, the quantum-operation theorem gives an operational definition of an "unknown quantum operation" in quantum-process tomography. These results are especially important for a Bayesian interpretation of quantum mechanics, where quantum states and (at least some) quantum operations are taken to be states of belief rather than states of nature.
- Apr 22 2004 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0404122v1We derive an exact expression for the quantumness of a Hilbert space (defined in quant-ph/0302092), and show that in composite Hilbert spaces the signal states must contain at least some entangled states in order to achieve such a sensitivity. Furthermore, we establish that the accessible fidelity for symmetric informationally complete signal ensembles is equal to the quantumness. Though spelling the most trouble for an eavesdropper because of this, it turns out that the accessible fidelity is nevertheless easy for her to achieve in this case: Any measurement consisting of rank-one POVM elements is an optimal measurement, and the simple procedure of reproducing the projector associated with the measurement outcome is an optimal output strategy. Two and epsilon elevator stories are added for entertainment.
- Aug 25 2003 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0308120v1Two measures of sensitivity to eavesdropping for alphabets of quantum states were recently introduced by Fuchs and Sasaki in quant-ph/0302092. These are the accessible fidelity and quantumness. In this paper we prove an important property of both measures: They are multiplicative under tensor products. The proof in the case of accessible fidelity shows a connection between the measure and characteristics of entanglement-breaking quantum channels.
- Jul 29 2003 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0307198v1In quantum process tomography, it is possible to express the experimenter's prior information as a sequence of quantum operations, i.e., trace-preserving completely positive maps. In analogy to de Finetti's concept of exchangeability for probability distributions, we give a definition of exchangeability for sequences of quantum operations. We then state and prove a representation theorem for such exchangeable sequences. The theorem leads to a simple characterization of admissible priors for quantum process tomography and solves to a Bayesian's satisfaction the problem of an unknown quantum operation.
- Jun 27 2003 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0306179v1We prove a Gleason-type theorem for the quantum probability rule using frame functions defined on positive-operator-valued measures (POVMs), as opposed to the restricted class of orthogonal projection-valued measures used in the original theorem. The advantage of this method is that it works for two-dimensional quantum systems (qubits) and even for vector spaces over rational fields--settings where the standard theorem fails. Furthermore, unlike the method necessary for proving the original result, the present one is rather elementary. In the case of a qubit, we investigate similar results for frame functions defined upon various restricted classes of POVMs. For the so-called trine measurements, the standard quantum probability rule is again recovered.
- Feb 14 2003 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0302108v1This article is an introduction to quant-ph/0302092. We propose to quantify how "quantum" a set of quantum states is. The quantumness of a set is the worst-case difficulty of transmitting the states through a classical communication channel. Potential applications of this measure arise in quantum cryptography, where one might like to use an alphabet of states most sensitive to quantum eavesdropping, and in lab demonstrations of quantum teleportation, where it is necessary to check that entanglement has indeed been used.
- Feb 12 2003 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0302092v3In this paper we propose a general method to quantify how "quantum" a set of quantum states is. The idea is to gauge the quantumness of the set by the worst-case difficulty of transmitting the states through a purely classical communication channel. Potential applications of this notion arise in quantum cryptography, where one might like to use an alphabet of states that promises to be the most sensitive to quantum eavesdropping, and in laboratory demonstrations of quantum teleportation, where it is necessary to check that quantum entanglement has actually been used in the protocol.
- Jun 19 2002 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0206110v1Suppose N parties describe the state of a quantum system by N possibly different density operators. These N state assignments represent the beliefs of the parties about the system. We examine conditions for determining whether the N state assignments are compatible. We distinguish two kinds of procedures for assessing compatibility, the first based on the compatibility of the prior beliefs on which the N state assignments are based and the second based on the compatibility of predictive measurement probabilities they define. The first procedure leads to a compatibility criterion proposed by Brun, Finkelstein, and Mermin [BFM, Phys. Rev. A 65, 032315 (2002)]. The second procedure leads to a hierarchy of measurement-based compatibility criteria which is fundamentally different from the corresponding classical situation. Quantum mechanically none of the measurement-based compatibility criteria is equivalent to the BFM criterion.
- May 09 2002 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0205039v1In this paper, I try once again to cause some good-natured trouble. The issue remains, when will we ever stop burdening the taxpayer with conferences devoted to the quantum foundations? The suspicion is expressed that no end will be in sight until a means is found to reduce quantum theory to two or three statements of crisp physical (rather than abstract, axiomatic) significance. In this regard, no tool appears better calibrated for a direct assault than quantum information theory. Far from a strained application of the latest fad to a time-honored problem, this method holds promise precisely because a large part--but not all--of the structure of quantum theory has always concerned information. It is just that the physics community needs reminding. This paper, though taking quant-ph/0106166 as its core, corrects one mistake and offers several observations beyond the previous version. In particular, I identify one element of quantum mechanics that I would not label a subjective term in the theory--it is the integer parameter D traditionally ascribed to a quantum system via its Hilbert-space dimension.
- Apr 26 2002 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0204146v1In this note, I try to accomplish two things. First, I fulfill Andrei Khrennikov's request that I comment on his "Vaxjo Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics," contrasting it with my own present view of the subject matter. Second, I try to paint an image of the hopeful vistas an information-based conception of quantum mechanics indicates.
- Nov 30 2001 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0111157v1Optical implementations of quantum communication protocols typically involve laser fields. However, the standard description of the quantum state of a laser field is surprisingly insufficient to understand the quantum nature of such implementations. In this paper, we give a quantum information-theoretic description of a propagating continuous-wave laser field and reinterpret various quantum-optical experiments in light of this. A timely example is found in a recent controversy about the quantum teleportation of continuous variables. We show that contrary to the claims of T. Rudolph and B. C. Sanders [Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 077903 (2001)], a conventional laser can be used for quantum teleportation with continuous variables and for generating continuous-variable quantum entanglement. Furthermore, we show that optical coherent states do play a privileged role in the description of propagating laser fields even though they cannot be ascribed such a role for the intracavity field.
- Jul 02 2001 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0106166v1This paper reports three almost trivial theorems that nevertheless appear to have significant import for quantum foundations studies. 1) A Gleason-like derivation of the quantum probability law, but based on the positive operator-valued measures as the basic notion of measurement (see also Busch, quant-ph/9909073). Of note, this theorem also works for 2-dimensional vector spaces and for vector spaces over the rational numbers, where the standard Gleason theorem fails. 2) A way of rewriting the quantum collapse rule so that it looks almost precisely identical to Bayes rule for updating probabilities in classical probability theory. And 3) a derivation of the tensor-product rule for combining quantum systems (and with it the very notion of quantum entanglement) from Gleason-like considerations for local measurements on bipartite systems along with classical communication.
- Jun 26 2001 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0106133v2In the Bayesian approach to probability theory, probability quantifies a degree of belief for a single trial, without any a priori connection to limiting frequencies. In this paper we show that, despite being prescribed by a fundamental law, probabilities for individual quantum systems can be understood within the Bayesian approach. We argue that the distinction between classical and quantum probabilities lies not in their definition, but in the nature of the information they encode. In the classical world, maximal information about a physical system is complete in the sense of providing definite answers for all possible questions that can be asked of the system. In the quantum world, maximal information is not complete and cannot be completed. Using this distinction, we show that any Bayesian probability assignment in quantum mechanics must have the form of the quantum probability rule, that maximal information about a quantum system leads to a unique quantum-state assignment, and that quantum theory provides a stronger connection between probability and measured frequency than can be justified classically. Finally we give a Bayesian formulation of quantum-state tomography.
- May 10 2001 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0105039v1This document is the first installment of three in the Cerro Grande Fire Series. It is a collection of letters written to various colleagues, most of whom regularly circuit this archive, including Howard Barnum, Paul Benioff, Charles Bennett, Herbert Bernstein, Doug Bilodeau, Gilles Brassard, Jeffrey Bub, Carlton Caves, Gregory Comer, Robert Griffiths, Adrian Kent, Rolf Landauer, Hideo Mabuchi, David Mermin, David Meyer, Michael Nielsen, Asher Peres, John Preskill, Mary Beth Ruskai, Ruediger Schack, Abner Shimony, William Wootters, Anton Zeilinger, and many others. The singular thread sewing all the letters together is the quantum. Some of the pieces are my best efforts to date to give substance to an evanescent thought I see rising from the field of quantum information---I call it the Paulian idea. To the extent I have communicated its misty shadow to my correspondents and seen a twinkle of enthusiasm, it seemed worthwhile to expand the jury on this anniversary occasion.
- Apr 19 2001 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0104088v1We present an elementary proof of the quantum de Finetti representation theorem, a quantum analogue of de Finetti's classical theorem on exchangeable probability assignments. This contrasts with the original proof of Hudson and Moody [Z. Wahrschein. verw. Geb. 33, 343 (1976)], which relies on advanced mathematics and does not share the same potential for generalization. The classical de Finetti theorem provides an operational definition of the concept of an unknown probability in Bayesian probability theory, where probabilities are taken to be degrees of belief instead of objective states of nature. The quantum de Finetti theorem, in a closely analogous fashion, deals with exchangeable density-operator assignments and provides an operational definition of the concept of an ``unknown quantum state'' in quantum-state tomography. This result is especially important for information-based interpretations of quantum mechanics, where quantum states, like probabilities, are taken to be states of knowledge rather than states of nature. We further demonstrate that the theorem fails for real Hilbert spaces and discuss the significance of this point.
- Apr 10 2001 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0104036v3We give a quantum information-theoretic description of an ideal propagating CW laser field and reinterpret typical quantum-optical experiments in light of this. In particular we show that contrary to recent claims [T. Rudolph and B. C. Sanders, Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 077903 (2001)], a conventional laser can be used for quantum teleportation with continuous variables and for generating continuous-variable entanglement. Optical coherence is not required, but phase coherence is. We also show that coherent states play a priveleged role in the description of laser light.
- Dec 05 2000 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0012001v3Fidelity Fclassical = 1/2 has been established as setting the boundary between classical and quantum domains in the teleportation of coherent states of the electromagnetic field (S. L. Braunstein, C. A. Fuchs, and H. J. Kimble, J. Mod. Opt. 47, 267 (2000)). Two recent papers by P. Grangier and F. Grosshans (quant-ph/0009079 and quant-ph/0010107) introduce alternate criteria for setting this boundary and as a result claim that the appropriate boundary should be F = 2/3. Although larger fidelities would lead to enhanced teleportation capabilities, we show that the new conditions of Grangier and Grosshans are largely unrelated to the questions of entanglement and Bell-inequality violations that they take to be their primary concern. With regard to the quantum-classical boundary, we demonstrate that fidelity Fclassical = 1/2 remains the appropriate point of demarcation. The claims of Grangier and Grosshans to the contrary are simply wrong, as we show by an analysis of the conditions for nonseparability (that complements our earlier treatment) and by explicit examples of Bell-inequality violations.
- Sep 26 2000 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0009101v1In this paper we give a new way to quantify the folklore notion that quantum measurements bring a disturbance to the system being measured. We consider two observers who initially assign identical mixed-state density operators to a two-state quantum system. The question we address is to what extent one observer can, by measurement, increase the purity of his density operator without affecting the purity of the other observer's. If there were no restrictions on the first observer's measurements, then he could carry this out trivially by measuring the initial density operator's eigenbasis. If, however, the allowed measurements are those of finite strength---i.e., those measurements strictly within the interior of the convex set of all measurements---then the issue becomes significantly more complex. We find that for a large class of such measurements the first observer's purity increases the most precisely when there is some loss of purity for the second observer. More generally the tradeoff between the two purities, when it exists, forms a monotonic relation. This tradeoff has potential application to quantum state control and feedback.
- Sep 16 2000 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0009063v1We consider entanglement for quantum states defined in vector spaces over the real numbers. Such real entanglement is different from entanglement in standard quantum mechanics over the complex numbers. The differences provide insight into the nature of entanglement in standard quantum theory. Wootters [Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2245 (1998)] has given an explicit formula for the entanglement of formation of two qubits in terms of what he calls the concurrence of the joint density operator. We give a contrasting formula for the entanglement of formation of an arbitrary state of two ``rebits,'' a rebit being a system whose Hilbert space is a 2-dimensional real vector space.
- Aug 07 2000 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/0008024v1We consider the problem of optimal asymptotically faithful compression for ensembles of mixed quantum states. Although the optimal rate is unknown, we prove upper and lower bounds and describe a series of illustrative examples of compression of mixed states. We also discuss a classical analogue of the problem.
- Oct 08 1999 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/9910030v1We derive an experimentally testable criterion for the teleportation of quantum states of continuous variables. This criterion is especially relevant to the recent experiment of Furusawa et al. [Science 282, 706-709 (1998)] where an input-output fidelity of $0.58 \pm 0.02$ was achieved for optical coherent states. Our derivation demonstrates that fidelities greater than 1/2 could not have been achieved through the use of a classical channel alone; quantum entanglement was a crucial ingredient in the experiment.
- Jul 08 1999 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/9907024v1In a recent paper (quant-ph/9906015), Deutsch claims to derive the "probabilistic predictions of quantum theory" from the "non-probabilistic axioms of quantum theory" and the "non-probabilistic part of classical decision theory." We show that his derivation fails because it includes hidden probabilistic assumptions.
- Mar 15 1999 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/9903039v2We demonstrate superadditivity in the communication capacity of a binary alphabet consisting of two nonorthogonal quantum states. For this scheme, collective decoding is performed two transmissions at a time. This improves upon the previous schemes of Sasaki et al. [Phys. Rev. A 58, 146 (1998)] where superadditivity was not achieved until a decoding of three or more transmissions at a time. This places superadditivity within the regime of a near-term laboratory demonstration. We propose an experimental test based upon an alphabet of low photon-number coherent states where the signal decoding is done with atomic state measurements on a single atom in a high-finesse optical cavity.
- Oct 14 1998 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/9810032v1From the perspective of quantum information theory, a system so simple as one restricted to just two nonorthogonal states can be surprisingly rich in physics. In this paper, we explore the extent of this statement through a review of three topics: (1) ``nonlocality without entanglement'' as exhibited in binary quantum communication channels, (2) the tradeoff between information gain and state disturbance for two prescribed states, and (3) the quantitative clonability of those states. Each topic in its own way quantifies the extent to which two states are ``quantum'' with respect to each other, i.e., the extent to which the two together violate some classical precept. It is suggested that even toy examples such as these hold some promise for shedding light on the foundations of quantum theory.
- May 28 1998 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/9805080v2We analyze a generalization of Huffman coding to the quantum case. In particular, we notice various difficulties in using instantaneous codes for quantum communication. Nevertheless, for the storage of quantum information, we have succeeded in constructing a Huffman-coding inspired quantum scheme. The number of computational steps in the encoding and decoding processes of N quantum signals can be made to be of polylogarithmic depth by a massively parallel implementation of a quantum gate array. This is to be compared with the O (N^3) computational steps required in the sequential implementation by Cleve and DiVincenzo of the well-known quantum noiseless block coding scheme of Schumacher. We also show that O(N^2(log N)^a) computational steps are needed for the communication of quantum information using another Huffman-coding inspired scheme where the sender must disentangle her encoding device before the receiver can perform any measurements on his signals.
- Apr 23 1998 quant-ph cond-mat.mes-hall arXiv:quant-ph/9804053v4We exhibit an orthogonal set of product states of two three-state particles that nevertheless cannot be reliably distinguished by a pair of separated observers ignorant of which of the states has been presented to them, even if the observers are allowed any sequence of local operations and classical communication between the separate observers. It is proved that there is a finite gap between the mutual information obtainable by a joint measurement on these states and a measurement in which only local actions are permitted. This result implies the existence of separable superoperators that cannot be implemented locally. A set of states are found involving three two-state particles which also appear to be nonmeasurable locally. These and other multipartite states are classified according to the entropy and entanglement costs of preparing and measuring them by local operations.
- Mar 17 1998 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/9803033v1The newfound importance of ``entanglement as a resource'' in quantum computation and quantum communication compels us to quantify it in as many distinct ways as possible. Here we explore a new measure of entanglement for mixed quantum states of bipartite systems, which we name the Entanglement of Assistance. We show it to be the maximum average entanglement of all pure-state ensembles consistent with the given density matrix. In this sense, the Entanglement of Assistance is a quantity directly dual to the more standard Entanglement of Formation. With the help of lower and upper bounds, we calculate the Entanglement of Assistance for a few cases and use these results to show that it possesses the surprising property of superadditivity. We believe that this may shed some light on the question of additivity for the Entanglement of Formation.
- Dec 20 1997 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/9712042v2This paper, mostly expository in nature, surveys four measures of distinguishability for quantum-mechanical states. This is done from the point of view of the cryptographer with a particular eye on applications in quantum cryptography. Each of the measures considered is rooted in an analogous classical measure of distinguishability for probability distributions: namely, the probability of an identification error, the Kolmogorov distance, the Bhattacharyya coefficient, and the Shannon distinguishability (as defined through mutual information). These measures have a long history of use in statistical pattern recognition and classical cryptography. We obtain several inequalities that relate the quantum distinguishability measures to each other, one of which may be crucial for proving the security of quantum cryptographic key distribution. In another vein, these measures and their connecting inequalities are used to define a single notion of cryptographic exponential indistinguishability for two families of quantum states. This is a tool that may prove useful in the analysis of various quantum cryptographic protocols.
- May 23 1997 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/9705038v3We establish the best possible approximation to a perfect quantum cloning machine which produces two clones out of a single input. We analyze both universal and state-dependent cloners. The maximal fidelity of cloning is shown to be 5/6 for universal cloners. It can be achieved either by a special unitary evolution or by a novel teleportation scheme. We construct the optimal state-dependent cloners operating on any prescribed two non-orthogonal states, discuss their fidelities and the use of auxiliary physical resources in the process of cloning. The optimal universal cloners permit us to derive a new upper bound on the quantum capacity of the depolarizing quantum channel.
- Mar 25 1997 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/9703043v2I demonstrate that, rather unexpectedly, there exist noisy quantum channels for which the optimal classical information transmission rate is achieved only by signaling alphabets consisting of nonorthogonal quantum states.
- Jan 31 1997 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/9701039v1We consider the Bennett-Brassard cryptographic scheme, which uses two conjugate quantum bases. An eavesdropper who attempts to obtain information on qubits sent in one of the bases causes a disturbance to qubits sent in the other basis. We derive an upper bound to the accessible information in one basis, for a given error rate in the conjugate basis. Independently fixing the error rate in the conjugate bases, we show that both bounds can be attained simultaneously by an optimal eavesdropping probe, consisting of two qubits. The qubits' interaction and their subsequent measurement are described explicitly. These results are combined to give an expression for the optimal information an eavesdropper can obtain for a given average disturbance when her interaction and measurements are performed signal by signal. Finally, the relation between quantum cryptography and violations of Bell's inequalities is discussed.
- Nov 08 1996 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/9611010v1The engine that powers quantum cryptography is the principle that there are no physical means for gathering information about the identity of a quantum system's state (when it is known to be prepared in one of a set of nonorthogonal states) without disturbing the system in a statistically detectable way. This situation is often mistakenly described as a consequence of the ``Heisenberg uncertainty principle.'' A more accurate account is that it is a unique feature of quantum phenomena that rests ultimately on the Hilbert space structure of the theory along with the fact that time evolutions for isolated systems are unitary. In this paper we shall explore several aspects of the information--disturbance principle in an attempt to make it firmly quantitative and flesh out its significance for quantum theory as a whole.
- Nov 06 1996 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/9611006v1We consider the problem of trying to send a single classical bit through a noisy quantum channel when two transmissions through the channel are available as a resource. Classically, two transmissions add nothing to the receiver's capability of inferring the bit. In the quantum world, however, one has the possible further advantage of entangling the two transmissions. We demonstrate that, for certain noisy channels, such entangled transmissions enhance the receiver's capability of a correct inference.
- May 16 1996 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/9605014v1The engine that powers quantum cryptography is the principle that there are no physical means for gathering information about the identity of a quantum system's state (when it is known to be prepared in one of a set of nonorthogonal states) without disturbing the system in a statistically detectable way. This situation is often mistakenly described as a consequence of the ``Heisenberg uncertainty principle.'' A more accurate account is that it is a unique feature of quantum phenomena that rests ultimately on the Hilbert space structure of the theory along with the fact that time evolutions for isolated systems are unitary. In this paper I explore several aspects of the ``information / disturbance principle'' in an attempt to make it firmly quantitative for both pure and mixed states. The final section briefly explores the extent to which such a principle can be taken as a foundation for unitary dynamics rather than as a consequence.
- Apr 03 1996 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/9604001v1We present mathematical techniques for addressing two closely related questions in quantum communication theory. In particular, we give a statistically motivated derivation of the Bures-Uhlmann measure of distinguishability for density operators, and we present a simplified proof of the Holevo upper bound to the mutual information of quantum communication channels. Both derivations give rise to novel quantum measurements.
- Mar 11 1996 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/9603014v1We derive a general limit on the fidelity of a quantum channel conveying an ensemble of pure states. Unlike previous results, this limit applies to arbitrary coding and decoding schemes, including nonunitary decoding. This establishes the converse of the quantum noiseless coding theorem for all such schemes.
- Jan 26 1996 quant-ph arXiv:quant-ph/9601025v1Quantum information refers to the distinctive information-processing properties of quantum systems, which arise when information is stored in or retrieved from nonorthogonal quantum states. More information is required to prepare an ensemble of nonorthogonal quantum states than can be recovered from the ensemble by measurements. Nonorthogonal quantum states cannot be distinguished reliably, cannot be copied or cloned, and do not lead to exact predictions for the results of measurements. These properties contrast sharply with those of information stored in the microstates of a classical system.