results for au:Fu_W in:astro-ph

- Mar 20 2017 astro-ph.HE arXiv:1703.06135v1We compare Particle-in-Cell simulation results of relativistic electron-ion shear flows with different bulk Lorentz factors, and discuss their implications for spine-sheath models of blazar versus gamma-ray burst (GRB) jets. Specifically, we find that most properties of the shear boundary layer scale with the bulk Lorentz factor: the lower the Lorentz factor, the thinner the boundary layer, and the weaker the self-generated fields. Similarly, the energized electron spectrum peaks at an energy near the ion drift energy, which increases with bulk Lorentz factor, and the beaming of the accelerated electrons gets narrower with increasing Lorentz factor. This predicts a strong correlation between emitted photon energy, angular beaming and temporal variability with the bulk Lorentz factor. Observationally, we expect systematic differences between the high-energy emissions of blazars and GRB jets.
- Dec 23 2016 astro-ph.HE arXiv:1612.07418v1We present Particle-in-Cell simulation results of relativistic shear boundary layers between electron-ion and electron-positron plasmas and discuss their potential applications to astrophysics. Specifically, we find in the case of a fast electron-positron spine surrounded by a slow-moving or stationary electron-ion sheath, lepton acceleration proceeds in a highly anisotropic manner due to electromagnetic fields created at the shear interface. While the highest-energy leptons still produce a beaming pattern (as seen in the quasi-stationary frame of the sheath) of order 1/\Gamma, where \Gamma is the bulk Lorentz factor of the spine, for lower-energy particles, the beaming is much less pronounced. This is in stark contrast to the case of pure electron-ion shear layers, in which anisotropic particle acceleration leads to significantly narrower beaming patterns than 1/\Gamma for the highest-energy particles. In either case, shear-layer acceleration is expected to produce strongly angle-dependent lepton (and hence, emanating radiation) spectra, with a significantly harder spectrum in the forward direction than viewed from larger off-axis angles, much beyond the regular Doppler boosting effect from a co-moving isotropic lepton distribution. This may solve the problem of the need for high (and apparently arbitrarily chosen) minimum Lorentz factors of radiating electrons, often plaguing current blazar and GRB jet modeling efforts.
- Dec 23 2016 astro-ph.EP arXiv:1612.07673v1We analyze the gravitational instability (GI) of a locally isothermal inclined disk around one component of a binary system. Such a disk can undergo global Kozai-Lidov (KL) cycles if the initial disk tilt is above the critical KL angle (of about 40 degrees). During these cycles, an initially circular disk exchanges its inclination for eccentricity, and vice versa. Self-gravity may suppress the cycles under some circumstances. However, with hydrodynamic simulations including self-gravity we show that for a sufficiently high initial disk tilts and for certain disk masses, disks can undergo KL oscillations and fragment due to GI, even when the Toomre Q value for an equivalent undisturbed disk is well within the stable regime (Q > 2). We suggest that KL triggered disk fragmentation provides a mechanism for the efficient formation of giant planets in binary systems and may enhance fragmentation of disks in massive black hole binaries.
- Sep 07 2015 astro-ph.SR arXiv:1509.01280v2Previously we showed that a substantially misaligned viscous accretion disk with pressure that orbits around one component of a binary system can undergo global damped Kozai-Lidov (KL) oscillations. These oscillations produce periodic exchanges of the disk eccentricity with inclination. The disk KL mechanism is quite robust and operates over a wide range of binary and disk parameters. However, the effects of self-gravity, which are expected to suppress the KL oscillations for sufficiently massive disks, were ignored. Here, we analyze the effects of disk self-gravity by means of hydrodynamic simulations and compare the results with the expectations of analytic theory. The disk mass required for suppression in the simulations is a few percent of the mass of the central star and this roughly agrees with an analytical estimate. The conditions for suppression of the KL oscillations in the simulations are close to requiring that the disk be gravitationally unstable. We discuss some implications of our results for the dynamics of protoplanetary disks and the related planet formation.
- Apr 03 2015 astro-ph.SR arXiv:1504.00393v2Martin et al. (2014b) showed that a substantially misaligned accretion disk around one component of a binary system can undergo global damped Kozai-Lidov oscillations. During these oscillations, the inclination and eccentricity of the disk are periodically exchanged. However, the robustness of this mechanism and its dependence on the system parameters were unexplored. In this paper, we use three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations to analyze how various binary and disk parameters affect the Kozai-Lidov mechanism in hydrodynamical disks. The simulations include the effect of gas pressure and viscosity, but ignore the effects of disk self-gravity. We describe results for different numerical resolutions, binary mass ratios and orbital eccentricities, initial disk sizes, initial disk surface density profiles, disk sound speeds, and disk viscosities. We show that the Kozai-Lidov mechanism can operate for a wide range of binary-disk parameters. We discuss the applications of our results to astrophysical disks in various accreting systems.
- Oct 17 2014 astro-ph.EP arXiv:1410.4196v1We carried out two-dimensional high-resolution simulations to study the effect of dust feedback on the evolution of vortices induced by massive planets in protoplanetary disks. Various initial dust to gas disk surface density ratios ($0.001$ -- $0.01$) and dust particle sizes (Stokes number $4\times10^{-4}$ -- $0.16$) are considered. We found that while dust particles migrate inwards, vortices are very effective in collecting them. When dust density becomes comparable to gas density within the vortex, a dynamical instability is excited and it alters the coherent vorticity pattern and destroys the vortex. This dust feedback effect is stronger with higher initial dust/gas density ratio and larger dust grain. Consequently, we found that the disk vortex lifetime can be reduced up to a factor of 10. We discuss the implications of our findings on the survivability of vortices in protoplanetary disks and planet formation.
- Sep 16 2014 astro-ph.HE arXiv:1409.4273v2We propose a new way of generating magnetized supersonic jets using a ring laser to irradiate a flat surface target. Using 2D FLASH code simulations which include the Biermann Battery term, we demonstrate that strong toroidal fields can be generated and sustained downstream in the collimated jet outflow far from the target surface. The field strength can be controlled by varying the ring laser separation, thereby providing a versatile laboratory platform for studying the effects of magnetic field in a variety of astrophysical settings.
- May 30 2014 astro-ph.EP arXiv:1405.7379v1Recent observations of large-scale asymmetric features in protoplanetary disks suggest that large-scale vortices exist in such disks. Massive planets are known to be able to produce deep gaps in protoplanetary disks. The gap edges could become hydrodynamically unstable to the Rossby wave/vortex instability and form large-scale vortices. In this study we examine the long term evolution of these vortices by carrying out high-resolution two dimensional hydrodynamic simulations that last more than $10^4$ orbits (measured at the planet's orbit). We find that the disk viscosity has a strong influence on both the emergence and lifetime of vortices. In the outer disk region where asymmetric features are observed, our simulation results suggest that the disk viscous $\alpha$ needs to be low $\sim 10^{-5 }$ - $10^{-4}$ to sustain vortices to thousands and up to $10^{4}$ orbits in certain cases. The chance of finding a vortex feature in a disk then decreases with smaller planet orbital radius. For $\alpha \sim 10^{-3}$ or larger, even planets with masses of 5 Jupiter-masses will have difficulty either producing or sustaining vortices. We have also studied the effects of different disk temperatures and planet masses. We discuss the implications of our findings on current and future protoplanetary disk observations.
- Mar 12 2013 astro-ph.HE arXiv:1303.2153v3We present Particle-in-Cell simulation results of relativistic shear flows for hybrid positron-electron-ion plasmas and compare to those for pure e+e- and pure e-ion plasmas. Among the three types of relativistic shear flows, we find that only hybrid shear flow is able to energize the electrons to form a high-energy spectral peak plus a hard power-law tail. Such electron spectra are needed to model the observational properties of gamma-ray bursts.
- Dec 24 2012 astro-ph.HE gr-qc arXiv:1212.5323v1The physical origin of high-frequency QPOs (HFQPOs) in black-hole X-ray binaries remains an enigma despite many years of detailed observational studies. Although there exists a number of models for HFQPOs, many of these are simply "notions" or "concepts" without actual calculation derived from fluid or disk physics. Future progress requires a combination of numerical simulations and semi-analytic studies to extract physical insights. We review recent works on global oscillation modes in black-hole accretion disks, and explain how, with the help of general relativistic effects, the energy stored in the disk differential rotation can be pumped into global spiral density modes in the disk, making these modes grow to large amplitudes under certain conditions ("corotational instability"). These modes are robust in the presence of disk magnetic fields and turbulence. The computed oscillation mode frequencies are largely consistent with the observed values for HFQPOs in BH X-ray binaries. The approximate 2:3 frequency ratio is also expected from this model. The connection of HFQPOs with other disk properties (such as production of episodic jets) is also discussed.
- Dec 12 2012 astro-ph.HE astro-ph.CO arXiv:1212.2215v1We present two-dimensional inviscid hydrodynamic simulations of overstable inertial-acoustic oscillation modes (p-modes) in black-hole accretion discs. These global spiral waves are trapped in the inner-most region of the disc, and are driven overstable by wave absorption at the corotation resonance ($r_c$) when the gradient of the background disc vortensity (vorticity divided by surface density) at $r_c$ is positive and the disc inner boundary is sufficiently reflective. Previous linear calculations have shown that the growth rates of these modes can be as high as 10% of the rotation frequency at the disc inner edge. We confirm these linear growth rates and the primary disc oscillation frequencies in our simulations when the mode amplitude undergoes exponential growth. We show that the mode growth saturates when the radial velocity perturbation becomes comparable to the disc sound speed. During the saturation stage, the primary disc oscillation frequency differs only slightly (by less than a few percent) from the linear mode frequency. Sharp features in the fluid velocity profiles at this stage suggest that the saturation results from nonlinear wave steepening and mode-mode interactions.
- Sep 11 2012 astro-ph.HE physics.plasm-ph arXiv:1209.2150v3Supersonic plasma outflows driven by multi-beam, high-energy lasers, such as Omega and NIF, have been and will be used as platforms for a variety of laboratory astrophysics experiments. Here we propose a new way of launching high density and high velocity, plasma jets using multiple intense laser beams in a hollow ring formation. We show that such jets provide a more flexible and versatile platform for future laboratory astrophysics experiments. Using high resolution hydrodynamic simulations, we demonstrate that the collimated jets can achieve much higher density, temperature and velocity when multiple laser beams are focused to form a hollow ring pattern at the target, instead of focused onto a single spot. We carried out simulations with different ring radii and studied their effects on the jet properties. Implications for laboratory collisionless shock experiments are discussed.
- Jan 26 2012 astro-ph.HE arXiv:1201.5370v2We study global non-axisymmetric oscillation modes and instabilities in magnetosphere- disc systems, as expected in neutron star X-ray binaries and possibly also in accreting black hole systems. Our two-dimensional magnetosphere-disc model consists of a Keplerian disc in contact with an uniformly rotating magnetosphere with low plasma density. Two types of global overstable modes exist in such systems, the interface modes and the disc inertial-acoustic modes. We examine various physical effects and parameters that influence the properties of these oscillation modes, particularly their growth rates, including the magnetosphere field configuration, the velocity and density contrasts across the magnetosphere-disc interface, the rotation profile (with Newtonian or General Relativistic potential), the sound speed and magnetic field of the disc. The interface modes are driven unstable by Rayleigh-Taylor and Kelvin-Helmholtz in- stabilities, but can be stabilized by the toroidal field (through magnetic tension) and disc differential rotation (through finite vorticity). General relativity increases their growth rates by modifying the disc vorticity outside the magnetosphere boundary. The interface modes may also be affected by wave absorption associated with corotation resonance in the disc. In the presence of a magnetosphere, the inertial-acoustic modes are effectively trapped at the innermost region of the relativistic disc just outside the interface. They are driven unstable by wave absorption at the corotation resonance, but can be stabilized by modest disc magnetic fields. The overstable oscillation modes studied in this paper have characteristic properties that make them possible candidates for the quasi-periodic oscillations observed in X-ray binaries.
- Nov 23 2010 astro-ph.SR arXiv:1011.4887v1Recent hydrodynamical simulations have shown that differentially rotating neutron stars formed in core-collapse supernovae may develop global non-axisymmetric instabilities even when $T/|W|$ (the ratio of the rotational kinetic energy $T$ to the gravitational potential energy $|W|$) is relatively small (less than 0.1). Such low-$T/|W|$ instability can give rise to efficient gravitational wave emission from the proto-neutron star. We investigate how this instability is affected by magnetic fields using a cylindrical stellar model. Wave absorption at the corotation resonance plays an important role in facilitating the hydrodynamic low-$T/|W|$ instability. In the presence of a toroidal magnetic field, the corotation resonance is split into two magnetic resonances where wave absorptions take place. We show that the toroidal magnetic field suppresses the low-$T/|W|$ instability when the total magnetic energy $W_{\rm B}$ is of order $0.2\,T$ or larger, corresponding to toroidal fields of a few $\times 10^{16}$ G or stronger. Although poloidal magnetic fields do not influence the instability directly, they can affect the instability by generating toroidal fields through linear winding of the initial poloidal field and magneto-rotational instability. We show that an initial poloidal field with strength as small as $10^{14}$ G may suppress the low-$T/|W|$ instability.
- Jun 22 2010 astro-ph.HE arXiv:1006.3824v3Hot accretion tori around a compact object are known to be susceptible to a global hydrodynamical instability, the so-called Papaloizou-Pringle (PP) instability, arising from the interaction of non-axisymmetric waves across the corotation radius, where the wave pattern speed matches the fluid rotation rate. However, accretion tori produced in various astrophysical situations (e.g., collapsars and neutron star binary mergers) are likely to be highly magnetized. We study the effect of magnetic fields on the PP instability in incompressible tori with various magnetic strengths and structures. In general, toroidal magnetic fields have significant effects on the PP instability: For thin tori (with the fractional width relative to the outer torus radius much less than unity), the instability is suppressed at large field strengths with the corresponding toroidal Alfven speed $v_{A\phi}\go 0.2r\Omega$ (where $\Omega$ is the flow rotation rate). For thicker tori (with the fractional width of order 0.4 or larger), which are hydrodynamically stable, the instability sets in for sufficiently strong magnetic fields (with $v_{A\phi}\go 0.2 r\Omega$). Our results suggest that highly magnetized accretion tori may be subjected to global instability even when it is stable against the usual magneto-rotational instability.
- Jun 21 2010 astro-ph.HE arXiv:1006.3763v3Low-order, non-axisymmetric p-modes (also referred as inertial-acoustic modes) trapped in the inner-most region of hydrodynamic accretion discs around black holes, are plausible candidates for high-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) observed in a number of accreting black-hole systems. These modes are subject to global instabilities due to wave absorption at the corotation resonance (where the wave pattern frequency $\omega/m$ equals the disc rotation rate $\Omega$), when the fluid vortensity, $\zeta=\kappa^2/(2\Omega\Sigma)$ (where $\kappa$ and $\Sigma$ are the radial epicyclic frequency and disc surface density, respectively), has a positive gradient. We investigate the effects of disc magnetic fields on the wave absorption at corotation and the related wave super-reflection of the corotation barrier, and on the overstability of disc p-modes. For discs with a pure toroidal field, the corotation resonance is split into two magnetic resonances, where the wave frequency in the corotating frame of the fluid, $\tomega=\omega-m\Omega$, matches the slow magnetosonic wave frequency. Significant wave energy/angular momentum absorption occurs at both magnetic resonances, but with opposite signs. The combined effect of the two magnetic resonances is to reduce the super-reflection and the growth rate of the overstable p-modes. We show that even a subthermal toroidal field may suppress the overstability of hydrodynamic (B=0) p-modes. For accretion discs with mixed (toroidal and vertical) magnetic fields, two additional Alfven resonances appear, where $\tomega$ matches the local Alfven wave frequency. They further reduce the growth rate of p-modes. Our results suggest that in order for the non-axisymmetric p-modes to be a viable candidate for the observed high-frequency QPOs, the disc magnetic field must be appreciably subthermal, or other mode excitation mechanisms are at work.
- The gravity-mode (g-mode) eigenfrequencies of newly born strange quark stars (SQSs) and neutron stars (NSs) are studied. It is found that the eigenfrequencies in SQSs are much lower than those in NSs by almost one order of magnitude, since the components of a SQS are all extremely relativistic particles while nucleons in a NS are non-relativistic. We therefore propose that newly born SQSs can be distinguished from the NSs by detecting the eigenfrequencies of the g-mode pulsations of supernovae cores through gravitational radiation by LIGO-class detectors.
- Jun 12 2008 astro-ph arXiv:0806.1938v3The origin of the rapid quasi-periodic variabilities observed in a number of accreting black hole X-ray binaries is not understood. It has been suggested that these variabilities are associated with diskoseismic oscillation modes of the black hole accretion disk. In particular, in a disk with no magnetic field, the so-called g-modes (inertial oscillations) can be self-trapped at the inner region of the disk due to general relativistic effects. Real accretion disks, however, are expected to be turbulent and contain appreciable magnetic fields. We show in this paper that even a weak magnetic field (with the magnetic energy much less than the thermal energy) can modify or "destroy" the self-trapping zone of disk g-modes, rendering their existence questionable in realistic black hole accretion disks. The so-called corrugation modes (c-modes) are also strongly affected when the poloidal field approaches equal-partition. On the other hand, acoustic oscillations (p-modes), which do not have vertical structure, are not affected qualitatively by the magnetic field, and therefore may survive in a turbulent, magnetic disk.