results for au:Font_J in:gr-qc

- Feb 15 2018 gr-qc arXiv:1802.05241v1We report on a new all-sky search for periodic gravitational waves in the frequency band 475-2000 Hz and with a frequency time derivative in the range of [-1.0e-8, +1e-9] Hz/s. Potential signals could be produced by a nearby spinning and slightly non-axisymmetric isolated neutron star in our galaxy. This search uses the data from Advanced LIGO's first observational run O1. No gravitational wave signals were observed, and upper limits were placed on their strengths. For completeness, results from the separately published low frequency search 20-475 Hz are included as well. Our lowest upper limit on worst-case (linearly polarized) strain amplitude h_0 is 4e-25 near 170 Hz, while at the high end of our frequency range we achieve a worst-case upper limit of 1.3e-24. For a circularly polarized source (most favorable orientation), the smallest upper limit obtained is ~1.5e-25.
- Feb 12 2018 gr-qc astro-ph.HE arXiv:1802.03288v1We present the first very long-term simulations of binary neutron star mergers with piecewise polytropic equations of state and in full general relativity. Our simulations reveal that at a time of 30-50 ms after merger, parts of the star become convectively unstable, which triggers the excitation of inertial modes. The excited inertial modes are sustained up to several tens of ms and are detectable by the planned third-generation gravitational-wave detectors at frequencies of a few kHz. Since inertial modes depend on the rotation rate of the star and they are triggered by a convective instability in the post-merger remnant, their detection in gravitational waves will provide a unique opportunity to probe the rotational and thermal state of the merger remnant. In addition, our findings have implications for the long-term evolution and stability of binary neutron star remnants.
- Nov 16 2017 astro-ph.HE gr-qc arXiv:1711.05578v1On June 8, 2017 at 02:01:16.49 UTC, a gravitational-wave signal from the merger of two stellar-mass black holes was observed by the two Advanced LIGO detectors with a network signal-to-noise ratio of 13. This system is the lightest black hole binary so far observed, with component masses $12^{+7}_{-2}\,M_\odot$ and $7^{+2}_{-2}\,M_\odot$ (90% credible intervals). These lie in the range of measured black hole masses in low-mass X-ray binaries, thus allowing us to compare black holes detected through gravitational waves with electromagnetic observations. The source's luminosity distance is $340^{+140}_{-140}$ Mpc, corresponding to redshift $0.07^{+0.03}_{-0.03}$. We verify that the signal waveform is consistent with the predictions of general relativity.
- Oct 26 2017 astro-ph.HE gr-qc arXiv:1710.09320v1The first observation of a binary neutron star coalescence by the Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo gravitational-wave detectors offers an unprecedented opportunity to study matter under the most extreme conditions. After such a merger, a compact remnant is left over whose nature depends primarily on the masses of the inspiralling objects and on the equation of state of nuclear matter. This could be either a black hole or a neutron star (NS), with the latter being either long-lived or too massive for stability implying delayed collapse to a black hole. Here, we present a search for gravitational waves from the remnant of the binary neutron star merger GW170817 using data from Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo. We search for short ($\lesssim1$ s) and intermediate-duration ($\lesssim 500$ s) signals, which includes gravitational-wave emission from a hypermassive NS or supramassive NS, respectively. We find no signal from the post-merger remnant. Our derived strain upper limits are more than an order of magnitude larger than those predicted by most models. For short signals, our best upper limit on the root-sum-square of the gravitational-wave strain emitted from 1--4 kHz is $h_{\rm rss}^{50\%}=2.1\times 10^{-22}$ Hz$^{-1/2}$ at 50% detection efficiency. For intermediate-duration signals, our best upper limit at 50% detection efficiency is $h_{\rm rss}^{50\%}=8.4\times 10^{-22}$ Hz$^{-1/2}$ for a millisecond magnetar model, and $h_{\rm rss}^{50\%}=5.9\times 10^{-22}$ Hz$^{-1/2}$ for a bar-mode model. These results indicate that post-merger emission from a similar event may be detectable when advanced detectors reach design sensitivity or with next-generation detectors.
- Oct 17 2017 gr-qc arXiv:1710.05837v1The LIGO Scientific and Virgo Collaborations have announced the first detection of gravitational waves from the coalescence of two neutron stars. The merger rate of binary neutron stars estimated from this event suggests that distant, unresolvable binary neutron stars create a significant astrophysical stochastic gravitational-wave background. The binary neutron star background will add to the background from binary black holes, increasing the amplitude of the total astrophysical background relative to previous expectations. In the Advanced LIGO-Virgo frequency band most sensitive to stochastic backgrounds (near 25 Hz), we predict a total astrophysical background with amplitude $\Omega_{\rm GW} (f=25 \text{Hz}) = 1.8_{-1.3}^{+2.7} \times 10^{-9}$ with $90\%$ confidence, compared with $\Omega_{\rm GW} (f=25 \text{Hz}) = 1.1_{-0.7}^{+1.2} \times 10^{-9}$ from binary black holes alone. Assuming the most probable rate for compact binary mergers, we find that the total background may be detectable with a signal-to-noise-ratio of 3 after 40 months of total observation time, based on the expected timeline for Advanced LIGO and Virgo to reach their design sensitivity.
- Oct 09 2017 gr-qc astro-ph.HE arXiv:1710.02327v2Spinning neutron stars asymmetric with respect to their rotation axis are potential sources of continuous gravitational waves for ground-based interferometric detectors. In the case of known pulsars a fully coherent search, based on matched filtering, which uses the position and rotational parameters obtained from electromagnetic observations, can be carried out. Matched filtering maximizes the signal-to-noise (SNR) ratio, but a large sensitivity loss is expected in case of even a very small mismatch between the assumed and the true signal parameters. For this reason, \it narrow-band analyses methods have been developed, allowing a fully coherent search for gravitational waves from known pulsars over a fraction of a hertz and several spin-down values. In this paper we describe a narrow-band search of eleven pulsars using data from Advanced LIGO's first observing run. Although we have found several initial outliers, further studies show no significant evidence for the presence of a gravitational wave signal. Finally, we have placed upper limits on the signal strain amplitude lower than the spin-down limit for 5 of the 11 targets over the bands searched: in the case of J1813-1749 the spin-down limit has been beaten for the first time. For an additional 3 targets, the median upper limit across the search bands is below the spin-down limit. This is the most sensitive narrow-band search for continuous gravitational waves carried out so far.
- Sep 28 2017 gr-qc astro-ph.HE arXiv:1709.09660v3On August 14, 2017 at 10:30:43 UTC, the Advanced Virgo detector and the two Advanced LIGO detectors coherently observed a transient gravitational-wave signal produced by the coalescence of two stellar mass black holes, with a false-alarm-rate of $\lesssim$ 1 in 27000 years. The signal was observed with a three-detector network matched-filter signal-to-noise ratio of 18. The inferred masses of the initial black holes are $30.5_{-3.0}^{+5.7}$ Msun and $25.3_{-4.2}^{+2.8}$ Msun (at the 90% credible level). The luminosity distance of the source is $540_{-210}^{+130}~\mathrm{Mpc}$, corresponding to a redshift of $z=0.11_{-0.04}^{+0.03}$. A network of three detectors improves the sky localization of the source, reducing the area of the 90% credible region from 1160 deg$^2$ using only the two LIGO detectors to 60 deg$^2$ using all three detectors. For the first time, we can test the nature of gravitational wave polarizations from the antenna response of the LIGO-Virgo network, thus enabling a new class of phenomenological tests of gravity.
- Spherically symmetric bosonic stars are one of the few examples of gravitating solitons that are known to form dynamically, via a classical process of (incomplete) gravitational collapse. As stationary solutions of the Einstein--Klein-Gordon or the Einstein--Proca theory, bosonic stars may also become sufficiently compact to develop light rings and hence mimic, in principle, gravitational-wave observational signatures of black holes (BHs). In this paper, we discuss how these horizonless ultra-compact objects (UCOs) are actually distinct from BHs, both phenomenologically and dynamically. In the electromagnetic channel, the light ring associated phenomenology reveals remarkable lensing patterns, quite distinct from a standard BH shadow, with an infinite number of Einstein rings accumulating in the vicinity of the light ring, both inside and outside the latter. The strong lensing region, moreover, can be considerably smaller than the shadow of a BH with a comparable mass. Dynamically, we investigate the fate of such UCOs under perturbations, via fully non-linear numerical simulations and observe that, in all cases, they decay into a Schwarzschild BH within a time scale of $\mathcal{O}(M)$, where $M$ is the mass of the bosonic star. Both these studies reinforce how difficult it is for horizonless UCOs to mimic BH phenomenology and dynamics, in all its aspects.
- Gravitational waves from core-collapse supernovae are produced by the excitation of different oscillation modes in the proto-neutron star (PNS) and its surroundings, including the shock. In this work we study the relationship between the post-bounce oscillation spectrum of the PNS-shock system and the characteristic frequencies observed in gravitational-wave signals from core-collapse simulations. This is a fundamental first step in order to develop a procedure to infer astrophysical parameters of the PNS formed in core-collapse supernovae. Our method combines information from the oscillation spectrum of the PNS, obtained through linear-perturbation analysis in general relativity of a background physical system, with information from the gravitational-wave spectrum of the corresponding non-linear, core-collapse simulation. Using results from the simulation of the collapse of a 35 $M_{\odot}$ presupernova progenitor we show that both types of spectra are indeed related and we are able to identify the modes of oscillation of the PNS, namely g-modes, p-modes, hybrid modes, and standing-accretion-shock-instability (SASI) modes, obtaining a remarkably close correspondence with the time-frequency distribution of the gravitational-wave modes. The analysis presented in this paper provides a proof-of-concept that asteroseismology is indeed possible in the core-collapse scenario, and it may serve as a basis for future work on PNS parameter inference based on gravitational-wave observations.
- Jul 14 2017 gr-qc astro-ph.HE arXiv:1707.03867v1We discuss a procedure to build new sequences of magnetised, equilibrium tori around Kerr black holes which combines two approaches previously considered in the literature. For simplicity we assume that the test-fluid approximation holds, and hence we neglect the self-gravity of the fluid. The models are built assuming a particular form of the angular momentum distribution from which the location and morphology of equipotential surfaces can be computed. This ansatz includes, in particular, the constant angular momentum case originally employed in the construction of thick tori - or Polish doughnuts - and it has already been used to build equilibrium sequences of purely hydrodynamical models. We discuss the properties of the new models and their dependence on the initial parameters. These new sequences can be used as initial data for magnetohydrodynamical evolutions in general relativity.
- Apr 27 2017 gr-qc arXiv:1704.08023v1There is increasing numerical evidence that scalar fields can form long-lived quasi-bound states around black holes. Recent perturbative and numerical relativity calculations have provided further confirmation in a variety of physical systems, including both static and accreting black holes, and collapsing fermionic stars. In this work we investigate this issue yet again in the context of gravitationally unstable boson stars leading to black hole formation. We build a large sample of spherically symmetric initial models, both stable and unstable, incorporating a self-interaction potential with a quartic term. The three different outcomes of unstable models, namely migration to the stable branch, total dispersion, and collapse to a black hole, are also present for self-interacting boson stars. Our simulations show that for black-hole-forming models, a scalar-field remnant is found outside the black-hole horizon, oscillating at a different frequency than that of the original boson star. This result is in good agreement with recent spherically symmetric simulations of unstable Proca stars collapsing to black holes.
- Feb 16 2017 gr-qc astro-ph.HE arXiv:1702.04568v2In a recent paper we applied a rigorous perturbed matching framework to show the amendment of the mass of rotating stars in Hartle's model. Here, we apply this framework to the tidal problem in binary systems. Our approach fully accounts for the correction to the Love numbers needed to obtain the universal $I$-Love-$Q$ relations. We compute the corrected mass vs radius configurations of rotating quark stars, revisiting a classical paper on the subject. These corrections allow us to find a universal relation involving the second-order contribution to the mass $\delta M$. We thus complete the set of universal relations for the tidal problem in binary systems, involving four perturbation parameters, namely $I$, Love, $Q$, and $\delta M$. These relations can be used to obtain the perturbation parameters directly from observational data.
- Feb 16 2017 gr-qc arXiv:1702.04532v1Vector boson stars, or $\textit{Proca stars}$, have been recently obtained as fully non-linear numerical solutions of the Einstein-(complex)-Proca system. These are self-gravitating, everywhere non-singular, horizonless Bose-Einstein condensates of a massive vector field, which resemble in many ways, but not all, their scalar cousins, the well-known (scalar) $\textit{boson stars}$. In this paper we report fully-non linear numerical evolutions of Proca stars, focusing on the spherically symmetric case, with the goal of assessing their stability and the end-point of the evolution of the unstable stars. Previous results from linear perturbation theory indicate the separation between stable and unstable configurations occurs at the solution with maximal ADM mass. Our simulations confirm this result. Evolving numerically unstable solutions, we find, depending on the sign of the binding energy of the solution and on the perturbation, three different outcomes: $(i)$ migration to the stable branch, $(ii)$ total dispersion of the scalar field, or $(iii)$ collapse to a Schwarzschild black hole. In the latter case, a long lived Proca field remnant -- a $\textit{Proca wig}$ -- composed by quasi-bound states, may be seen outside the horizon after its formation, with a life-time that scales inversely with the Proca mass. We comment on the similarities/differences with the scalar case as well as with neutron stars.
- Dec 06 2016 gr-qc astro-ph.IM arXiv:1612.01305v1Gravitational wave astronomy has become a reality after the historical detections accomplished during the first observing run of the two advanced LIGO detectors. In the following years, the number of detections is expected to increase significantly with the full commissioning of the advanced LIGO, advanced Virgo and KAGRA detectors. The development of sophisticated data analysis techniques to improve the opportunities of detection for low signal-to-noise-ratio events is hence a most crucial effort. We present in this paper one such technique, dictionary-learning algorithms, which have been extensively developed in the last few years and successfully applied mostly in the context of image processing. However, to the best of our knowledge, such algorithms have not yet been employed to denoise gravitational wave signals. By building dictionaries from numerical relativity templates of both, binary black holes mergers and bursts of rotational core collapse, we show how machine-learning algorithms based on dictionaries can be also successfully applied for gravitational wave denoising. We use a subset of signals from both catalogs, embedded in non-white Gaussian noise, to assess our techniques with a large sample of tests and to find the best model parameters. The application of our method to the actual signal GW150914 shows promising results. Dictionary-learning algorithms could be a complementary addition to the gravitational wave data analysis toolkit. They may be used to extract signals from noise and to infer physical parameters if the data are in good enough agreement with the morphology of the dictionary atoms.
- Nov 23 2016 gr-qc astro-ph.HE arXiv:1611.07152v2Determining the differential-rotation law of compact stellar objects produced in binary neutron stars mergers or core-collapse supernovae is an old problem in relativistic astrophysics. Addressing this problem is important because it impacts directly on the maximum mass these objects can attain and hence on the threshold to black-hole formation under realistic conditions. Using the results from a large number of numerical simulations in full general relativity of binary neutron star mergers described with various equations of state and masses, we study the rotational properties of the resulting hypermassive neutron stars. We find that the angular-velocity distribution shows only a modest dependence on the equation of state, thus exhibiting the traits of "quasi-universality" found in other aspects of compact stars, both isolated and in binary systems. The distributions are characterized by an almost uniformly rotating core and a "disk". Such a configuration is significantly different from the $j-{\rm constant}$ differential-rotation law that is commonly adopted in equilibrium models of differentially rotating stars. Furthermore, the rest-mass contained in such a disk can be quite large, ranging from $\simeq 0.03\,M_{\odot}$ in the case of high-mass binaries with stiff equations of state, up to $\simeq 0.2\,M_{\odot}$ for low-mass binaries with soft equations of state. We comment on the astrophysical implications of our findings and on the long-term evolutionary scenarios that can be conjectured on the basis of our simulations.
- Nov 09 2016 gr-qc arXiv:1611.02441v1Recent numerical relativity simulations within the Einstein--Maxwell--(charged-)Klein-Gordon (EMcKG) system have shown that the non-linear evolution of a superradiantly unstable Reissner-Nordström black hole (BH) enclosed in a cavity, leads to the formation of a BH with scalar hair. Perturbative evidence for the stability of such hairy BHs has been independently established, confirming they are the true endpoints of the superradiant instability. The same EMcKG system admits also charged scalar soliton-type solutions, which can be either stable or unstable. Using numerical relativity techniques, we provide evidence that the time evolution of some of these $\textit{unstable}$ solitons leads, again, to the formation of a hairy BH. In some other cases, unstable solitons evolve into a (bald) Reissner-Nordström BH. These results establish that the system admits two distinct channels to form hairy BHs at the threshold of superradiance: growing hair from an unstable (bald) BH, or growing a horizon from an unstable (horizonless) soliton. Some parallelism with the case of asymptotically flat boson stars and Kerr BHs with scalar hair is drawn.
- Jul 22 2016 gr-qc arXiv:1607.06304v1In a recent letter, we presented numerical relativity simulations, solving the full Einstein--Maxwell--Klein-Gordon equations, of superradiantly unstable Reissner-Nordström black holes (BHs), enclosed in a cavity. Low frequency, spherical perturbations of a charged scalar field, trigger this instability. The system's evolution was followed into the non-linear regime, until it relaxed into an equilibrium configuration, found to be a $\textit{hairy}$ BH: a charged horizon in equilibrium with a scalar field condensate, whose phase is oscillating at the (final) critical frequency. Here, we investigate the impact of adding self-interactions to the scalar field. In particular, we find sufficiently large self-interactions suppress the exponential growth phase, known from linear theory, and promote a non-monotonic behaviour of the scalar field energy. Furthermore, we discuss in detail the influence of the various parameters in this model: the initial BH charge, the initial scalar perturbation, the scalar field charge, mass, and the position of the cavity's boundary (mirror). We also investigate the "explosive" non-linear regime previously reported to be akin to a bosenova. A mode analysis shows that the "explosions" can be interpreted as the decay into the BH of modes that exit the superradiant regime.
- Jun 17 2016 gr-qc arXiv:1606.05146v1Massive scalar fields can form long-lived configurations around black holes. These configurations, dubbed quasi-bound states, have been studied both in the linear and nonlinear regimes. In this paper we show that quasi-bound states can form in a dynamical scenario in which the mass of the black hole grows significantly due to the capture of infalling matter. We solve the Klein-Gordon equation numerically in spherical symmetry, mimicking the evolution of the spacetime through a sequence of analytic Schwarzschild black hole solutions of increasing mass. It is found that the frequency of oscillation of the quasi-bound states decreases as the mass of the black hole increases. In addition, accretion leads to a significative increase of the exponential decay of the scalar field energy due to the presence of terms of order higher than linear in the exponent. We compare the black hole mass growth rates used in our study with estimates from observational surveys and extrapolate our results to values of the scalar field masses consistent with models that propose scalar fields as dark matter in the universe. We show that even for unrealistically large mass accretion rates, quasi-bound states around accreting black holes can survive for cosmological timescales. Our results provide further support to the intriguing possibility of the existence of dark matter halos based on (ultra-light) scalar fields surrounding supermassive black holes in galactic centers.
- We study the effect of superfluidity on torsional oscillations of highly magnetised neutron stars (magnetars) with a microphysical equation of state by means of two-dimensional, magnetohydrodynamical- elastic simulations. The superfluid properties of the neutrons in the neutron star core are treated in a parametric way in which we effectively decouple part of the core matter from the oscillations. Our simulations confirm the existence of two groups of oscillations, namely continuum oscillations that are confined to the neutron star core and are of Alfvénic character, and global oscillations with constant phase and that are of mixed magneto-elastic type. The latter might explain the quasi-periodic oscillations observed in magnetar giant flares, since they do not suffer from the additional damping mechanism due to phase mixing, contrary to what happens for continuum oscillations. However, we cannot prove rigorously that the coherent oscillations with constant phase are normal modes. Moreover, we find no crustal shear modes for the magnetic field strengths typical for magnetars.We provide fits to our numerical simulations that give the oscillation frequencies as functions of magnetic field strength and proton fraction in the core.
- May 10 2016 astro-ph.HE gr-qc arXiv:1605.02629v2We present results from three-dimensional, numerical relativity simulations of a \it tilted black hole-thick accretion disc system. The simulations are analysed using tracer particles in the disc which are advected with the flow. Such tracers, which we employ in these new simulations for the first time, provide a powerful means to analyse in detail the complex dynamics of tilted black hole-torus systems. We show how its use helps to gain insight in the overall dynamics of the system, discussing the origin of the observed black hole precession and the development of a global non-axisymmetric $m=1$ mode in the disc. Our three-dimensional simulations show the presence of quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) in the instantaneous accretion rate, with frequencies in a range compatible with those observed in low mass X-ray binaries with either a black hole or a neutron star component. The frequency ratio of the dominant low frequency peak and the first overtone is $o_1/f \sim 1.9$, a frequency ratio not attainable when modelling the QPOs as $p$-mode oscillations in axisymmetric tori.
- A Reissner-Nordström black hole (BH) is superradiantly unstable against spherical perturbations of a charged scalar field, enclosed in a cavity, with frequency lower than a critical value. We use numerical relativity techniques to follow the development of this unstable system -- dubbed a charged BH bomb -- into the non-linear regime, solving the full Einstein--Maxwell--Klein-Gordon equations, in spherical symmetry. We show that: $i)$ the process stops before all the charge is extracted from the BH; $ii)$ the system settles down into a hairy BH: a charged horizon in equilibrium with a scalar field condensate, whose phase is oscillating at the (final) critical frequency. For low scalar field charge, $q$, the final state is approached smoothly and monotonically. For large $q$, however, the energy extraction overshoots and an explosive phenomenon, akin to a $bosenova$, pushes some energy back into the BH. The charge extraction, by contrast, does not reverse.
- The observation of several neutron stars in the center of supernova remnants and with significantly lower values of the dipolar magnetic field than the average radio-pulsar population has motivated a lively debate about their formation and origin, with controversial interpretations. A possible explanation requires the slow rotation of the proto-neutron star at birth, which is unable to amplify its magnetic field to typical pulsar levels. An alternative possibility, the hidden magnetic field scenario, considers the accretion of the fallback of the supernova debris onto the neutron star as responsible for the submergence (or screening) of the field and its apparently low value. In this paper we study under which conditions the magnetic field of a neutron star can be buried into the crust due to an accreting, conducting fluid. For this purpose, we consider a spherically symmetric calculation in general relativity to estimate the balance between the incoming accretion flow and the magnetosphere. Our study analyses several models with different specific entropy, composition, and neutron star masses. The main conclusion of our work is that typical magnetic fields of a few times 1e12 G can be buried by accreting only 1e-3 - 1e-2 solar mass, a relatively modest amount of mass. In view of this result, the Central Compact Object scenario should not be considered unusual, and we predict that anomalously weak magnetic fields should be common in very young (< few kyr) neutron stars.
- Jul 31 2015 gr-qc arXiv:1507.08437v2Recent work has shown that scalar fields around black holes can form long-lived, quasistationary configurations surviving for cosmological timescales. With this requirement, scalar fields cannot be discarded as viable candidates for dark matter halo models in galaxies around central supermassive black holes (SMBH). One hypothesis for the formation of most SMBHs at high redshift is the gravitational collapse of supermassive stars (SMS) with masses of $\sim10^5 \rm {M_{\odot}}$. Therefore, a constraint for the existence of quasi-bound states of scalar fields is their survival to such dynamic events. To answer this question we present in this paper the results of a series of numerical relativity simulations of gravitationally collapsing, spherically symmetric stars surrounded by self-gravitating scalar fields. We use an ideal fluid equation of state with adiabatic index $\Gamma=4/3$ which is adequate to simulate radiation-dominated isentropic SMSs. Our results confirm the existence of oscillating, long-lived, self-gravitating scalar field configurations around non-rotating black holes after the collapse of the stars.
- Jun 15 2015 gr-qc astro-ph.HE arXiv:1506.04056v2In this work we present 3D numerical relativity simulations of thick accretion disks around tilted Kerr BH. We investigate the evolution of three different initial disk models with a range of initial black hole spin magnitudes and tilt angles. For all the disk-to-black hole mass ratios considered (0.044-0.16) we observe significant black hole precession and nutation during the evolution. This indicates that for such mass ratios, neglecting the self-gravity of the disks by evolving them in a fixed background black hole spacetime is not justified. We find that the two more massive models are unstable against the Papaloizou-Pringle (PP) instability and that those PP-unstable models remain unstable for all initial spins and tilt angles considered, showing that the development of the instability is a very robust feature of such PP-unstable disks. Our lightest model, which is the most astrophysically favorable outcome of mergers of binary compact objects, is stable. The tilt between the black hole spin and the disk is strongly modulated during the growth of the PP instability, causing a partial global realignment of black hole spin and disk angular momentum in the most massive model with constant specific angular momentum l. For the model with non-constant l-profile we observe a long-lived m=1 non-axisymmetric structure which shows strong oscillations of the tilt angle in the inner regions of the disk. This effect might be connected to the development of Kozai-Lidov oscillations. Our simulations also confirm earlier findings that the development of the PP instability causes the long-term emission of large amplitude gravitational waves, predominantly for the l=m=2 multipole mode. The imprint of the BH precession on the gravitational waves from tilted BH-torus systems remains an interesting open issue that would require significantly longer simulations than those presented in this work.
- May 28 2015 gr-qc arXiv:1505.07225v1We show that the so-called flat-space rotational Killing vector method for measuring the Cartesian components of a black hole spin can be derived from the surface integral of Weinberg's pseudotensor over the apparent horizon surface when using Gaussian normal coordinates in the integration. Moreover, the integration of the pseudotensor in this gauge yields the Komar angular momentum integral in a foliation adapted to the axisymmetry of the spacetime. As a result, the method does not explicitly depend on the evolved lapse $\alpha$ and shift $\beta^i$ on the respective timeslice, as they are fixed to Gaussian normal coordinates, while leaving the coordinate labels of the spatial metric $\gamma_{ij}$ and the extrinsic curvature $K_{ij}$ unchanged. Such gauge fixing endows the method with coordinate invariance, which is not present in integral expressions using Weinberg's pseudotensor, as they normally rely on the explicit use of Cartesian coordinates.
- Dec 30 2014 gr-qc arXiv:1412.8304v2Recent perturbative studies have shown the existence of long-lived, quasi-stationary configurations of scalar fields around black holes. In particular, such configurations have been found to survive for cosmological timescales, which is a requirement for viable dark matter halo models in galaxies based on such type of structures. In this paper we perform a series of numerical relativity simulations of dynamical non-rotating black holes surrounded by self-gravitating scalar fields. We solve numerically the coupled system of equations formed by the Einstein and the Klein-Gordon equations under the assumption of spherical symmetry using spherical coordinates. Our results confirm the existence of oscillating, long-lived, self-gravitating scalar fields configurations around non-rotating black holes in highly dynamical spacetimes with a rich scalar field environment. Our numerical simulations are long-term stable and allow for the extraction of the resonant frequencies to make a direct comparison with results obtained in the linearized regime. A byproduct of our simulations is the existence of a degeneracy in plausible long-lived solutions of Einstein equations that would induce the same motion of test particles, either with or without the existence of quasi-bound states.
- Sep 30 2014 gr-qc astro-ph.IM arXiv:1409.7888v1We describe new methods for denoising and detection of gravitational waves embedded in additive Gaussian noise. The methods are based on Total Variation denoising algorithms. These algorithms, which do not need any a priori information about the signals, have been originally developed and fully tested in the context of image processing. To illustrate the capabilities of our methods we apply them to two different types of numerically-simulated gravitational wave signals, namely bursts produced from the core collapse of rotating stars and waveforms from binary black hole mergers. We explore the parameter space of the methods to find the set of values best suited for denoising gravitational wave signals under different conditions such as waveform type and signal-to-noise ratio. Our results show that noise from gravitational wave signals can be successfully removed with our techniques, irrespective of the signal morphology or astrophysical origin. We also combine our methods with spectrograms and show how those can be used simultaneously with other common techniques in gravitational wave data analysis to improve the chances of detection.
- Mar 17 2014 gr-qc arXiv:1403.3653v1We adopt a reference-metric approach to generalize a covariant and conformal version of the Z4 system of the Einstein equations. We refer to the resulting system as ``fully covariant and conformal", or fCCZ4 for short, since it is well suited for curvilinear as well as Cartesian coordinates. We implement this fCCZ4 formalism in spherical polar coordinates under the assumption of spherical symmetry using a partially-implicit Runge-Kutta (PIRK) method and show that our code can evolve both vacuum and non-vacuum spacetimes without encountering instabilities. Our method does not require regularization of the equations to handle coordinate singularities, nor does it depend on constraint-preserving outer boundary conditions, nor does it need any modifications of the equations for evolutions of black holes. We perform several tests and compare the performance of the fCCZ4 system, for different choices of certain free parameters, with that of BSSN. Confirming earlier results we find that, for an optimal choice of these parameters, and for neutron-star spacetimes, the violations of the Hamiltonian constraint can be between 1 and 3 orders of magnitude smaller in the fCCZ4 system than in the BSSN formulation. For black-hole spacetimes, on the other hand, any advantages of fCCZ4 over BSSN are less evident.
- We present numerical simulations in general relativity of collapsing stellar cores. Our initial model consists of a low metallicity rapidly-rotating progenitor which is evolved in axisymmetry with the latest version of our general relativistic code CoCoNuT, which allows for black hole formation and includes the effects of a microphysical equation of state (LS220) and a neutrino leakage scheme to account for radiative losses. The motivation of our study is to analyze in detail the emission of gravitational waves in the collapsar scenario of long gamma-ray bursts. Our simulations show that the phase during which the proto-neutron star (PNS) survives before ultimately collapsing to a black hole is particularly optimal for gravitational wave emission. The high-amplitude waves last for several seconds and show a remarkable quasi-periodicity associated with the violent PNS dynamics, namely during the episodes of convection and the subsequent nonlinear development of the standing-accretion shock instability (SASI). By analyzing the spectrogram of our simulations we are able to identify the frequencies associated with the presence of g-modes and with the SASI motions at the PNS surface. We note that the gravitational waves emitted reach large enough amplitudes to be detected with third-generation detectors as the Einstein Telescope within a Virgo cluster volume at rates ~< 0.1 /y.
- Jun 21 2013 gr-qc astro-ph.HE arXiv:1306.4953v2We describe in detail the implementation of a simplified approach to radiative transfer in general relativity by means of the well-known neutrino leakage scheme (NLS). In particular, we carry out an extensive investigation of the properties and limitations of the NLS for isolated relativistic stars to a level of detail that has not been discussed before in a general-relativistic context. Although the numerous tests considered here are rather idealized, they provide a well-controlled environment in which to understand the relationship between the matter dynamics and the neutrino emission, which is important in order to model the neutrino signals from more complicated scenarios, such as binary neutron-star mergers. When considering nonrotating hot neutron stars we confirm earlier results of one-dimensional simulations, but also present novel results about the equilibrium properties and on how the cooling affects the stability of these configurations. In our idealized but controlled setup, we can then show that deviations from the thermal and weak-interaction equilibrium affect the stability of these models to radial perturbations, leading models that are stable in the absence of radiative losses, to a gravitational collapse to a black hole when neutrinos are instead radiated.
- Apr 15 2013 astro-ph.HE gr-qc arXiv:1304.3566v1Our numerical simulations show that axisymmetric, torsional, magneto-elastic oscillations of magnetars with a superfluid core can explain the whole range of observed quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) in the giant flares of soft gamma-ray repeaters. There exist constant phase, magneto-elastic QPOs at both low (f<150 Hz) and high frequencies (f>500 Hz), in full agreement with observations. The range of magnetic field strengths required to match the observed QPO frequencies agrees with that from spin-down estimates. These results strongly suggest that neutrons in magnetar cores are superfluid.
- Jan 31 2013 gr-qc arXiv:1301.7348v2The merger of two neutron stars will in general lead to the formation of a torus surrounding a black hole whose rotational energy can be tapped to potentially power a short gamma-ray burst. We have studied the merger of equal-mass binaries with spins aligned with the orbital angular momentum to determine the maximum spin the black hole can reach. Our initial data consists of irrotational binaries to which we add various amounts of rotation to increase the total angular momentum. Although the initial data violates the constraint equations, the use of the constraint-damping CCZ4 formulation yields evolutions with violations smaller than those with irrotational initial data and standard formulations. Interestingly, we find that a limit of $J/M^2 \simeq 0.89$ exists for the dimensionless spin and that any additional angular momentum given to the binary ends up in the torus rather than in the black hole, thus providing another nontrivial example supporting the cosmic censorship hypothesis.
- We study magneto-elastic oscillations of highly magnetized neutron stars (magnetars) which have been proposed as an explanation for the quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) appearing in the decaying tail of the giant flares of soft gamma-ray repeaters (SGRs). We extend previous studies by investigating various magnetic field configurations, computing the Alfvén spectrum in each case and performing magneto-elastic simulations for a selected number of models. By identifying the observed frequencies of 28 Hz (SGR 1900+14) and 30 Hz (SGR 1806-20) with the fundamental Alfvén QPOs, we estimate the required surface magnetic field strength. For the magnetic field configurations investigated (dipole-like poloidal, mixed toroidal-poloidal with a dipole-like poloidal component and a toroidal field confined to the region of field lines closing inside the star, and for poloidal fields with an additional quadrupole-like component) the estimated dipole spin-down magnetic fields are between 8x10^14 G and 4x10^15 G, in broad agreement with spin-down estimates for the SGR sources producing giant flares. A number of these models exhibit a rich Alfvén continuum revealing new turning points which can produce QPOs. This allows one to explain most of the observed QPO frequencies as associated with magneto-elastic QPOs. In particular, we construct a possible configuration with two turning points in the spectrum which can explain all observed QPOs of SGR 1900+14. Finally, we find that magnetic field configurations which are entirely confined in the crust (if the core is assumed to be a type I superconductor) are not favoured, due to difficulties in explaining the lowest observed QPO frequencies (f<30 Hz).
- By means of two dimensional, general-relativistic, magneto-hydrodynamical simulations we investigate the oscillations of magnetized neutron star models (magnetars) including the description of an extended solid crust. The aim of this study is to understand the origin of the QPOs observed in the giant flares of SGRs. We confirm the existence of three different regimes: (a) a weak magnetic field regime B<5 x 10^13 G, where crustal shear modes dominate the evolution; (b) a regime of intermediate magnetic fields 5 x 10^13 G<B< 10^15 G, where Alfvén QPOs are mainly confined to the core of the neutron star and the crustal shear modes are damped very efficiently; and (c) a strong field regime B>10^15 G, where magneto-elastic oscillations reach the surface and approach the behavior of purely Alfvén QPOs. When the Alfvén QPOs are confined to the core of the neutron star, we find qualitatively similar QPOs as in the absence of a crust. The lower QPOs associated with the closed field lines of the dipolar magnetic field configuration are reproduced as in our previous simulations without crust, while the upper QPOs connected to the open field lines are displaced from the polar axis. Additionally, we observe a family of edge QPOs. Our results do not leave much room for a crustal-mode interpretation of observed QPOs in SGR giant flares, but can accommodate an interpretation of these observations as originating from Alfvén-like, global, turning-point QPOs in models with dipolar magnetic field strengths in the narrow range of 5 x 10^15 G < B < 1.4 x 10^16 G. This range is somewhat larger than estimates for magnetic field strengths in known magnetars. The discrepancy may be resolved in models including a more complicated magnetic field structure or with models taking superfluidity of the neutrons and superconductivity of the protons in the core into account.
- Black hole (BH)--torus systems are promising candidates for the central engine of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), and also possible outcomes of the collapse of supermassive stars to supermassive black holes (SMBHs). By three-dimensional general relativistic numerical simulations, we show that an $m=1$ nonaxisymmetric instability grows for a wide range of self-gravitating tori orbiting BHs. The resulting nonaxisymmetric structure persists for a timescale much longer than the dynamical one, becoming a strong emitter of large amplitude, quasiperiodic gravitational waves. Our results indicate that both, the central engine of GRBs and newly formed SMBHs, can be strong gravitational wave sources observable by forthcoming ground-based and spacecraft detectors.
- We extend a general-relativistic ideal magneto-hydrodynamical code to include the effects of elasticity. Using this numerical tool we analyse the magneto-elastic oscillations of highly magnetised neutron stars (magnetars). In simulations without magnetic field we are able to recover the purely crustal shear oscillations within an accuracy of about a few per cent. For dipole magnetic fields between 5 x 10^13 and 10^15 G the Alfvén oscillations become modified substantially by the presence of the crust. Those quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) split into three families: Lower QPOs near the equator, Edge QPOs related to the last open field line and Upper QPOs at larger distance from the equator. Edge QPOs are called so because they are related to an edge in the corresponding Alfvén continuum. The Upper QPOs are of the same kind, while the Lower QPOs are turning-point QPOs, related to a turning point in the continuous spectrum.
- In a realistic model of magneto-elastic oscillations in magnetars, we find that crustal shear oscillations, often invoked as an explanation of quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) seen after giant flares in soft gamma-ray repeaters (SGRs), are damped by resonant absorption on timescales of at most 0.2s, for a lower limit on the dipole magnetic field strength of 5 x 10^13 G. At higher magnetic field strengths (typical in magnetars) the damping timescale is even shorter, as anticipated by earlier toy-models. We have investigated a range of equations of state and masses and if magnetars are dominated by a dipole magnetic field, our findings exclude torsional shear oscillations of the crust from explaining the observed low-frequency QPOs. In contrast, we find that the Alfvén QPO model is a viable explanation of observed QPOs, if the dipole magnetic field strength exceeds a minimum strength of about several times 10^14 G to 10^15 G. Then, Alfvén QPOs are no longer confined to the fluid core, but completely dominate in the crust region and have a maximum amplitude at the surface of the star.
- Apr 20 2010 gr-qc astro-ph.HE arXiv:1004.3102v1Results from the first fully general relativistic numerical simulations in axisymmetry of a system formed by a black hole surrounded by a self-gravitating torus in equilibrium are presented, aiming to assess the influence of the torus self-gravity on the onset of the runaway instability. We consider several models with varying torus-to-black hole mass ratio and angular momentum distribution orbiting in equilibrium around a non-rotating black hole. The tori are perturbed to induce the mass transfer towards the black hole. Our numerical simulations show that all models exhibit a persistent phase of axisymmetric oscillations around their equilibria for several dynamical timescales without the appearance of the runaway instability, indicating that the self-gravity of the torus does not play a critical role favoring the onset of the instability, at least during the first few dynamical timescales.
- Jan 18 2010 gr-qc astro-ph.HE arXiv:1001.3074v2We present new results from accurate and fully general-relativistic simulations of the coalescence of unmagnetized binary neutron stars with various mass ratios. The evolution of the stars is followed through the inspiral phase, the merger and prompt collapse to a black hole, up until the appearance of a thick accretion disk, which is studied as it enters and remains in a regime of quasi-steady accretion. Although a simple ideal-fluid equation of state with \Gamma=2 is used, this work presents a systematic study within a fully general relativistic framework of the properties of the resulting black-hole--torus system produced by the merger of unequal-mass binaries. More specifically, we show that: (1) The mass of the torus increases considerably with the mass asymmetry and equal-mass binaries do not produce significant tori if they have a total baryonic mass M_tot >~ 3.7 M_sun; (2) Tori with masses M_tor ~ 0.2 M_sun are measured for binaries with M_tot ~ 3.4 M_sun and mass ratios q ~ 0.75-0.85; (3) The mass of the torus can be estimated by the simple expression M_tor(q, M_tot) = [c_1 (1-q) + c_2](M_max-M_tot), involving the maximum mass for the binaries and coefficients constrained from the simulations, and suggesting that the tori can have masses as large as M_tor ~ 0.35 M_sun for M_tot ~ 2.8 M_sun and q ~ 0.75-0.85; (4) Using a novel technique to analyze the evolution of the tori we find no evidence for the onset of non-axisymmetric instabilities and that very little, if any, of their mass is unbound; (5) Finally, for all the binaries considered we compute the complete gravitational waveforms and the recoils imparted to the black holes, discussing the prospects of detection of these sources for a number of present and future detectors.
- Feb 10 2009 astro-ph.HE gr-qc arXiv:0902.1472v2We perform two-dimensional simulations of Alfven oscillations in magnetars, modeled as relativistic stars with a dipolar magnetic field. We use the anelastic approximation to general relativistic magnetohydrodynamics, which allows for an effective suppression of fluid modes and an accurate description of Alfven waves. In addition, we compute Alfven oscillation frequencies along individual magnetic field lines with a semi-analytic approach, employing a short-wavelength approximation. Our main findings are as follows: a) we confirm the existence of two families of quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs), with harmonics at integer multiples of the fundamental frequency, as was found in the linear study of Sotani, Kokkotas & Stergioulas; b) the QPOs appearing near the magnetic axis are split into two groups, depending on their symmetry across the equatorial plane. The antisymmetric QPOs have only odd integer-multiple harmonics; c) the continuum obtained with our semi-analytic approach agrees remarkably well with QPOs obtained via the two-dimensional simulations, allowing for a clear interpretation of the QPOs as corresponding to turning points of the continuum. This agreement will allow for a comprehensive study of Alfven QPOs for a larger number of different models, without the need for time-consuming simulations. Finally, we construct empirical relations for the QPO frequencies and compare them to observations of known Soft Gamma Repeaters. We find that, under the assumptions of our model and if the magnetic field of magnetars is characterized by a strong dipolar component, and QPOs are produced near the magnetic pole, then one can place an upper limit to the mean surface strength of the magnetic field of about 3-8 10^15 G.
- May 21 2008 gr-qc arXiv:0805.3099v2We present a new two-dimensional numerical code called Nada designed to solve the full Einstein equations coupled to the general relativistic hydrodynamics equations. The code is mainly intended for studies of self-gravitating accretion disks (or tori) around black holes, although it is also suitable for regular spacetimes. Concerning technical aspects the Einstein equations are formulated and solved in the code using a formulation of the standard 3+1 (ADM) system, the so-called BSSN approach. A key feature of the code is that derivative terms in the spacetime evolution equations are computed using a fourth-order centered finite difference approximation in conjunction with the Cartoon method to impose the axisymmetry condition under Cartesian coordinates (the choice in Nada), and the puncture/moving puncture approach to carry out black hole evolutions. Correspondingly, the general relativistic hydrodynamics equations are written in flux-conservative form and solved with high-resolution, shock-capturing schemes. We perform and discuss a number of tests to assess the accuracy and expected convergence of the code, namely (single) black hole evolutions, shock tubes, and evolutions of both spherical and rotating relativistic stars in equilibrium, the gravitational collapse of a spherical relativistic star leading to the formation of a black hole. In addition, paving the way for specific applications of the code, we also present results from fully general relativistic numerical simulations of a system formed by a black hole surrounded by a self-gravitating torus in equilibrium.
- We present a new numerical code which solves the general relativistic magneto-hydrodynamics (GRMHD) equations coupled to the Einstein equations for the evolution of a dynamical spacetime within the conformally-flat approximation. This code has been developed with the main objective of studying astrophysical scenarios in which both, high magnetic fields and strong gravitational fields appear, such as the magneto-rotational collapse of stellar cores, the collapsar model of GRBs, and the evolution of neutron stars. The code is based on an existing and thoroughly tested purely hydrodynamics code and on its extension to accommodate weakly magnetized fluids (passive magnetic field approximation). The numerical code we present here is based on high-resolution shock-capturing schemes to solve the GRMHD equations together with the flux constraint transport method to ensure the solenoidal condition of the magnetic field. Since the astrophysical applications envisaged do not deviate much from spherical symmetry, the conformal flatness condition approximation is used for the formulation of the Einstein equations. In addition, the code can handle several equations of state, from simple analytical expressions to microphysical tabulated ones. In this paper we present stringent tests of our new GRMHD numerical code, which show its ability to handle all aspects appearing in the astrophysical scenarios for which the code is intended, namely relativistic shocks, highly magnetized fluids, and equilibrium configurations of magnetized neutron stars. As an application, magneto-rotational core collapse simulations of a realistic progenitor are presented, comparing the results with our previous finding in the passive magnetic field approximation.
- We present a new general relativistic hydrodynamics code specifically designed to study magneto-rotational, relativistic, stellar core collapse. The code is an extension of an existing (and thoroughly tested) hydrodynamics code, which has been applied in the recent past to study relativistic rotational core collapse. It is based on the conformally-flat approximation of Einstein's field equations and conservative formulations for the magneto-hydrodynamics equations. As a first step towards magneto-rotational core collapse simulations the code assumes a passive (test) magnetic field. The paper is focused on the description of the technical details of the numerical implementation, with emphasis on the magnetic field module. A number of code tests are presented and discussed, along with a representative core collapse simulation.
- This paper presents results from axisymmetric simulations of magneto-rotational stellar core collapse to neutron stars in general relativity using the passive field approximation for the magnetic field. These simulations are performed using a new general relativistic numerical code specifically designed to study this astrophysical scenario. The code is based on the conformally-flat approximation of Einstein's field equations and conservative formulations of the magneto-hydrodynamics equations. The code has been recently upgraded to incorporate a tabulated, microphysical equation of state and an approximate deleptonization scheme. This allows us to perform the most realistic simulations of magneto-rotational core collapse to date, which are compared with simulations employing a simplified (hybrid) equation of state, widely used in the relativistic core collapse community. Furthermore, state-of-the-art (unmagnetized) initial models from stellar evolution are used. In general, stellar evolution models predict weak magnetic fields in the progenitors, which justifies our simplification of performing the computations under the approach that we call the passive field approximation for the magnetic field. Our results show that for the core collapse models with microphysics the saturation of the magnetic field cannot be reached within dynamical time scales by winding up the poloidal magnetic field into a toroidal one. We estimate the effect of other amplification mechanisms including the magneto-rotational instability (MRI) and several types of dynamos.
- We present a numerical study of the dynamics of magnetized, relativistic, non-self-gravitating, axisymmetric tori orbiting in the background spacetimes of Schwarzschild and Kerr black holes. The initial models have a constant specific angular momentum and are built with a non-zero toroidal magnetic field component, for which equilibrium configurations have recently been obtained. In this work we extend our previous investigations which dealt with purely hydrodynamical thick discs, and study the dynamics of magnetized tori subject to perturbations which, for the values of the magnetic field strength considered here, trigger quasi-periodic oscillations lasting for tens of orbital periods. Overall, we have found that the dynamics of the magnetized tori analyzed is very similar to that found in the corresponding unmagnetized models. The spectral distribution of the eigenfrequencies of oscillation shows the presence of a fundamental p mode and of a series of overtones in a harmonic ratio 2:3:.... These simulations, therefore, extend the validity of the model of Rezzolla et al.(2003a) for explaining the high-frequency QPOs observed in the spectra of LMXBs containing a black-hole candidate also to the case of magnetized discs with purely toroidal magnetic field distribution. If sufficiently compact and massive, these oscillations can also lead to the emission of intense gravitational radiation which is potentially detectable for sources within the Galaxy.
- By combining the numerical solution of the nonlinear hydrodynamics equations with the solution of the linear inhomogeneous Zerilli-Moncrief and Regge-Wheeler equations we investigate the properties of the gravitational radiation emitted during the axisymmetric accretion of matter onto a Schwarzschild black hole. The matter models considered include quadrupolar dust shells and thick accretion disks, permitting us to simulate situations which may be encountered at the end stages of stellar gravitational collapse or binary neutron star merger. We focus on the interference pattern appearing in the energy spectra of the emitted gravitational waves and on the amount of excitation of the quasi-normal modes of the accreting black hole. We show that, quite generically in the presence of accretion, the black hole ringdown is not a simple superposition of quasi-normal modes, although the fundamental mode is usually present and often dominates the gravitational-wave signal. We interpret this as due to backscattering of waves off the non-exponentially decaying part of the black-hole potential and to the finite spatial extension of the accreting matter. Our results suggest that the black-hole QNM contributions to the full gravitational-wave signal should be extremely small and possibly not detectable in generic astrophysical scenarios involving the accretion of extended distributions of matter.
- We study non-linear axisymmetric pulsations of rotating relativistic stars using a general relativistic hydrodynamics code under the assumption of a conformal flatness. We compare our results to previous simulations where the spacetime dynamics was neglected. The pulsations are studied along various sequences of both uniformly and differentially rotating relativistic polytropes with index N = 1. We identify several modes, including the lowest-order l = 0, 2, and 4 axisymmetric modes, as well as several axisymmetric inertial modes. Differential rotation significantly lowers mode frequencies, increasing prospects for detection by current gravitational wave interferometers. We observe an extended avoided crossing between the l = 0 and l = 4 first overtones, which is important for correctly identifying mode frequencies in case of detection. For uniformly rotating stars near the mass-shedding limit, we confirm the existence of the mass-shedding-induced damping of pulsations, though the effect is not as strong as in the Cowling approximation. We also investigate non-linear harmonics of the linear modes and notice that rotation changes the pulsation frequencies in a way that would allow for various parametric instabilities between two or three modes to take place. We assess the detectability of each obtained mode by current gravitational wave detectors and outline how the empirical relations that have been constructed for gravitational wave asteroseismology could be extended to include the effects of rotation.
- A recent paper by Lucas-Serrano et al. indicates that a high-resolution central (HRC) scheme is robust enough to yield accurate hydrodynamical simulations of special relativistic flows in the presence of ultrarelativistic speeds and strong shock waves. In this paper we apply this scheme in full general relativity (involving \it dynamical spacetimes), and assess its suitability by performing test simulations for oscillations of rapidly rotating neutron stars and merger of binary neutron stars. It is demonstrated that this HRC scheme can yield results as accurate as those by the so-called high-resolution shock-capturing (HRSC) schemes based upon Riemann solvers. Furthermore, the adopted HRC scheme has increased computational efficiency as it avoids the costly solution of Riemann problems and has practical advantages in the modeling of neutron star spacetimes. Namely, it allows simulations with stiff equations of state by successfully dealing with very low-density unphysical atmospheres. These facts not only suggest that such a HRC scheme may be a desirable tool for hydrodynamical simulations in general relativity, but also open the possibility to perform accurate magnetohydrodynamical simulations in curved dynamic spacetimes.
- Quasi-periodic oscillations of high density thick accretion disks orbiting a Schwarzschild black hole have been recently addressed as interesting sources of gravitational waves. The aim of this paper is to compare the gravitational waveforms emitted from these sources when computed using (variations of) the standard quadrupole formula and gauge-invariant metric perturbation theory. To this goal we evolve representative disk models using an existing general relativistic hydrodynamics code which has been previously employed in investigations of such astrophysical systems. Two are the main results of this work: First, for stable and marginally stable disks, no excitation of the black hole quasi-normal modes is found. Secondly, we provide a simple, relativistic modification of the Newtonian quadrupole formula which, in certain regimes, yields excellent agreement with the perturbative approach. This holds true as long as back-scattering of GWs is negligible. Otherwise, any functional form of the quadrupole formula yields systematic errors of the order of 10%.
- We present a general procedure to solve numerically the general relativistic magnetohydrodynamics (GRMHD) equations within the framework of the 3+1 formalism. The work reported here extends our previous investigation in general relativistic hydrodynamics (Banyuls et al. 1997) where magnetic fields were not considered. The GRMHD equations are written in conservative form to exploit their hyperbolic character in the solution procedure. All theoretical ingredients necessary to build up high-resolution shock-capturing schemes based on the solution of local Riemann problems (i.e. Godunov-type schemes) are described. In particular, we use a renormalized set of regular eigenvectors of the flux Jacobians of the relativistic magnetohydrodynamics equations. In addition, the paper describes a procedure based on the equivalence principle of general relativity that allows the use of Riemann solvers designed for special relativistic magnetohydrodynamics in GRMHD. Our formulation and numerical methodology are assessed by performing various test simulations recently considered by different authors. These include magnetized shock tubes, spherical accretion onto a Schwarzschild black hole, equatorial accretion onto a Kerr black hole, and magnetized thick accretion disks around a black hole prone to the magnetorotational instability.
- Core collapse supernovae are a promising source of detectable gravitational waves. Most of the existing (multidimensional) numerical simulations of core collapse in general relativity have been done using approximations of the Einstein field equations. As recently shown by Dimmelmeier et al (2002a,b), one of the most interesting such approximation is the so-called conformal flatness condition (CFC) of Isenberg, Wilson and Mathews. Building on this previous work we present here new results from numerical simulations of relativistic rotational core collapse in axisymmetry, aiming at improving the dynamics and the gravitational waveforms. The computer code used for these simulations evolves the coupled system of metric and fluid equations using the 3+1 formalism, specialized to a new framework for the gravitational field equations which we call CFC+. In this approach we add new degrees of freedom to the original CFC equations, which extend them by terms of second post-Newtonian order. The corrections for CFC+ are computed solving a system of elliptic linear equations. The new formalism is assessed with time evolutions of both rotating neutron stars in equilibrium and gravitational core collapse of rotating polytropes. Gravitational wave signals for a comprehensive sample of collapse models are extracted using either the quadrupole formula or directly from the metric. We discuss our results on the dynamics and the gravitational wave emission through a detailed comparison between CFC and CFC+ simulations. The main conclusion is that, for the neutron star spacetimes analyzed in the present work, no significant differences are found among CFC, CFC+, and full general relativity, which highlights the suitability of the former.
- We present a comprehensive numerical study of the dynamics of relativistic axisymmetric accretion tori with a power-law distribution of specific angular momentum orbiting in the background spacetime of a Kerr black hole. By combining general relativistic hydrodynamics simulations with a linear perturbative approach we investigate the main dynamical properties of these objects over a large parameter space. The astrophysical implications of our results extend and improve two interesting results that have been recently reported in the literature. Firstly, the induced quasi-periodic variation of the mass quadrupole moment makes relativistic tori of nuclear matter densities, as those formed during the last stages of binary neutron star mergers, promising sources of gravitational radiation, potentially detectable by interferometric instruments. Secondly, $p$-mode oscillations in relativistic tori of low rest-mass densities could be used to explain high frequency quasi-periodic oscillations observed in X-ray binaries containing a black hole candidate under conditions more generic than those considered so far.
- We assess the suitability of a recent high-resolution central scheme developed by Kurganov & Tadmor (2000) for the solution of the relativistic hydrodynamics equations. The novelty of this approach relies on the absence of Riemann solvers in the solution procedure. The computations we present are performed in one and two spatial dimensions in Minkowski spacetime. Standard numerical experiments such as shock tubes and the relativistic flat-faced step test are performed. As an astrophysical application the article includes two-dimensional simulations of the propagation of relativistic jets using both Cartesian and cylindrical coordinates. The simulations reported clearly show the capabilities of the numerical scheme to yield satisfactory results, with an accuracy comparable to that obtained by the so-called high-resolution shock-capturing schemes based upon Riemann solvers (Godunov-type schemes), even well inside the ultrarelativistic regime. Such central scheme can be straightforwardly applied to hyperbolic systems of conservation laws for which the characteristic structure is not explicitly known, or in cases where the exact solution of the Riemann problem is prohibitively expensive to compute numerically. Finally, we present comparisons with results obtained using various Godunov-type schemes as well as with those obtained using other high-resolution central schemes which have recently been reported in the literature.
- We present a new 3D general relativistic hydrodynamics code for simulations of stellar core collapse to a neutron star, as well as pulsations and instabilities of rotating relativistic stars. It uses spectral methods for solving the metric equations, assuming the conformal flatness approximation for the three-metric. The matter equations are solved by high-resolution shock-capturing schemes. We demonstrate that the combination of a finite difference grid and a spectral grid can be successfully accomplished. This "Mariage des Maillages" (French for grid wedding) approach results in high accuracy of the metric solver and allows for fully 3D applications using computationally affordable resources, and ensures long term numerical stability of the evolution. We compare our new approach to two other, finite difference based, methods to solve the metric equations. A variety of tests in 2D and 3D is presented, involving highly perturbed neutron star spacetimes and (axisymmetric) stellar core collapse, demonstrating the ability to handle spacetimes with and without symmetries in strong gravity. These tests are also employed to assess gravitational waveform extraction, which is based on the quadrupole formula.
- Mar 18 2004 gr-qc arXiv:gr-qc/0403077v3This paper reports results from numerical simulations of the gravitational radiation emitted from non--rotating compact objects(both neutron stars and Schwarzschild black holes) as a result of the accretion of matter. A hybrid procedure is adopted: we evolve, in axisymmetry, the linearized equations describing metric and fluid perturbations, coupled with a nonlinear hydrodynamics code that calculates the motion of the accreting matter. The initial matter distribution is shaped in the form of extended quadrupolar shells of dust or perfect fluid. Self--gravity and radiation reaction effects of the accreting fluid are neglected. This idealized setup is used to understand the qualitative features appearing in the energy spectrum of the gravitational wave emission from compact stars or black holes, subject to accretion processes involving extended objects. A comparison for the case of point--like particles falling radially onto black holes is also provided. Our results show that, when the central object is a black hole, the spectrum is far from having only one clear, monochromatic peak at the frequency of the fundamental quasi-normal mode, but it shows a complex pattern, with interference fringes produced by the interaction between the infalling matter and the underlying perturbed spacetime: most of the energy is emitted at frequencies lower than that of the fundamental mode of the black hole. Similar results are obtained for extended shells accreting onto neutron stars, but in this case the stellar fundamental mode is clearly excited. Our analysis shows that the gravitational wave signal driven by accretion is influenced more by the details and dynamics of the process, than by the quasi--normal mode structure of the central object.
- We present a new three-dimensional fully general-relativistic hydrodynamics code using high-resolution shock-capturing techniques and a conformal traceless formulation of the Einstein equations. Besides presenting a thorough set of tests which the code passes with very high accuracy, we discuss its application to the study of the gravitational collapse of uniformly rotating neutron stars to Kerr black holes. The initial stellar models are modelled as relativistic polytropes which are either secularly or dynamically unstable and with angular velocities which range from slow rotation to the mass-shedding limit. We investigate the gravitational collapse by carefully studying not only the dynamics of the matter, but also that of the trapped surfaces, i.e. of both the apparent and event horizons formed during the collapse. The use of these surfaces, together with the dynamical horizon framework, allows for a precise measurement of the black-hole mass and spin. The ability to successfully perform these simulations for sufficiently long times relies on excising a region of the computational domain which includes the singularity and is within the apparent horizon. The dynamics of the collapsing matter is strongly influenced by the initial amount of angular momentum in the progenitor star and, for initial models with sufficiently high angular velocities, the collapse can lead to the formation of an unstable disc in differential rotation. All the simulations performed with uniformly rotating initial data and a polytropic or ideal-fluid equation of state show no evidence of shocks or of the presence of matter on stable orbits outside the black hole.
- We study small-amplitude, nonlinear pulsations of uniformly and differentially rotating neutron stars employing a two-dimensional evolution code for general-relativistic hydrodynamics. Using Fourier transforms at several points inside the star, both the eigenfrequencies and two-dimensional eigenfunctions of pulsations are extracted. The centrifugal forces and the degree of differential rotation have significant effects on the mode-eigenfunction. We find that near the mass-shedding limit, the pulsations are damped due to shocks forming at the surface of the star. This new damping mechanism may set a small saturation amplitude for modes that are unstable to the emission of gravitational waves. After correcting for the assumption of the Cowling approximation (used in our numerical code), we construct empirical relations that predict the range of gravitational-wave frequencies from quasi-periodic post-bounce oscillations in the core collapse of massive stars. We also find that the fundamental quasi-radial mode is split, at least in the Cowling approximation and mainly in differentially rotating stars, into two different sequences.
- We present results from a comprehensive number of relativistic, time-dependent, axisymmetric simulations of the runaway instability of non-constant angular momentum thick discs around black holes. This second paper extends earlier results where only constant angular momentum discs were considered. All relevant aspects of the theory of stationary thick discs around rotating black holes, necessary to build the initial state in our simulations, are presented in great detail. The angular momentum of the discs is assumed to increase outwards with the radial distance according to a power law. The main simplifying assumptions of our approach are not to include magnetic fields and self-gravity in the discs. Furthermore, the dynamics of the spacetime is accounted for by computing the transfer of mass and angular momentum from the disc to the black hole through the event horizon : the evolution of the central black hole is assumed to follow a sequence of Kerr black holes of increasing mass and spin. In agreement with previous results based on stationary models we find that by allowing the mass and the spin of the black hole to grow, constant angular momentum discs rapidly become unstable on a dynamical timescale. The comparison with the results of paper I shows that the effect of the angular momentum transfer from the torus to the black hole is to make constant angular momentum discs less unstable, increasing the timescale of the instability. However, we find that non-constant angular momentum discs are dramatically stabilized for very small values of the angular momentum slope. Our time-dependent simulations confirm, thus, the predictions of stationary studies concerning the stabilizing effect of non-constant angular momentum distributions.
- We consider the effects of a cosmological constant on the dynamics of constant angular momentum discs orbiting Schwarzschild-de Sitter black holes. The motivation behind this study is to investigate whether the presence of a radial force contrasting the black hole's gravitational attraction can influence the occurrence of the runaway instability, a robust feature of the dynamics of constant angular momentum tori in Schwarzschild and Kerr spacetimes. In addition to the inner cusp near the black hole horizon through which matter can accrete onto the black hole, in fact, a positive cosmological constant introduces also an outer cusp through which matter can leave the torus without accreting onto the black hole. To assess the impact of this outflow on the development of the instability we have performed time-dependent and axisymmetric hydrodynamical simulations of equilibrium initial configurations in a sequence of background spacetimes of Schwarzschild-de Sitter black holes with increasing masses. The simulations have been performed with an unrealistic value for the cosmological constant which, however, yields sufficiently small discs to be resolved accurately on numerical grids and thus provides a first qualitative picture of the dynamics. The calculations, carried out for a wide range of initial conditions, show that the mass-loss from the outer cusp can have a considerable impact on the instability, with the latter being rapidly suppressed if the outflow is large enough.
- We present results from axisymmetric stellar core collapse simulations in general relativity. Our hydrodynamics code has proved robust and accurate enough to allow for a detailed analysis of the global dynamics of the collapse. Contrary to traditional approaches based on the 3+1 formulation of the gravitational field equations, our framework uses a foliation based on a family of outgoing light cones, emanating from a regular center, and terminating at future null infinity. Such a coordinate system is well adapted to the study of interesting dynamical spacetimes in relativistic astrophysics such as stellar core collapse and neutron star formation. Perhaps most importantly this procedure allows for the unambiguous extraction of gravitational waves at future null infinity without any approximation, along with the commonly used quadrupole formalism for the gravitational wave extraction. Our results concerning the gravitational wave signals show noticeable disagreement when those are extracted by computing the Bondi news at future null infinity on the one hand and by using the quadrupole formula on the other hand. We have strong indication that for our setup the quadrupole formula on the null cone does not lead to physical gravitational wave signals. The Bondi gravitational wave signals extracted at infinity show typical oscillation frequencies of about 0.5 kHz.
- Discerning the likelihood of the so-called runaway instability of thick accretion disks orbiting black holes is an important issue for most models of cosmic gamma-ray bursts. To this aim we investigate this phenomenon by means of time-dependent, hydrodynamical simulations of black hole plus torus systems in general relativity. The evolution of the central black hole is assumed to be that of a sequence of Kerr black holes of increasing mass and spin, whose growth rate is controlled by the transfer of mass and angular momentum from the material of the disk spiralling in through the event horizon of the black hole. The self-gravity of the disk is neglected. We find that when the black hole mass and spin are allowed to increase, constant angular momentum disks undergo a runaway instability on a dynamical timescale (a few orbital periods). However, our simulations show that a slight increase of the specific angular momentum of the disk outwards has a dramatic stabilizing effect. Our results, obtained in the framework of general relativity, are in broad agreement with earlier studies based both on stationary models and on time-dependent simulations with Newtonian and pseudo-Newtonian gravitational potentials.
- We present general relativistic hydrodynamics simulations of constant specific angular momentum tori orbiting a Schwarzschild black hole. These tori are expected to form as a result of stellar gravitational collapse, binary neutron star merger or disruption, can reach very high rest-mass densities and behave effectively as neutron stars but with a toroidal topology (i.e. ``toroidal neutron stars''). Our attention is here focussed on the dynamical response of these objects to axisymmetric perturbations. We show that, upon the introduction of perturbations, these systems either become unstable to the runaway instability or exhibit a regular oscillatory behaviour resulting in a quasi-periodic variation of the accretion rate as well as of the mass quadrupole. The latter, in particular, is responsible for the emission of intense gravitational radiation whose signal-to-noise ratio at the detector is comparable or larger than the typical one expected in stellar-core collapse, making these new sources of gravitational waves potentially detectable. We discuss a systematic investigation of the parameter space both in the linear and nonlinear regimes, providing estimates of how the gravitational radiation emitted depends on the mass of the torus and on the strength of the perturbation.
- We have performed hydrodynamic simulations of relativistic rotational supernova core collapse in axisymmetry and have computed the gravitational radiation emitted by such an event. Details of the methodology and of the numerical code have been given in an accompanying paper. We have simulated the evolution of 26 models in both Newtonian and relativistic gravity. Our simulations show that the three different types of rotational supernova core collapse and gravitational waveforms identified in previous Newtonian simulations (regular collapse, multiple bounce collapse, and rapid collapse) are also present in relativistic gravity. However, rotational core collapse with multiple bounces is only possible in a much narrower parameter range in relativistic gravity. The relativistic models cover almost the same range of gravitational wave amplitudes and frequencies as the corresponding Newtonian ones. For a given model, relativistic gravity can cause a large increase of the characteristic signal frequency of up to a factor of five, which may have important consequences for the signal detection. The gravitational wave signals obtained in our study are within the sensitivity range of the first generation laser interferometer detectors if the source is located within the Local Group.
- We describe an axisymmetric general relativistic code for rotational core collapse. The code evolves the coupled system of metric and fluid equations using the ADM 3+1 formalism and a conformally flat metric approximation of the Einstein equations. The relativistic hydrodynamics equations are formulated as a first-order flux-conservative hyperbolic system and are integrated using high-resolution shock-capturing schemes based on Riemann solvers. We assess the quality of the conformally flat metric approximation for relativistic core collapse and present a comprehensive set of tests which the code successfully passed. The tests include relativistic shock tubes, the preservation of the rotation profile and of the equilibrium of rapidly and differentially rotating neutron stars (approximated as rotating polytropes), spherical relativistic core collapse, and the conservation of rest-mass and angular momentum in dynamic spacetimes. The application of the code to relativistic rotational core collapse, with emphasis on the gravitational waveform signature, is presented in an accompanying paper.
- We present results from a numerical study of the runaway instability of thick discs around black holes. This instability is an important issue for most models of cosmic gamma-ray bursts, where the central engine responsible for the initial energy release is such a system consisting of a thick disc surrounding a black hole. We have carried out a comprehensive number of time-dependent simulations aimed at exploring the appearance of the instability. Our study has been performed using a fully relativistic hydrodynamics code. The general relativistic hydrodynamic equations are formulated as a hyperbolic flux-conservative system and solved using a suitable Godunov-type scheme. We build a series of constant angular momentum discs around a Schwarzschild black hole. Furthermore, the self-gravity of the disc is neglected and the evolution of the central black hole is assumed to be that of a sequence of exact Schwarzschild black holes of varying mass. The black hole mass increase is thus determined by the mass accretion rate across the event horizon. In agreement with previous studies based on stationary models, we find that by allowing the mass of the black hole to grow the disc becomes unstable. Our hydrodynamical simulations show that for all disc-to-hole mass ratios considered (between 1 and 0.05), the runaway instability appears very fast on a dynamical timescale of a few orbital periods, typically a few 10 ms and never exceeding 1 s for our particular choice of the mass of the black hole ($2.5 \mathrm{M_\odot}$) and a large range of mass fluxes ($\dot{m} \ga 10^{-3} \mathrm{M_{\odot}/s}$). The implications of our results in the context of gamma-ray bursts are briefly discussed.
- We present new numerical algorithms for the coupled Einstein-perfect fluid system in axisymmetry. Our framework uses a foliation based on a family of light cones, emanating from a regular center, and terminating at future null infinity. This coordinate system is well adapted to the study of the dynamical spacetimes associated with isolated relativistic compact objects such as neutron stars. In particular, the approach allows the unambiguous extraction of gravitational waves at future null infinity and avoids spurious outer boundary reflections. The code can accurately maintain long-term stability of polytropic equilibrium models of relativistic stars. We demonstrate global energy conservation in a strongly perturbed neutron star spacetime, for which the total energy radiated away by gravitational waves corresponds to a significant fraction of the Bondi mass. As a first application we present results in the study of pulsations of axisymmetric relativistic stars, extracting the frequencies of the different fluid modes in fully relativistic evolutions of the Einstein-perfect fluid system and making a first comparison between the gravitational news function and the predicted wave using the approximations of the quadrupole formula.
- This is the second in a series of papers on the construction and validation of a three-dimensional code for the solution of the coupled system of the Einstein equations and of the general relativistic hydrodynamic equations, and on the application of this code to problems in general relativistic astrophysics. In particular, we report on the accuracy of our code in the long-term dynamical evolution of relativistic stars and on some new physics results obtained in the process of code testing. The tests involve single non-rotating stars in stable equilibrium, non-rotating stars undergoing radial and quadrupolar oscillations, non-rotating stars on the unstable branch of the equilibrium configurations migrating to the stable branch, non-rotating stars undergoing gravitational collapse to a black hole, and rapidly rotating stars in stable equilibrium and undergoing quasi-radial oscillations. The numerical evolutions have been carried out in full general relativity using different types of polytropic equations of state using either the rest-mass density only, or the rest-mass density and the internal energy as independent variables. New variants of the spacetime evolution and new high resolution shock capturing (HRSC) treatments based on Riemann solvers and slope limiters have been implemented and the results compared with those obtained from previous methods. Finally, we have obtained the first eigenfrequencies of rotating stars in full general relativity and rapid rotation. A long standing problem, such frequencies have not been obtained by other methods. Overall, and to the best of our knowledge, the results presented in this paper represent the most accurate long-term three-dimensional evolutions of relativistic stars available to date.
- We study the interaction of massless scalar fields with self-gravitating neutron stars by means of fully dynamic numerical simulations of the Einstein-Klein-Gordon perfect fluid system. Our investigation is restricted to spherical symmetry and the neutron stars are approximated by relativistic polytropes. Studying the nonlinear dynamics of isolated neutron stars is very effectively performed within the characteristic formulation of general relativity, in which the spacetime is foliated by a family of outgoing light cones. We are able to compactify the entire spacetime on a computational grid and simultaneously impose natural radiative boundary conditions and extract accurate radiative signals. We study the transfer of energy from the scalar field to the fluid star. We find, in particular, that depending on the compactness of the neutron star model, the scalar wave forces the neutron star either to oscillate in its radial modes of pulsation or to undergo gravitational collapse to a black hole on a dynamical timescale. The radiative signal, read off at future null infinity, shows quasi-normal oscillations before the setting of a late time power-law tail.
- We present the results of numerical simulations of the spherically symmetric gravitational collapse of supermassive stars (SMS). The collapse is studied using a general relativistic hydrodynamics code. The coupled system of Einstein and fluid equations is solved employing observer time coordinates, by foliating the spacetime by means of outgoing null hypersurfaces. The code contains an equation of state which includes effects due to radiation, electrons and baryons, and detailed microphysics to account for electron-positron pairs. In addition energy losses by thermal neutrino emission are included. We are able to follow the collapse of SMS from the onset of instability up to the point of black hole formation. Several SMS with masses in the range $5\times 10^5 M_{\odot}- 10^9 M_{\odot}$ are simulated. In all models an apparent horizon forms initially, enclosing the innermost 25% of the stellar mass. From the computed neutrino luminosities, estimates of the energy deposition by $\nu\bar{\nu}$-annihilation are obtained. Only a small fraction of this energy is deposited near the surface of the star, where, as proposed recently by Fuller & Shi (1998), it could cause the ultrarelativistic flow believed to be responsible for $\gamma$-ray bursts. Our simulations show that for collapsing SMS with masses larger than $5\times 10^5 M_{\odot}$ the energy deposition is at least two orders of magnitude too small to explain the energetics of observed long-duration bursts at cosmological redshifts. In addition, in the absence of rotational effects the energy is deposited in a region containing most of the stellar mass. Therefore relativistic ejection of matter is impossible.
- We present results from simulations of axisymmetric relativistic rotational core collapse. The general relativistic hydrodynamic equations are formulated in flux-conservative form and solved using a high-resolution shock-capturing scheme. The Einstein equations are approximated with a conformally flat 3-metric. We use the quadrupole formula to extract waveforms of the gravitational radiation emitted during the collapse. A comparison of our results with those of Newtonian simulations shows that the wave amplitudes agree within 30%. Surprisingly, in some cases, relativistic effects actually diminish the amplitude of the gravitational wave signal. We further find that the parameter range of models suffering multiple coherent bounces due to centrifugal forces is considerably smaller than in Newtonian simulations.