results for au:Fink_M in:quant-ph

- Jan 16 2018 quant-ph arXiv:1801.04418v1We perform decoy-state quantum key distribution between a low-Earth-orbit satellite and multiple ground stations located in Xinglong, Nanshan, and Graz, which establish satellite-to-ground secure keys with ~kHz rate per passage of the satellite Micius over a ground station. The satellite thus establishes a secure key between itself and, say, Xinglong, and another key between itself and, say, Graz. Then, upon request from the ground command, Micius acts as a trusted relay. It performs bitwise exclusive OR operations between the two keys and relays the result to one of the ground stations. That way, a secret key is created between China and Europe at locations separated by 7600 km on Earth. These keys are then used for intercontinental quantum-secured communication. This was on the one hand the transmission of images in a one-time pad configuration from China to Austria as well as from Austria to China. Also, a videoconference was performed between the Austrian Academy of Sciences and the Chinese Academy of Sciences, which also included a 280 km optical ground connection between Xinglong and Beijing. Our work points towards an efficient solution for an ultralong-distance global quantum network, laying the groundwork for a future quantum internet.
- Jan 08 2018 quant-ph cond-mat.mes-hall arXiv:1801.01818v2We propose a method -- a quantum time mirror (QTM) -- for simulating a partial time-reversal of the free-space motion of a nonrelativistic quantum wave packet. The method is based on a short-time spatially-homogeneous perturbation to the wave packet dynamics, achieved by adding a nonlinear time-dependent term to the underlying Schrödinger equation. Numerical calculations, supporting our analytical considerations, demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed QTM for generating a time-reversed echo image of initially localized matter-wave packets in one and two spatial dimensions. We also discuss possible experimental realizations of the proposed QTM.
- Nov 10 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1711.03409v3Satellites are the efficient way to achieve global scale quantum communication (Q.Com) because unavoidable losses restrict fiber based Q.Com to a few hundred kilometers. We demonstrate the feasibility of establishing a Q.Com uplink with a tiny 3U CubeSat (measuring just 10X10X32 cm^3 ) using commercial off-the-shelf components, the majority of which have space heritage. We demonstrate how to leverage the latest advancements in nano-satellite body-pointing to show that our 4kg CubeSat can provide performance comparable to much larger 600kg satellite missions. A comprehensive link budget and simulation was performed to calculate the secure key rates. We discuss design choices and trade-offs to maximize the key rate while minimizing the cost and development needed. Our detailed design and feasibility study can be readily used as a template for global scale Q.Com.
- Nov 07 2017 quant-ph arXiv:1711.01886v3We present a ground-to-space quantum key distribution (QKD) mission concept and the accompanying feasibility study for the development of the low earth orbit CubeSat payload. The quantum information is carried by single photons with the binary codes represented by polarization states of the photons. Distribution of entangled photons between the ground and the satellite can be used to certify the quantum nature of the link: a guarantee that no eavesdropping can take place. By placing the entangled photon source on the ground, the space segments contains only the less complex detection system, enabling its implementation in a compact enclosure, compatible with the 12U CubeSat standard (12 dm3). This reduces the overall cost of the project, making it an ideal choice as a pathfinder for future European quantum communication satellite missions. The space segment is also more versatile than one that contains the source since it is compatible with a multiple of QKD protocols (not restricted to entangled photon schemes) and can be used in quantum physics experiments, such as the investigation of entanglement decoherence. Other possible experiments include atmospheric transmission/turbulence characterization, dark area mapping, fine pointing and tracking, and accurate clock synchronization; all crucial for future global scale quantum communication efforts.
- Dec 05 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1612.00751v2Quantum entanglement is a fundamental resource in quantum information processing and its distribution between distant parties is a key challenge in quantum communications. Increasing the dimensionality of entanglement has been shown to improve robustness and channel capacities in secure quantum communications. Here we report on the distribution of genuine high-dimensional entanglement via a 1.2-km-long free-space link across Vienna. We exploit hyperentanglement, that is, simultaneous entanglement in polarization and energy-time bases, to encode quantum information, and observe high-visibility interference for successive correlation measurements in each degree of freedom. These visibilities impose lower bounds on entanglement in each subspace individually and certify four-dimensional entanglement for the hyperentangled system. The high-fidelity transmission of high-dimensional entanglement under real-world atmospheric link conditions represents an important step towards long-distance quantum communications with more complex quantum systems and the implementation of advanced quantum experiments with satellite links.
- Nov 22 2016 quant-ph astro-ph.CO arXiv:1611.06985v2Bell's theorem states that some predictions of quantum mechanics cannot be reproduced by a local-realist theory. That conflict is expressed by Bell's inequality, which is usually derived under the assumption that there are no statistical correlations between the choices of measurement settings and anything else that can causally affect the measurement outcomes. In previous experiments, this "freedom of choice" was addressed by ensuring that selection of measurement settings via conventional "quantum random number generators" was space-like separated from the entangled particle creation. This, however, left open the possibility that an unknown cause affected both the setting choices and measurement outcomes as recently as mere microseconds before each experimental trial. Here we report on a new experimental test of Bell's inequality that, for the first time, uses distant astronomical sources as "cosmic setting generators." In our tests with polarization-entangled photons, measurement settings were chosen using real-time observations of Milky Way stars while simultaneously ensuring locality. Assuming fair sampling for all detected photons, and that each stellar photon's color was set at emission, we observe statistically significant $\gtrsim 7.31 \sigma$ and $\gtrsim 11.93 \sigma$ violations of Bell's inequality with estimated $p$-values of $ \lesssim 1.8 \times 10^{-13}$ and $\lesssim 4.0 \times 10^{-33}$, respectively, thereby pushing back by $\sim$600 years the most recent time by which any local-realist influences could have engineered the observed Bell violation.
- Aug 09 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1608.02473v1The quantization of the electromagnetic field has successfully paved the way for the development of the Standard Model of Particle Physics and has established the basis for quantum technologies. Gravity, however, continues to hold out against physicists' efforts of including it into the framework of quantum theory. Experimental techniques in quantum optics have only recently reached the precision and maturity required for the investigation of quantum systems under the influence of gravitational fields. Here, we report on experiments in which a genuine quantum state of an entangled photon pair was exposed to a series of different accelerations. We measure an entanglement witness for $g$ values ranging from 30 mg to up to 30 g - under free-fall as well on a spinning centrifuge - and have thus derived an upper bound on the effects of uniform acceleration on photonic entanglement. Our work represents the first quantum optics experiment in which entanglement is systematically tested in geodesic motion as well as in accelerated reference frames with acceleration a>>g = 9.81 m/s^2.
- Jun 07 2016 physics.optics quant-ph arXiv:1606.01811v1Spatial modes of light can potentially carry a vast amount of information, making them promising candidates for both classical and quantum communication. However, the distribution of such modes over large distances remains difficult. Intermodal coupling complicates their use with common fibers, while free-space transmission is thought to be strongly influenced by atmospheric turbulence. Here we show the transmission of orbital angular momentum modes of light over a distance of 143 kilometers between two Canary Islands, which is 50 times greater than the maximum distance achieved previously. As a demonstration of the transmission quality, we use superpositions of these modes to encode a short message. At the receiver, an artificial neural network is used for distinguishing between the different twisted light superpositions. The algorithm is able to identify different mode superpositions with an accuracy of more than 80% up to the third mode order, and decode the transmitted message with an error rate of 8.33%. Using our data, we estimate that the distribution of orbital angular momentum entanglement over more than 100 kilometers of free space is feasible. Moreover, the quality of our free-space link can be further improved by the use of state-of-the-art adaptive optics systems.
- Mar 25 2016 cond-mat.mes-hall quant-ph arXiv:1603.07503v2Both metaphysical and practical considerations related to time inversion have intrigued scientists for generations. Physicists have strived to devise and implement time-inversion protocols, in particular different forms of "time mirrors" for classical waves. Here we propose an instantaneous time mirror for quantum systems, i.e., a controlled time discontinuity generating wave function echoes with high fidelities. This concept exploits coherent particle-hole oscillations in a Dirac spectrum in order to achieve population reversal, and can be implemented in systems such as (real or artificial) graphene.
- Jul 24 2015 quant-ph arXiv:1507.06551v1Photons with a twisted phase front can carry a discrete, in principle unbounded amount of orbital angular momentum (OAM). The large state space allows for complex types of entanglement, interesting both for quantum communication and for fundamental tests of quantum theory. However, the distribution of such entangled states over large distances was thought to be infeasible due to influence of atmospheric turbulence, indicating a serious limitation on their usefulness. Here we show that it is possible to distribute quantum entanglement encoded in OAM over a turbulent intra-city link of 3 kilometers. We confirm quantum entanglement of the first two higher-order levels (with OAM=$\pm 1 \hbar$ and $\pm 2 \hbar$). They correspond to four new quantum channels orthogonal to all that have been used in long-distance quantum experiments so far. Therefore a promising application would be quantum communication with a large alphabet. We also demonstrate that our link allows access to up to 11 quantum channels of OAM. The restrictive factors towards higher numbers are technical limitations that can be circumvented with readily available technologies.
- Mar 04 2014 quant-ph physics.optics arXiv:1403.0009v4As a direct consequence of the no-cloning theorem, the deterministic amplification as in classical communication is impossible for quantum states. This calls for more advanced techniques in a future global quantum network, e.g. for cloud quantum computing. A unique solution is the teleportation of an entangled state, i.e. entanglement swapping, representing the central resource to relay entanglement between distant nodes. Together with entanglement purification and a quantum memory it constitutes a so-called quantum repeater. Since the aforementioned building blocks have been individually demonstrated in laboratory setups only, the applicability of the required technology in real-world scenarios remained to be proven. Here we present a free-space entanglement-swapping experiment between the Canary Islands of La Palma and Tenerife, verifying the presence of quantum entanglement between two previously independent photons separated by 143 km. We obtained an expectation value for the entanglement-witness operator, more than 6 standard deviations beyond the classical limit. By consecutive generation of the two required photon pairs and space-like separation of the relevant measurement events, we also showed the feasibility of the swapping protocol in a long-distance scenario, where the independence of the nodes is highly demanded. Since our results already allow for efficient implementation of entanglement purification, we anticipate our assay to lay the ground for a fully-fledged quantum repeater over a realistic high-loss and even turbulent quantum channel.
- Feb 12 2014 physics.optics quant-ph arXiv:1402.2602v2The transverse spatial modes of light offer a large state-space with interesting physical properties. For exploiting it in future long-distance experiments, spatial modes will have to be transmitted over turbulent free-space links. Numerous recent lab-scale experiments have found significant degradation in the mode quality after transmission through simulated turbulence and consecutive coherent detection. Here we experimentally analyze the transmission of one prominent class of spatial modes, the orbital-angular momentum (OAM) modes, through 3 km of strong turbulence over the city of Vienna. Instead of performing a coherent phase-dependent measurement, we employ an incoherent detection scheme which relies on the unambiguous intensity patterns of the different spatial modes. We use a pattern recognition algorithm (an artificial neural network) to identify the characteristic mode pattern displayed on a screen at the receiver. We were able to distinguish between 16 different OAM mode superpositions with only ~1.7% error, and use them to encode and transmit small grey-scale images. Moreover, we found that the relative phase of the superposition modes is not affected by the atmosphere, establishing the feasibility for performing long-distance quantum experiments with the OAM of photons. Our detection method works for other classes of spatial modes with unambiguous intensity patterns as well, and can further be improved by modern techniques of pattern recognition.