results for au:Facchi_P in:quant-ph

- We investigate the possibility to suppress interactions between a finite dimensional system and an infinite dimensional environment through a fast sequence of unitary kicks on the finite dimensional system. This method, called dynamical decoupling, is known to work for bounded interactions, but physical environments such as bosonic heat baths are usually modelled with unbounded interactions, whence here we initiate a systematic study of dynamical decoupling for unbounded operators. We develop a sufficient decoupling criterion for arbitrary Hamiltonians and a necessary decoupling criterion for semibounded Hamiltonians. We give examples for unbounded Hamiltonians where decoupling works and the limiting evolution as well as the convergence speed can be explicitly computed. We show that decoupling does not always work for unbounded interactions and provide both physically and mathematically motivated examples.
- We establish a bijection between the self-adjoint extensions of the Laplace operator on a bounded regular domain and the unitary operators on the boundary. Each unitary encodes a specific relation between the boundary value of the function and its normal derivative. This bijection sets up a characterization of all physically admissible dynamics of a nonrelativistic quantum particle confined in a cavity. More- over, this correspondence is discussed also at the level of quadratic forms. Finally, the connection between this parametrization of the extensions and the classical one, in terms of boundary self-adjoint operators on closed subspaces, is shown.
- We are interested in the properties of multipartite entanglement of a system composed by $n$ $d$-level parties (qudits). Focussing our attention on pure states we want to tackle the problem of the maximization of the entanglement for such systems. In particular we effort the problem trying to minimize the purity of the system. It has been shown that not for all systems this function can reach its lower bound, however it can be proved that for all values of $n$ a $d$ can always be found such that the lower bound can be reached. In this paper we examine the high-temperature expansion of the distribution function of the bipartite purity over all balanced bipartition considering its optimization problem as a problem of statistical mechanics. In particular we prove that the series characterizing the expansion converges and we analyze the behavior of each term of the series as $d\to \infty$.
- If very frequent periodic measurements ascertain whether a quantum system is still in its initial state, its evolution is hindered. This peculiar phenomenon is called quantum Zeno effect. We investigate the large-time limit of the survival probability as the total observation time scales as a power of the measurement frequency, $t\propto N^\alpha$. The limit survival probability exhibits a sudden jump from 1 to 0 at $\alpha=1/2$, the threshold between the quantum Zeno effect and a diffusive behavior. Moreover, we show that for $\alpha\geq 1$ the limit probability becomes sensitive to the spectral properties of the initial state and to arithmetic properties of the measurement periods.
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- Apr 06 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1604.01300v2We investigate the behavior of two quantum emitters (two-level atoms) embedded in a linear waveguide, in a quasi-one-dimensional configuration. Since the atoms can emit, absorb and reflect radiation, the pair can spontaneously relax towards an entangled bound state, under conditions in which a single atom would instead decay. We analyze the properties of these bound states, which occur for resonant values of the interatomic distance, and discuss their relevance with respect to entanglement generation. The stability of such states close to the resonance is studied, as well as the properties of non resonant bound states, whose energy is below the threshold for photon propagation.
- Jan 07 2016 quant-ph arXiv:1601.01212v2On the basis of the quantum Zeno effect it has been recently shown [D. K. Burgarth et al., Nat. Commun. 5, 5173 (2014)] that a strong amplitude damping process applied locally on a part of a quantum system can have a beneficial effect on the dynamics of the remaining part of the system. Quantum operations that cannot be implemented without the dissipation become achievable by the action of the strong dissipative process. Here we generalize this idea by identifying decoherence-free subspaces (DFS's) as the subspaces in which the dynamics becomes more complex. Applying methods from quantum control theory we characterize the set of reachable operations within the DFS's. We provide three examples which become fully controllable within the DFS's while the control over the original Hilbert space in the absence of dissipation is trivial. In particular, we show that the (classical) Ising Hamiltonian is turned into a Heisenberg Hamiltonian by strong collective decoherence, which provides universal quantum computation within the DFS's. Moreover we perform numerical gate optimization to study how the process fidelity scales with the noise strength. As a byproduct a subsystem fidelity which can be applied in other optimization problems for open quantum systems is developed.
- A method is discussed to analyze the dynamics of a dissipative quantum system. The method hinges upon the definition of an alternative (time-dependent) product among the observables of the system. In the long time limit this yields a contracted algebra. This contraction irreversibly affects some of the quantum features of the dissipative system.
- We unveil the existence of a non-trivial Berry phase associated to the dynamics of a quantum particle in a one dimensional box with moving walls. It is shown that a suitable choice of boundary conditions has to be made in order to preserve unitarity. For these boundary conditions we compute explicitly the geometric phase two-form on the parameter space. The unboundedness of the Hamiltonian describing the system leads to a natural prescription of renormalization for divergent contributions arising from the boundary.
- Jun 16 2015 quant-ph cond-mat.stat-mech arXiv:1506.04603v1We study the characterization of multipartite entanglement for the random states of an $n$-qbit system. Unable to solve the problem exactly we generalize it, changing complex numbers into real vectors with $N_c$ components (the original problem is recovered for $N_c=2$). Studying the leading diagrams in the large-$N_c$ approximation, we unearth the presence of a phase transition and, in an explicit example, show that the so-called entanglement frustration disappears in the large-$N_c$ limit.
- We search for the optimal quantum pure states of identical bosonic particles for applications in quantum metrology, in particular in the estimation of a single parameter for the generic two-mode interferometric setup. We consider the general case in which the total number of particles is fluctuating around an average $N$ with variance $\Delta N^2$. By recasting the problem in the framework of classical probability, we clarify the maximal accuracy attainable and show that it is always larger than the one reachable with a fixed number of particles (i.e., $\Delta N=0$). In particular, for larger fluctuations, the error in the estimation diminishes proportionally to $1/\Delta N$, below the Heisenberg-like scaling $1/N$. We also clarify the best input state, which is a "quasi-NOON state" for a generic setup, and for some special cases a two-mode "Schrödinger-cat state" with a vacuum component. In addition, we search for the best state within the class of pure Gaussian states with a given average $N$, which is revealed to be a product state (with no entanglement) with a squeezed vacuum in one mode and the vacuum in the other.
- Apr 02 2015 cond-mat.quant-gas quant-ph arXiv:1504.00282v1We analyze the energetic and dynamical properties of bright-bright (BB) soliton pairs in a binary mixture of Bose-Einstein condensates subjected to the action of a combined optical lattice, acting as an external potential for the first species, while modulating the intraspecies coupling constant of the second. In particular, we use a variational approach and direct numerical integrations to investigate the existence and stability of BB solitons in which the two species are either spatially separated (split soliton) or located at the same optical lattice site (overlapped soliton). The dependence of these solitons on the interspecies interaction parameter is explicitly investigated. For repulsive interspecies interaction we show the existence of a series of critical values at which transitions from an initially overlapped soliton to split solitons occur. For attractive interspecies interaction only single direct transitions from split to overlapped BB solitons are found. The possibility to use split solitons for indirect measurements of scattering lengths is also suggested.
- We elaborate on the notion of generalized tomograms, both in the classical and quantum domains. We construct a scheme of star-products of thick tomographic symbols and obtain in explicit form the kernels of classical and quantum generalized tomograms. Some of the new tomograms may have interesting applications in quantum optical tomography.
- Mar 17 2015 quant-ph arXiv:1503.04340v3We study a lattice gauge theory in Wilson's Hamiltonian formalism. In view of the realization of a quantum simulator for QED in one dimension, we introduce an Abelian model with a discrete gauge symmetry $\mathbb{Z}_n$, approximating the $U(1)$ theory for large $n$. We analyze the role of the finiteness of the gauge fields and the properties of physical states, that satisfy a generalized Gauss's law. We finally discuss a possible implementation strategy, that involves an effective dynamics in physical space.
- We present here a set of lecture notes on quantum systems with time-dependent boundaries. In particular, we analyze the dynamics of a non-relativistic particle in a bounded domain of physical space, when the boundaries are moving or changing. In all cases, unitarity is preserved and the change of boundaries does not introduce any decoherence in the system.
- Jan 26 2015 quant-ph cond-mat.quant-gas arXiv:1501.05881v1If the state of a quantum system is sampled out of a suitable ensemble, the measurement of some observables will yield (almost) always the same result. This leads us to the notion of quantum typicality: for some quantities the initial conditions are immaterial. We discuss this problem in the framework of Bose-Einstein condensates.
- Jan 15 2015 quant-ph cond-mat.quant-gas arXiv:1501.03399v1A class of k-particle observables in a two-mode system of Bose particles is characterized by typicality: if the state of the system is sampled out of a suitable ensemble, an experimental measurement of that observable yields (almost) always the same result. We investigate the general features of typical observables, the criteria to determine typicality and finally focus on the case of density correlation functions, which are related to spatial distribution of particles and interference.
- Jan 14 2015 quant-ph arXiv:1501.03099v1We investigate the notion of quantumness based on the non-commutativity of the algebra of observables and introduce a measure of quantumness based on the mutual incompatibility of quantum states. Since it relies on the full algebra of observables, our measure for composed systems is partition independent and witnesses the global quantum nature of a state. We show that such quantity can be experimentally measured with an interferometric setup and that, when an arbitrary bipartition is introduced, it detects the one-way quantum correlations restricted to one of the two subsystems. We finally show that, by combining only two projective measurements and carrying out the interference procedure, our measure becomes an efficient universal witness of quantum discord and non-classical correlations.
- Oct 07 2014 cond-mat.quant-gas quant-ph arXiv:1410.1381v1Interference is observed when two independent Bose-Einstein condensates expand and overlap. This phenomenon is typical, in the sense that the overwhelming majority of wave functions of the condensates, uniformly sampled out of a suitable portion of the total Hilbert space, display interference with maximal visibility. We focus here on the phases of the condensates and their (pseudo) randomization, which naturally emerges when two-body scattering processes are considered. Relationship to typicality is discussed and analyzed.
- Apr 25 2014 quant-ph cond-mat.quant-gas arXiv:1404.6130v2When a Bose-Einstein condensate is divided into two parts, that are subsequently released and overlap, interference fringes are observed. We show here that this interference is typical, in the sense that most wave functions of the condensate, randomly sampled out of a suitable ensemble, display interference. We make no hypothesis of decoherence between the two parts of the condensates.
- Mar 25 2014 quant-ph arXiv:1403.5752v1We show that mere observation of a quantum system can turn its dynamics from a very simple one into a universal quantum computation. This effect, which occurs if the system is regularly observed at short time intervals, can be rephrased as a modern version of Plato's Cave allegory. More precisely, while in the original version of the myth, the reality perceived within the Cave is described by the projected shadows of some more fundamental dynamics which is intrinsically more complex, we found that in the quantum world the situation changes drastically as the "projected" reality perceived through sequences of measurements can be more complex than the one that originated it. After discussing examples we go on to show that this effect is generally to be expected: almost any quantum dynamics will become universal once "observed" as outlined above. Conversely, we show that any complex quantum dynamics can be "purified" into a simpler one in larger dimensions.
- We reconsider the effect of indistinguishability on the reduced density operator of the internal degrees of freedom (tracing out the spatial degrees of freedom) for a quantum system composed of identical particles located in different spatial regions. We explicitly show that if the spin measurements are performed in disjoint spatial regions then there are no constraints on the structure of the reduced state of the system. This implies that the statistics of identical particles has no role from the point of view of separability and entanglement when the measurements are spatially separated. We extend the treatment to the case of n particles and show the connection with some recent criteria for separability based on subalgebras of observables.
- We propose alternative definitions of classical states and quantumness witnesses by focusing on the algebra of observables of the system. A central role will be assumed by the anticommutator of the observables, namely the Jordan product. This approach turns out to be suitable for generalizations to infinite dimensional systems. We then show that the whole algebra of observables can be generated by three elements by repeated application of the Jordan product.
- We analyze the non-relativistic problem of a quantum particle that bounces back and forth between two moving walls. We recast this problem into the equivalent one of a quantum particle in a fixed box whose dynamics is governed by an appropriate time-dependent Schroedinger operator.
- May 29 2013 quant-ph arXiv:1305.6433v2A connection is estabilished between the non-Abelian phases obtained via adiabatic driving and those acquired via a quantum Zeno dynamics induced by repeated projective measurements. In comparison to the adiabatic case, the Zeno dynamics is shown to be more flexible in tuning the system evolution, which paves the way to the implementation of unitary quantum gates and applications in quantum control.
- May 15 2013 quant-ph arXiv:1305.3069v2We provide a general framework for handling the effects of a unitary disturbance on the estimation of the amplitude $\lambda$ associated to a unitary dynamics. By computing an analytical and general expression for the quantum Fisher information, we prove that the optimal estimation precision for $\lambda$ cannot be outperformed through the addition of such a unitary disturbance. However, if the dynamics of the system is already affected by an external field, increasing its strength does not necessary imply a loss in the optimal estimation precision.
- A new family of polarized ensembles of random pure states is presented. These ensembles are obtained by linear superposition of two random pure states with suitable distributions, and are quite manageable. We will use the obtained results for two purposes: on the one hand we will be able to derive an efficient strategy for sampling states from isopurity manifolds. On the other, we will characterize the deviation of a pure quantum state from separability under the influence of noise.
- Let a pure state \psi be chosen randomly in an NM-dimensional Hilbert space, and consider the reduced density matrix \rho of an N-dimensional subsystem. The bipartite entanglement properties of \psi are encoded in the spectrum of \rho. By means of a saddle point method and using a "Coulomb gas" model for the eigenvalues, we obtain the typical spectrum of reduced density matrices. We consider the cases of an unbiased ensemble of pure states and of a fixed value of the purity. We finally obtain the eigenvalue distribution by using a statistical mechanics approach based on the introduction of a partition function.
- We study the behavior of bipartite entanglement at fixed von Neumann entropy. We look at the distribution of the entanglement spectrum, that is the eigenvalues of the reduced density matrix of a quantum system in a pure state. We report the presence of two continuous phase transitions, characterized by different entanglement spectra, which are deformations of classical eigenvalue distributions.
- We analyze the quantum dynamics of a non-relativistic particle moving in a bounded domain of physical space, when the boundary conditions are rapidly changed. In general, this yields new boundary conditions, via a dynamical composition law that is a very simple instance of superposition of different topologies. In all cases unitarity is preserved and the quick change of boundary conditions does not introduce any decoherence in the system. Among the emerging boundary conditions, the Dirichlet case (vanishing wave function at the boundary) plays the role of an attractor. Possible experimental implementations with superconducting quantum interference devices are explored and analyzed.
- We study the time evolution of a Bose-Einstein condensate in an accelerated optical lattice. When the condensate has a narrow quasimomentum distribution and the optical lattice is shallow, the survival probability in the ground band exhibits a steplike structure. In this regime we establish a connection between the wave-function renormalization parameter $Z$ and the phenomenon of resonantly enhanced tunneling.
- Jul 30 2012 quant-ph arXiv:1207.6499v1We analyze the quantum Zeno dynamics that takes place when a field stored in a cavity undergoes frequent interactions with atoms. We show that repeated measurements or unitary operations performed on the atoms probing the field state confine the evolution to tailored subspaces of the total Hilbert space. This confinement leads to non-trivial field evolutions and to the generation of interesting non-classical states, including mesoscopic field state superpositions. We elucidate the main features of the quantum Zeno mechanism in the context of a state-of-the-art cavity quantum electrodynamics experiment. A plethora of effects is investigated, from state manipulations by phase space tweezers to nearly arbitrary state synthesis. We analyze in details the practical implementation of this dynamics and assess its robustness by numerical simulations including realistic experimental imperfections. We comment on the various perspectives opened by this proposal.
- Jun 16 2012 cond-mat.quant-gas quant-ph arXiv:1206.3339v2The ground state energy of a binary mixture of Bose-Einstein condensates can be estimated for large atomic samples by making use of suitably regularized Thomas-Fermi density profiles. By exploiting a variational method on the trial densities the energy can be computed by explicitly taking into account the normalization condition. This yields analytical results and provides the basis for further improvement of the approximation. As a case study, we consider a binary mixture of $^{87}$Rb atoms in two different hyperfine states in a double well potential and discuss the energy crossing between density profiles with different numbers of domain walls, as the number of particles and the inter-species interaction vary.
- Some non-linear generalizations of classical Radon tomography were recently introduced by M. Asorey et al [Phys. Rev. A 77, 042115 (2008), where the straight lines of the standard Radon map are replaced by quadratic curves (ellipses, hyperbolas, circles) or quadratic surfaces (ellipsoids, hyperboloids, spheres). We consider here the quantum version of this novel non-linear approach and obtain, by systematic use of the Weyl map, a tomographic encoding approach to quantum states. Non-linear quantum tomograms admit a simple formulation within the framework of the star-product quantization scheme and the reconstruction formulae of the density operators are explicitly given in a closed form, with an explicit construction of quantizers and dequantizers. The role of symmetry groups behind the generalized tomographic maps is analyzed in some detail. We also introduce new generalizations of the standard singular dequantizers of the symplectic tomographic schemes, where the Dirac delta-distributions of operator-valued arguments are replaced by smooth window functions, giving rise to the new concept of "thick" quantum tomography. Applications for quantum state measurements of photons and matter waves are discussed.
- We derive the invariant measure on the manifold of multimode quantum Gaussian states, induced by the Haar measure on the group of Gaussian unitary transformations. To this end, by introducing a bipartition of the system in two disjoint subsystems, we use a parameterization highlighting the role of nonlocal degrees of freedom -- the symplectic eigenvalues -- which characterize quantum entanglement across the given bipartition. A finite measure is then obtained by imposing a physically motivated energy constraint. By averaging over the local degrees of freedom we finally derive the invariant distribution of the symplectic eigenvalues in some cases of particular interest for applications in quantum optics and quantum information.
- Jan 31 2012 quant-ph cond-mat.quant-gas arXiv:1201.6286v1We study the time evolution of ultra-cold atoms in an accelerated optical lattice. For a Bose- Einstein condensate with a narrow quasi-momentum distribution in a shallow optical lattice the decay of the survival probability in the ground band has a step-like structure. In this regime we establish a connection between the wave function renormalization parameter Z introduced in [Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 2699 (2001)] to characterize non-exponential decay and the phenomenon of resonantly enhanced tunneling, where the decay rate is peaked for particular values of the lattice depth and the accelerating force.
- We analyze the recently introduced notion of quantumness witness and compare it to that of entanglement witness. We show that any entanglement witness is also a quantumness witness. We then consider some physically relevant examples and explicitly construct some witnesses.
- The quantum Zeno effect is described in geometric terms. The quantum Zeno time (inverse standard deviation of the Hamiltonian) and the generator of the quantum Zeno dynamics are both given a geometric interpretation.
- Oct 18 2011 quant-ph arXiv:1110.3725v1Bipartite entanglement between two parties of a composite quantum system can be quantified in terms of the purity of one party and there always exists a pure state of the total system that maximizes it (and minimizes purity). When many different bipartitions are considered, the requirement that purity be minimal for all bipartitions gives rise to the phenomenon of entanglement frustration. This feature, observed in quantum systems with both discrete and continuous variables, can be studied by means of a suitable cost function whose minimizers are the maximally multipartite-entangled states (MMES). In this paper we extend the analysis of multipartite entanglement frustration of Gaussian states in multimode bosonic systems. We derive bounds on the frustration, under the constraint of finite mean energy, in the low and high energy limit.
- Jul 28 2011 quant-ph arXiv:1107.5545v2We study the efficiency of quantum tomographic reconstruction where the system under investigation (quantum target) is indirectly monitored by looking at the state of a quantum probe that has been scattered off the target. In particular we focus on the state tomography of a qubit through a one-dimensional scattering of a probe qubit, with a Heisenberg-type interaction. Via direct evaluation of the associated quantum Cramér-Rao bounds, we compare the accuracy efficiency that one can get by adopting entanglement-assisted strategies with that achievable when entanglement resources are not available. Even though sub-shot noise accuracy levels are not attainable, we show that quantum correlations play a significant role in the estimation. A comparison with the accuracy levels obtainable by direct estimation (not through a probe) of the quantum target is also performed.
- Jun 28 2011 quant-ph arXiv:1106.5330v2The local purity of large many-body quantum systems can be studied by following a statistical mechanical approach based on a random matrix model. Restricting the analysis to the case of global pure states, this method proved to be successful and a full characterization of the statistical properties of the local purity was obtained by computing the partition function of the problem. Here we generalize these techniques to the case of global mixed states. Since the computation of the partition function is far more challenging than in the pure case, we focus on the computation of the first moments of the local purity. Finally, we establish a connection with the theory of twirling maps in quantum channels.
- We study a binary mixture of Bose-Einstein condensates, confined in a generic potential, in the Thomas-Fermi approximation. We search for the zero-temperature ground state of the system, both in the case of fixed numbers of particles and fixed chemical potentials.
- We study a Hamiltonian system describing a three-spin-1/2 cluster-like interaction competing with an Ising-like anti-ferromagnetic interaction. We compute free energy, spin correlation functions and entanglement both in the ground and in thermal states. The model undergoes a quantum phase transition between an Ising phase with a nonvanishing magnetization and a cluster phase characterized by a string order. Any two-spin entanglement is found to vanish in both quantum phases because of a nontrivial correlation pattern. Neverthless, the residual multipartite entanglement is maximal in the cluster phase and dependent on the magnetization in the Ising phase. We study the block entropy at the critical point and calculate the central charge of the system, showing that the criticality of the system is beyond the Ising universality class.
- May 04 2011 quant-ph arXiv:1105.0587v1The generation of Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states is a crucial problem in quantum information. We derive general conditions for obtaining GHZ states as eigenstates of a Hamiltonian. In general, degeneracy cannot be avoided if the Hamiltonian contains m-body interaction terms with m<=2 and a number of qubits strictly larger than 4. As an application, we explicitly construct a two-body 4-qubit Hamiltonian and a three-body 5-qubit Hamiltonian that exhibit a GHZ as a nondegenerate eigenstate.
- Apr 08 2011 quant-ph arXiv:1104.1365v1We describe an experiment confirming the evidence of the antibunching effect on a beam of non interacting thermal neutrons. The comparison between the results recorded with a high energy-resolution source of neutrons and those recorded with a broad energy-resolution source enables us to clarify the role played by the beam coherence in the occurrence of the antibunching effect.
- A time-dependent product is introduced between the observables of a dissipative quantum system, that accounts for the effects of dissipation on observables and commutators. In the $t \to \infty$ limit this yields a contracted algebra. The general ideas are corroborated by a few explicit examples.
- Sep 28 2010 quant-ph arXiv:1009.5219v1The tomographic picture of quantum mechanics has brought the description of quantum states closer to that of classical probability and statistics. On the other hand, the geometrical formulation of quantum mechanics introduces a metric tensor and a symplectic tensor (Hermitian tensor) on the space of pure states. By putting these two aspects together, we show that the Fisher information metric, both classical and quantum, can be described by means of the Hermitian tensor on the manifold of pure states.
- Jul 29 2010 quant-ph arXiv:1007.4942v1We discuss an implementation of Quantum Zeno Dynamics in a Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics experiment. By performing repeated unitary operations on atoms coupled to the field, we restrict the field evolution in chosen subspaces of the total Hilbert space. This procedure leads to promising methods for tailoring non-classical states. We propose to realize `tweezers' picking a coherent field at a point in phase space and moving it towards an arbitrary final position without affecting other non-overlapping coherent components. These effects could be observed with a state-of-the-art apparatus.
- Jun 28 2010 quant-ph arXiv:1006.4958v2We study the conditions for obtaining maximally multipartite entangled states (MMES) as non-degenerate eigenstates of Hamiltonians that involve only short-range interactions. We investigate small-size systems (with a number of qubits ranging from 3 to 5) and show some example Hamiltonians with MMES as eigenstates.
- Mar 09 2010 quant-ph arXiv:1003.1664v2We scrutinize the effects of non-ideal data acquisition on the homodyne tomograms of photon quantum states. The presence of a weight function, schematizing the effects of the finite thickness of the probing beam or equivalently noise, only affects the state reconstruction procedure by a normalization constant. The results are extended to a discrete mesh and show that quantum tomography is robust under incomplete and approximate knowledge of tomograms.
- Feb 15 2010 quant-ph cond-mat.stat-mech arXiv:1002.2592v2We characterize the multipartite entanglement of a system of n qubits in terms of the distribution function of the bipartite purity over balanced bipartitions. We search for maximally multipartite entangled states, whose average purity is minimal, and recast this optimization problem into a problem of statistical mechanics, by introducing a cost function, a fictitious temperature and a partition function. By investigating the high-temperature expansion, we obtain the first three moments of the distribution. We find that the problem exhibits frustration.
- The evolution of a quantum system subjected to infinitely many measurements in a finite time interval is confined in a proper subspace of the Hilbert space. This phenomenon is called "quantum Zeno effect": a particle under intensive observation does not evolve. This effect is at variance with the classical evolution, which obviously is not affected by any observations. By a semiclassical analysis we will show that the quantum Zeno effect vanishes at all orders, when the Planck constant tends to zero, and thus it is a purely quantum phenomenon without classical analog, at the same level of tunneling.
- Nov 20 2009 quant-ph arXiv:0911.3888v2We study the distribution of the Schmidt coefficients of the reduced density matrix of a quantum system in a pure state. By applying general methods of statistical mechanics, we introduce a fictitious temperature and a partition function and translate the problem in terms of the distribution of the eigenvalues of random matrices. We investigate the appearance of two phase transitions, one at a positive temperature, associated to very entangled states, and one at a negative temperature, signalling the appearance of a significant factorization in the many-body wave function. We also focus on the presence of metastable states (related to 2-D quantum gravity) and study the finite size corrections to the saddle point solution.
- If frequent measurements ascertain whether a quantum system is still in a given subspace, it remains in that subspace and a quantum Zeno effect takes place. The limiting time evolution within the projected subspace is called quantum Zeno dynamics. This phenomenon is related to the limit of a product formula obtained by intertwining the time evolution group with an orthogonal projection. By introducing a novel product formula we will give a characterization of the quantum Zeno effect for finite-rank projections, in terms of a spectral decay property of the Hamiltonian in the range of the projections. Moreover, we will also characterize its limiting quantum Zeno dynamics and exhibit its (not necessarily lower-bounded) generator as a generalized mean value Hamiltonian.
- Oct 19 2009 quant-ph cond-mat.stat-mech arXiv:0910.3134v1Some features of the global entanglement of a composed quantum system can be quantified in terms of the purity of a balanced bipartition, made up of half of its subsystems. For the given bipartition, purity can always be minimized by taking a suitable (pure) state. When many bipartitions are considered, the requirement that purity be minimal for all bipartitions can engender conflicts and frustration arises. This unearths an interesting link between frustration and multipartite entanglement, defined as the average purity over all (balanced) bipartitions.
- Aug 04 2009 quant-ph arXiv:0908.0114v2We study maximally multipartite entangled states in the context of Gaussian continuous variable quantum systems. By considering multimode Gaussian states with constrained energy, we show that perfect maximally multipartite entangled states, which exhibit the maximum amount of bipartite entanglement for all bipartitions, only exist for systems containing n=2 or 3 modes. We further numerically investigate the structure of these states and their frustration for n<=7.
- May 28 2009 quant-ph arXiv:0905.4321v1We compare the Radon transform in its standard and symplectic formulations and argue that the inversion of the latter can be performed more efficiently.
- If frequent measurements ascertain whether a quantum system is still in its initial state, transitions to other states are hindered and the quantum Zeno effect takes place. However, in its broader formulation, the quantum Zeno effect does not necessarily freeze everything. On the contrary, for frequent projections onto a multidimensional subspace, the system can evolve away from its initial state, although it remains in the subspace defined by the measurement. The continuing time evolution within the projected "quantum Zeno subspace" is called "quantum Zeno dynamics:" for instance, if the measurements ascertain whether a quantum particle is in a given spatial region, the evolution is unitary and the generator of the Zeno dynamics is the Hamiltonian with hard-wall (Dirichlet) boundary conditions. We discuss the physical and mathematical aspects of this evolution, highlighting the open mathematical problems. We then analyze some alternative strategies to obtain a Zeno dynamics and show that they are physically equivalent.
- We introduce a potential of multipartite entanglement for a system of n qubits, as the average over all balanced bipartitions of a bipartite entanglement measure, the purity. We study in detail its expression and look for its minimizers, the maximally multipartite entangled states. They have a bipartite entanglement that does not depend on the bipartition and is maximal for all possible bipartitions. We investigate their structure and consider several examples for small n.
- Oct 30 2008 quant-ph cond-mat.supr-con arXiv:0810.5245v3Under appropriate circumstances the electrons emitted from a superconducting tip can be entangled. We analyze these nonlocal correlations by studying the coincidences of the field-emitted electrons and show that electrons emitted in opposite directions violate Bell's inequality. We scrutinize the interplay between the bosonic nature of Cooper pairs and the fermionic nature of electrons. We further discuss the feasibility of our analysis in the light of present experimental capabilities.
- We exactly diagonalize the finite-size XY model with periodic boundary conditions and analytically determine the ground state energy. We show that there are two types of fermions: singles and pairs, whose dispersion relations have a completely arbitrary gauge-dependent sign. It follows that the ground state is determined by a competition between the vacuum states (with a suitable gauge) of two parity sectors. We finally exhibit some points in finite size systems that forerun criticality. They are associated to single Bogoliubov fermions and to the level crossings between physical and unphysical states. In the thermodynamic limit they approach the ground state and build up singularities at logarithmic rates.
- Aug 06 2008 quant-ph arXiv:0808.0600v2We compute the entropy of entanglement of two blocks of L spins at a distance d in the ground state of an Ising chain in an external transverse magnetic field. We numerically study the von Neumann entropy for different values of the transverse field. At the critical point we obtain analytical results for blocks of size L=1 and L=2. In the general case, the critical entropy is shown to be additive when d goes to infinity. Finally, based on simple arguments, we derive an expression for the entropy at the critical point as a function of both L and d. This formula is in excellent agreement with numerical results.
- Apr 01 2008 quant-ph cond-mat.stat-mech arXiv:0803.4498v2We characterize the multipartite entanglement of a system of n qubits in terms of the distribution function of the bipartite purity over all balanced bipartitions. We search for those (maximally multipartite entangled) states whose purity is minimum for all bipartitions and recast this optimization problem into a problem of statistical mechanics.
- We introduce several possible generalizations of tomography for quadratic surfaces. We analyze different types of elliptic, hyperbolic and hybrid tomograms. In all cases it is possible to consistently define the inverse tomographic map. We find two different ways of introducing tomographic sections. The first method operates by deformations of the standard Radon transform. The second method proceeds by shifting a given quadric pattern. The most general tomographic transformation can be defined in terms of marginals over surfaces generated by deformations of complete families of hyperplanes or quadrics. We discuss practical and conceptual perspectives and possible applications.
- Feb 21 2008 quant-ph arXiv:0802.2859v2We analytically and numerically study the effects of pulsed control on the decoherence of a qubit coupled to a quantum spin bath. When the environment is critical, decoherence is faster and we show that the control is relatively more effective. Two coupling models are investigated, namely a qubit coupled to a bath via a single link and a spin star model, yielding results that are similar and consistent.
- Jan 10 2008 quant-ph cond-mat.stat-mech arXiv:0801.1394v1We diagonalize the XX model with a finite number of spins and periodic boundary conditions. We solve for the ground state, focus on the rapidity of the convergence to the thermodynamic limit and study the features of multipartite entanglement.
- We study a random matrix model for the statistical properties of the purity of a bipartite quantum system at a finite (fictitious) temperature. This enables us to write the generating function for the cumulants, for both balanced and unbalanced bipartitions. It also unveils an unexpected feature of the system, namely the existence of two phase transitions, characterized by different spectra of the density matrices. One of the critical phases is described by the statistical mechanics of random surfaces, the other is a second-order phase transition.
- Nov 28 2007 quant-ph arXiv:0711.4280v2A quantum Zeno dynamics can be obtained by means of frequent measurements, frequent unitary kicks or a strong continuous coupling and yields a partition of the total Hilbert space into quantum Zeno subspaces, among which any transition is hindered. We focus on the "continuous" version of the quantum Zeno effect and look at several interesting examples. We first analyze these examples in practical terms, towards applications, then propose a novel experiment.
- Oct 16 2007 quant-ph cond-mat.stat-mech arXiv:0710.2868v2We introduce the notion of maximally multipartite entangled states of n qubits as a generalization of the bipartite case. These pure states have a bipartite entanglement that does not depend on the bipartition and is maximal for all possible bipartitions. They are solutions of a minimization problem. Examples for small n are investigated, both analytically and numerically.
- Jun 18 2007 quant-ph arXiv:0706.2335v2Lateral effects are analyzed in the antibunching of a beam of free non-interacting fermions. The emission of particles from a source is dynamically described in a 3D full quantum field-theoretical framework. The size of the source and the detectors, as well as the temperature of the source are taken into account and the behavior of the visibility is scrutinized as a function of these parameters.