results for au:Eppstein_D in:cs

- Feb 02 2018 cs.DS arXiv:1802.00084v1In 1988, Vazirani gave an NC algorithm for computing the number of perfect matchings in $K_{3,3}$-minor-free graphs by building on Kasteleyn's scheme for planar graphs, and stated that this "opens up the possibility of obtaining an NC algorithm for finding a perfect matching in $K_{3,3}$-free graphs." In this paper, we finally settle this 30-year-old open problem. Building on the recent breakthrough result of Anari and Vazirani giving an NC algorithm for finding a perfect matching in planar graphs and graphs of bounded genus, we also obtain NC algorithms for any minor-closed graph family that forbids a one-crossing graph. The class contains several well-studied graph families including the $K_{3,3}$-minor-free graphs and $K_5$-minor-free graphs. Graphs in these classes not only have unbounded genus, but also can have genus as high as $O(n)$. In particular, we obtain NC algorithms for: * Determining whether a one-crossing-minor-free graph has a perfect matching and if so, finding one. * Finding a minimum weight perfect matching in a one-crossing-minor-free graph, assuming that the edge weights are polynomially bounded. * Finding a maximum $st$-flow in a one-crossing-minor-free flow network, with arbitrary capacities. The main new idea enabling our results is the definition and use of matching-mimicking networks, small replacement networks that behave the same, with respect to matching problems involving a fixed set of terminals, as the larger network they replace.
- Dec 27 2017 cs.CG arXiv:1712.09317v1We study the problem of folding a polyomino $P$ into a polycube $Q$, allowing faces of $Q$ to be covered multiple times. First, we define a variety of folding models according to whether the folds (a) must be along grid lines of $P$ or can divide squares in half (diagonally and/or orthogonally), (b) must be mountain or can be both mountain and valley, (c) can remain flat (forming an angle of $180^\circ$), and (d) must lie on just the polycube surface or can have interior faces as well. Second, we give all the inclusion relations among all models that fold on the grid lines of $P$. Third, we characterize all polyominoes that can fold into a unit cube, in some models. Fourth, we give a linear-time dynamic programming algorithm to fold a tree-shaped polyomino into a constant-size polycube, in some models. Finally, we consider the triangular version of the problem, characterizing which polyiamonds fold into a regular tetrahedron.
- In this paper we study an experimentally-observed connection between two seemingly unrelated processes, one from computational geometry and the other from differential geometry. The first one (which we call "grid peeling") is the convex-layer decomposition of subsets $G\subset \mathbb Z^2$ of the integer grid, previously studied for the particular case $G=\{1,\ldots,m\}^2$ by Har-Peled and Lidický (2013). The second one is the affine curve-shortening flow (ACSF), first studied by Alvarez et al. (1993) and Sapiro and Tannenbaum (1993). We present empirical evidence that, in a certain well-defined sense, grid peeling behaves at the limit like ACSF on convex curves. We offer some theoretical arguments in favor of this conjecture. We also pay closer attention to the simple case where $G=\mathbb N^2$ is a quarter-infinite grid. This case corresponds to ACSF starting with an infinite L-shaped curve, which when transformed using the ACSF becomes a hyperbola for all times $t>0$. We prove that, in the grid peeling of $\mathbb N^2$, (1) the number of grid points removed up to iteration $n$ is $\Theta(n^{3/2}\log n)$; and (2) the boundary at iteration $n$ is sandwiched between two hyperbolas that are separated from each other by a constant factor.
- Oct 03 2017 cs.CG arXiv:1710.00426v1A square-contact representation of a planar graph $G=(V,E)$ maps vertices in $V$ to interior-disjoint axis-aligned squares in the plane and edges in $E$ to adjacencies between the sides of the corresponding squares. In this paper, we study proper square-contact representations of planar graphs, in which any two squares are either disjoint or share infinitely many points. We characterize the partial $2$-trees and the triconnected cycle-trees allowing for such representations. For partial $2$-trees our characterization uses a simple forbidden subgraph whose structure forces a separating triangle in any embedding. For the triconnected cycle-trees, a subclass of the triconnected simply-nested graphs, we use a new structural decomposition for the graphs in this family, which may be of independent interest. Finally, we study square-contact representations of general triconnected simply-nested graphs with respect to their outerplanarity index.
- We define the crossing graph of a given embedded graph (such as a road network) to be a graph with a vertex for each edge of the embedding, with two crossing graph vertices adjacent when the corresponding two edges of the embedding cross each other. In this paper, we study the sparsity properties of crossing graphs of real-world road networks. We show that, in large road networks (the Urban Road Network Dataset), the crossing graphs have connected components that are primarily trees, and that the remaining non-tree components are typically sparse (technically, that they have bounded degeneracy). We prove theoretically that when an embedded graph has a sparse crossing graph, it has other desirable properties that lead to fast algorithms for shortest paths and other algorithms important in geographic information systems. Notably, these graphs have polynomial expansion, meaning that they and all their subgraphs have small separators.
- We show that triangle-free penny graphs have degeneracy at most two, list coloring number (choosability) at most three, diameter $D=\Omega(\sqrt n)$, and at most $\min\bigl(2n-\Omega(\sqrt n),2n-D-2\bigr)$ edges.
- We study the effects of planarization (the construction of a planar diagram $D$ from a non-planar graph $G$ by replacing each crossing by a new vertex) on graph width parameters. We show that for treewidth, pathwidth, branchwidth, clique-width, and tree-depth there exists a family of $n$-vertex graphs with bounded parameter value, all of whose planarizations have parameter value $\Omega(n)$. However, for bandwidth, cutwidth, and carving width, every graph with bounded parameter value has a planarization of linear size whose parameter value remains bounded. The same is true for the treewidth, pathwidth, and branchwidth of graphs of bounded degree.
- Jun 30 2017 cs.DS arXiv:1706.09593v2We introduce a novel method for defining geographic districts in road networks using stable matching. In this approach, each geographic district is defined in terms of a center, which identifies a location of interest, such as a post office or polling place, and all other network vertices must be labeled with the center to which they are associated. We focus on defining geographic districts that are equitable, in that every district has the same number of vertices and the assignment is stable in terms of geographic distance. That is, there is no unassigned vertex-center pair such that both would prefer each other over their current assignments. We solve this problem using a version of the classic stable matching problem, called symmetric stable matching, in which the preferences of the elements in both sets obey a certain symmetry. In our case, we study a graph-based version of stable matching in which nodes are stably matched to a subset of nodes denoted as centers, prioritized by their shortest-path distances, so that each center is apportioned a certain number of nodes. We show that, for a planar graph or road network with $n$ nodes and $k$ centers, the problem can be solved in $O(n\sqrt{n}\log n)$ time, which improves upon the $O(nk)$ runtime of using the classic Gale-Shapley stable matching algorithm when $k$ is large. Finally, we provide experimental results on road networks for these algorithms and a heuristic algorithm that performs better than the Gale-Shapley algorithm for any range of values of $k$.
- Apr 10 2017 cs.DS arXiv:1704.02303v1We study a discrete version of a geometric stable marriage problem originally proposed in a continuous setting by Hoffman, Holroyd, and Peres, in which points in the plane are stably matched to cluster centers, as prioritized by their distances, so that each cluster center is apportioned a set of points of equal area. We show that, for a discretization of the problem to an $n\times n$ grid of pixels with $k$ centers, the problem can be solved in time $O(n^2 \log^5 n)$, and we experiment with two slower but more practical algorithms and a hybrid method that switches from one of these algorithms to the other to gain greater efficiency than either algorithm alone. We also show how to combine geometric stable matchings with a $k$-means clustering algorithm, so as to provide a geometric political-districting algorithm that views distance in economic terms, and we experiment with weighted versions of stable $k$-means in order to improve the connectivity of the resulting clusters.
- Mar 09 2017 cs.DS arXiv:1703.02784v1We show that, for any graph optimization problem in which the feasible solutions can be expressed by a formula in monadic second-order logic describing sets of vertices or edges and in which the goal is to minimize the sum of the weights in the selected sets, we can find the $k$ best solutions for $n$-vertex graphs of bounded treewidth in time $\mathcal O(n+k\log n)$. In particular, this applies to the problem of finding the $k$ shortest simple paths between given vertices in directed graphs of bounded treewidth, giving an exponential speedup in the per-path cost over previous algorithms.
- Dec 08 2016 cs.CG arXiv:1612.02149v1Let $P$ be a set of $n$ points in the plane. We show how to find, for a given integer $k>0$, the smallest-area axis-parallel rectangle that covers $k$ points of $P$ in $O(nk^2 \log n+ n\log^2 n)$ time. We also consider the problem of, given a value $\alpha>0$, covering as many points of $P$ as possible with an axis-parallel rectangle of area at most $\alpha$. For this problem we give a randomized $(1-\varepsilon)$-approximation that works in near-linear time: in $O((n/\varepsilon^4)\log^3 n \log (1/\varepsilon))$ time we find an axis-parallel rectangle of area at most $\alpha$ that covers at least $(1-\varepsilon)\kappa^*$ points, where $\kappa^*$ is the maximum possible number of points that could be covered.
- Nov 08 2016 cs.CG arXiv:1611.01661v1Let $R$ and $B$ be two disjoint sets of points in the plane where the points of $R$ are colored red and the points of $B$ are colored blue, and let $n=|R\cup B|$. A bichromatic spanning tree is a spanning tree in the complete bipartite geometric graph with bipartition $(R,B)$. The minimum (respectively maximum) bichromatic spanning tree problem is the problem of computing a bichromatic spanning tree of minimum (respectively maximum) total edge length. 1. We present a simple algorithm that solves the minimum bichromatic spanning tree problem in $O(n\log^3 n)$ time. This algorithm can easily be extended to solve the maximum bichromatic spanning tree problem within the same time bound. It also can easily be generalized to multicolored point sets. 2. We present $\Theta(n\log n)$-time algorithms that solve the minimum and the maximum bichromatic spanning tree problems. 3. We extend the bichromatic spanning tree algorithms and solve the multicolored version of these problems in $O(n\log n\log k)$ time, where $k$ is the number of different colors (or the size of the multipartition in a complete multipartite geometric graph).
- Sep 16 2016 cs.DS arXiv:1609.04512v1We study various versions of the problem of scheduling platoons of autonomous vehicles through an unregulated intersection, where an algorithm must schedule which platoons should wait so that others can go through, so as to minimize the maximum delay for any vehicle. We provide polynomial-time algorithms for constructing such schedules for a $k$-way merge intersection, for constant $k$, and for a crossing intersection involving two-way traffic. We also show that the more general problem of scheduling autonomous platoons through an intersection that includes both a $k$-way merge, for non-constant $k$, and a crossing of two-way traffic is NP-complete.
- Finding nonoverlapping balls with given centers in any metric space, maximizing the sum of radii of the balls, can be expressed as a linear program. Its dual linear program expresses the problem of finding a minimum-weight set of cycles (allowing 2-cycles) covering all vertices in a complete geometric graph. For points in a Euclidean space of any finite dimension~$d$, with any convex distance function on this space, this graph can be replaced by a sparse subgraph obeying a separator theorem. This graph structure leads to an algorithm for finding the optimum set of balls in time $O(n^{2-1/d})$, improving the $O(n^3)$ time of a naive cycle cover algorithm. As a subroutine, we provide an algorithm for weighted bipartite matching in graphs with separators, which speeds up the best previous algorithm for this problem on planar bipartite graphs from $O(n^{3/2}\log n)$ to $O(n^{3/2})$ time. We also show how to constrain the balls to all have radius at least a given threshold value, and how to apply our radius-sum optimization algorithms to the problem of embedding a finite metric space into a star metric minimizing the average distance to the hub.
- We introduce models and algorithmic foundations for graph watermarking. Our frameworks include security definitions and proofs, as well as characterizations when graph watermarking is algorithmically feasible, in spite of the fact that the general problem is NP-complete by simple reductions from the subgraph isomorphism or graph edit distance problems. In the digital watermarking of many types of files, an implicit step in the recovery of a watermark is the mapping of individual pieces of data, such as image pixels or movie frames, from one object to another. In graphs, this step corresponds to approximately matching vertices of one graph to another based on graph invariants such as vertex degree. Our approach is based on characterizing the feasibility of graph watermarking in terms of keygen, marking, and identification functions defined over graph families with known distributions. We demonstrate the strength of this approach with exemplary watermarking schemes for two random graph models, the classic Erdős-Rényi model and a random power-law graph model, both of which are used to model real-world networks.
- Apr 21 2016 cs.DS arXiv:1604.06067v1The cuckoo filter data structure of Fan, Andersen, Kaminsky, and Mitzenmacher (CoNEXT 2014) performs the same approximate set operations as a Bloom filter in less memory, with better locality of reference, and adds the ability to delete elements as well as to insert them. However, until now it has lacked theoretical guarantees on its performance. We describe a simplified version of the cuckoo filter using fewer hash function calls per query. With this simplification, we provide the first theoretical performance guarantees on cuckoo filters, showing that they succeed with high probability whenever their fingerprint length is large enough.
- Feb 03 2016 cs.CG arXiv:1602.00767v1Let $\mathcal{S}$ be a connected planar polygonal subdivision with $n$ edges that we want to preprocess for point-location queries, and where we are given the probability $\gamma_i$ that the query point lies in a polygon $P_i$ of $\mathcal{S}$. We show how to preprocess $\mathcal{S}$ such that the query time for a point~$p\in P_i$ depends on~$\gamma_i$ and, in addition, on the distance from $p$ to the boundary of~$P_i$---the further away from the boundary, the faster the query. More precisely, we show that a point-location query can be answered in time $O\left(\min \left(\log n, 1 + \log \frac{\mathrm{area}(P_i)}{\gamma_i \Delta_{p}^2}\right)\right)$, where $\Delta_{p}$ is the shortest Euclidean distance of the query point~$p$ to the boundary of $P_i$. Our structure uses $O(n)$ space and $O(n \log n)$ preprocessing time. It is based on a decomposition of the regions of $\mathcal{S}$ into convex quadrilaterals and triangles with the following property: for any point $p\in P_i$, the quadrilateral or triangle containing~$p$ has area $\Omega(\Delta_{p}^2)$. For the special case where $\mathcal{S}$ is a subdivision of the unit square and $\gamma_i=\mathrm{area}(P_i)$, we present a simpler solution that achieves a query time of $O\left(\min \left(\log n, \log \frac{1}{\Delta_{p}^2}\right)\right)$. The latter solution can be extended to convex subdivisions in three dimensions.
- Jan 27 2016 cs.CG arXiv:1601.06865v1A weak pseudoline arrangement is a topological generalization of a line arrangement, consisting of curves topologically equivalent to lines that cross each other at most once. We consider arrangements that are outerplanar---each crossing is incident to an unbounded face---and simple---each crossing point is the crossing of only two curves. We show that these arrangements can be represented by chords of a circle, by convex polygonal chains with only two bends, or by hyperbolic lines. Simple but non-outerplanar arrangements (non-weak) can be represented by convex polygonal chains or convex smooth curves of linear complexity.
- Dec 22 2015 cs.DS arXiv:1512.06488v1We show how to select an item with the majority color from $n$ two-colored items, given access to the items only through an oracle that returns the discrepancy of subsets of $k$ items. We use $n/\lfloor\tfrac{k}{2}\rfloor+O(k)$ queries, improving a previous method by De Marco and Kranakis that used $n-k+k^2/2$ queries. We also prove a lower bound of $n/(k-1)-O(n^{1/3})$ on the number of queries needed, improving a lower bound of $\lfloor n/k\rfloor$ by De Marco and Kranakis.
- We define treetopes, a generalization of the three-dimensional roofless polyhedra (Halin graphs) to arbitrary dimensions. Like roofless polyhedra, treetopes have a designated base facet such that every face of dimension greater than one intersects the base in more than one point. We prove an equivalent characterization of the 4-treetopes using the concept of clustered planarity from graph drawing, and we use this characterization to recognize the graphs of 4-treetopes in polynomial time. This result provides one of the first classes of 4-polytopes, other than pyramids and stacked polytopes, that can be recognized efficiently from their graphs.
- We provide a pipeline for generating syntax diagrams (also called railroad diagrams) from context free grammars. Syntax diagrams are a graphical representation of a context free language, which we formalize abstractly as a set of mutually recursive nondeterministic finite automata and draw by combining elements from the confluent drawing, layered drawing, and smooth orthogonal drawing styles. Within our pipeline we introduce several heuristics that modify the grammar but preserve the language, improving the aesthetics of the final drawing.
- Jul 07 2015 cs.CG arXiv:1507.01555v1$\newcommand{\eps}{\varepsilon}$ In this paper, we consider two important problems defined on finite metric spaces, and provide efficient new algorithms and approximation schemes for these problems on inputs given as graph shortest path metrics or high-dimensional Euclidean metrics. The first of these problems is the greedy permutation (or farthest-first traversal) of a finite metric space: a permutation of the points of the space in which each point is as far as possible from all previous points. We describe randomized algorithms to find $(1+\eps)$-approximate greedy permutations of any graph with $n$ vertices and $m$ edges in expected time $O(\eps^{-1}(m+n)\log n\log(n/\eps))$, and to find $(1+\eps)$-approximate greedy permutations of points in high-dimensional Euclidean spaces in expected time $O(\eps^{-2} n^{1+1/(1+\eps)^2 + o(1)})$. Additionally we describe a deterministic algorithm to find exact greedy permutations of any graph with $n$ vertices and treewidth $O(1)$ in worst-case time $O(n^{3/2}\log^{O(1)} n)$. The second of the two problems we consider is distance selection: given $k \in [ \binom{n}{2} ]$, we are interested in computing the $k$th smallest distance in the given metric space. We show that for planar graph metrics one can approximate this distance, up to a constant factor, in near linear time.
- We investigate two types of graph layouts, track layouts and layered path decompositions, and the relations between their associated parameters track-number and layered pathwidth. We use these two types of layouts to characterize leveled planar graphs, the graphs with planar layered drawings with no dummy vertices. It follows from the known NP-completeness of leveled planarity that track-number and layered pathwidth are also NP-complete, even for the smallest constant parameter values that make these parameters nontrivial. We prove that the graphs with bounded layered pathwidth include outerplanar graphs, Halin graphs, and squaregraphs, but that (despite having bounded track-number) series-parallel graphs do not have bounded layered pathwidth. Finally, we investigate the parameterized complexity of these layouts, showing that past methods used for book layouts don't work to parameterize the problem by treewidth or almost-tree number but that the problem is (non-uniformly) fixed-parameter tractable for tree-depth.
- We consider relations between the size, treewidth, and local crossing number (maximum number of crossings per edge) of graphs embedded on topological surfaces. We show that an $n$-vertex graph embedded on a surface of genus $g$ with at most $k$ crossings per edge has treewidth $O(\sqrt{(g+1)(k+1)n})$ and layered treewidth $O((g+1)k)$, and that these bounds are tight up to a constant factor. As a special case, the $k$-planar graphs with $n$ vertices have treewidth $O(\sqrt{(k+1)n})$ and layered treewidth $O(k+1)$, which are tight bounds that improve a previously known $O((k+1)^{3/4}n^{1/2})$ treewidth bound. Analogous results are proved for map graphs defined with respect to any surface. Finally, we show that for $g<m$, every $m$-edge graph can be embedded on a surface of genus~$g$ with $O((m/(g+1))\log^2 g)$ crossings per edge, which is tight to a polylogarithmic factor.
- Jun 08 2015 cs.DS arXiv:1506.01749v1The metric dimension of a graph is the size of the smallest set of vertices whose distances distinguish all pairs of vertices in the graph. We show that this graph invariant may be calculated by an algorithm whose running time is linear in the input graph size, added to a function of the largest possible number of leaves in a spanning tree of the graph.
- Apr 21 2015 cs.DS arXiv:1504.04931v1A cycle basis in an undirected graph is a minimal set of simple cycles whose symmetric differences include all Eulerian subgraphs of the given graph. We define a rooted cycle basis to be a cycle basis in which all cycles contain a specified root edge, and we investigate the algorithmic problem of constructing rooted cycle bases. We show that a given graph has a rooted cycle basis if and only if the root edge belongs to its 2-core and the 2-core is 2-vertex-connected, and that constructing such a basis can be performed efficiently. We show that in an unweighted or positively weighted graph, it is possible to find the minimum weight rooted cycle basis in polynomial time. Additionally, we show that it is NP-complete to find a fundamental rooted cycle basis (a rooted cycle basis in which each cycle is formed by combining paths in a fixed spanning tree with a single additional edge) but that the problem can be solved by a fixed-parameter-tractable algorithm when parameterized by clique-width.
- Apr 17 2015 cs.DS arXiv:1504.04073v2We define the parametric closure problem, in which the input is a partially ordered set whose elements have linearly varying weights and the goal is to compute the sequence of minimum-weight lower sets of the partial order as the weights vary. We give polynomial time solutions to many important special cases of this problem including semiorders, reachability orders of bounded-treewidth graphs, partial orders of bounded width, and series-parallel partial orders. Our result for series-parallel orders provides a significant generalization of a previous result of Carlson and Eppstein on bicriterion subtree problems.
- We describe and implement two local reduction rules that can be used to recognize Halin graphs in linear time, avoiding the complicated planarity testing step of previous linear time Halin graph recognition algorithms. The same two rules can be used as the basis for linear-time algorithms for other algorithmic problems on Halin graphs, including decomposing these graphs into a tree and a cycle, finding a Hamiltonian cycle, or constructing a planar embedding. These reduction rules can also be used to recognize a broader class of polyhedral graphs. These graphs, which we call the D3-reducible graphs, are the dual graphs of the polyhedra formed by gluing pyramids together on their triangular faces; their treewidth is bounded, and they necessarily have Lombardi drawings.
- We study representations of graphs by contacts of circular arcs, CCA-representations for short, where the vertices are interior-disjoint circular arcs in the plane and each edge is realized by an endpoint of one arc touching the interior of another. A graph is (2,k)-sparse if every s-vertex subgraph has at most 2s - k edges, and (2, k)-tight if in addition it has exactly 2n - k edges, where n is the number of vertices. Every graph with a CCA- representation is planar and (2, 0)-sparse, and it follows from known results on contacts of line segments that for k >= 3 every (2, k)-sparse graph has a CCA-representation. Hence the question of CCA-representability is open for (2, k)-sparse graphs with 0 <= k <= 2. We partially answer this question by computing CCA-representations for several subclasses of planar (2,0)-sparse graphs. In particular, we show that every plane (2, 2)-sparse graph has a CCA-representation, and that any plane (2, 1)-tight graph or (2, 0)-tight graph dual to a (2, 3)-tight graph or (2, 4)-tight graph has a CCA-representation. Next, we study CCA-representations in which each arc has an empty convex hull. We characterize the plane graphs that have such a representation, based on the existence of a special orientation of the graph edges. Using this characterization, we show that every plane graph of maximum degree 4 has such a representation, but that finding such a representation for a plane (2, 0)-tight graph with maximum degree 5 is an NP-complete problem. Finally, we describe a simple algorithm for representing plane (2, 0)-sparse graphs with wedges, where each vertex is represented with a sequence of two circular arcs (straight-line segments).
- Dec 17 2014 cs.DS arXiv:1412.5075v1We survey $k$-best enumeration problems and the algorithms for solving them, including in particular the problems of finding the $k$ shortest paths, $k$ smallest spanning trees, and $k$ best matchings in weighted graphs.
- We investigate the computational complexity of the exponential random graph model (ERGM) commonly used in social network analysis. This model represents a probability distribution on graphs by setting the log-likelihood of generating a graph to be a weighted sum of feature counts. These log-likelihoods must be exponentiated and then normalized to produce probabilities, and the normalizing constant is called the \emphpartition function. We show that the problem of computing the partition function is $\mathsf{\#P}$-hard, and inapproximable in polynomial time to within an exponential ratio, assuming $\mathsf{P} \neq \mathsf{NP}$. Furthermore, there is no randomized polynomial time algorithm for generating random graphs whose distribution is within total variation distance $1-o(1)$ of a given ERGM. Our proofs use standard feature types based on the sociological theories of assortative mixing and triadic closure.
- For an undirected $n$-vertex graph $G$ with non-negative edge-weights, we consider the following type of query: given two vertices $s$ and $t$ in $G$, what is the weight of a minimum $st$-cut in $G$? We solve this problem in preprocessing time $O(n\log^3 n)$ for graphs of bounded genus, giving the first sub-quadratic time algorithm for this class of graphs. Our result also improves by a logarithmic factor a previous algorithm by Borradaile, Sankowski and Wulff-Nilsen (FOCS 2010) that applied only to planar graphs. Our algorithm constructs a Gomory-Hu tree for the given graph, providing a data structure with space $O(n)$ that can answer minimum-cut queries in constant time. The dependence on the genus of the input graph in our preprocessing time is $2^{O(g^2)}$.
- In this paper, we study how to fold a specified origami crease pattern in order to minimize the impact of paper thickness. Specifically, origami designs are often expressed by a mountain-valley pattern (plane graph of creases with relative fold orientations), but in general this specification is consistent with exponentially many possible folded states. We analyze the complexity of finding the best consistent folded state according to two metrics: minimizing the total number of layers in the folded state (so that a "flat folding" is indeed close to flat), and minimizing the total amount of paper required to execute the folding (where "thicker" creases consume more paper). We prove both problems strongly NP-complete even for 1D folding. On the other hand, we prove the first problem fixed-parameter tractable in 1D with respect to the number of layers.
- We introduce the study of forcing sets in mathematical origami. The origami material folds flat along straight line segments called creases, each of which is assigned a folding direction of mountain or valley. A subset $F$ of creases is forcing if the global folding mountain/valley assignment can be deduced from its restriction to $F$. In this paper we focus on one particular class of foldable patterns called Miura-ori, which divide the plane into congruent parallelograms using horizontal lines and zig-zag vertical lines. We develop efficient algorithms for constructing a minimum forcing set of a Miura-ori map, and for deciding whether a given set of creases is forcing or not. We also provide tight bounds on the size of a forcing set, establishing that the standard mountain-valley assignment for the Miura-ori is the one that requires the most creases in its forcing sets. Additionally, given a partial mountain/valley assignment to a subset of creases of a Miura-ori map, we determine whether the assignment domain can be extended to a locally flat-foldable pattern on all the creases. At the heart of our results is a novel correspondence between flat-foldable Miura-ori maps and $3$-colorings of grid graphs.
- Sep 10 2014 cs.DS arXiv:1409.2603v1The apportionment problem deals with the fair distribution of a discrete set of $k$ indivisible resources (such as legislative seats) to $n$ entities (such as parties or geographic subdivisions). Highest averages methods are a frequently used class of methods for solving this problem. We present an $O(n)$-time algorithm for performing apportionment under a large class of highest averages methods. Our algorithm works for all highest averages methods used in practice.
- When can a plane graph with prescribed edge lengths and prescribed angles (from among $\{0,180^\circ, 360^\circ\}$) be folded flat to lie in an infinitesimally thick line, without crossings? This problem generalizes the classic theory of single-vertex flat origami with prescribed mountain-valley assignment, which corresponds to the case of a cycle graph. We characterize such flat-foldable plane graphs by two obviously necessary but also sufficient conditions, proving a conjecture made in 2001: the angles at each vertex should sum to $360^\circ$, and every face of the graph must itself be flat foldable. This characterization leads to a linear-time algorithm for testing flat foldability of plane graphs with prescribed edge lengths and angles, and a polynomial-time algorithm for counting the number of distinct folded states.
- We investigate crossing minimization for 1-page and 2-page book drawings. We show that computing the 1-page crossing number is fixed-parameter tractable with respect to the number of crossings, that testing 2-page planarity is fixed-parameter tractable with respect to treewidth, and that computing the 2-page crossing number is fixed-parameter tractable with respect to the sum of the number of crossings and the treewidth of the input graph. We prove these results via Courcelle's theorem on the fixed-parameter tractability of properties expressible in monadic second order logic for graphs of bounded treewidth.
- We show that every graph has an induced pseudoforest of at least $n-m/4.5$ vertices, an induced partial 2-tree of at least $n-m/5$ vertices, and an induced planar subgraph of at least $n-m/5.2174$ vertices. These results are constructive, implying linear-time algorithms to find the respective induced subgraphs. We also show that the size of the largest $K_h$-minor-free graph in a given graph can sometimes be at most $n-m/6+o(m)$.
- Aug 22 2014 cs.CG arXiv:1408.4902v1We study balanced circle packings and circle-contact representations for planar graphs, where the ratio of the largest circle's diameter to the smallest circle's diameter is polynomial in the number of circles. We provide a number of positive and negative results for the existence of such balanced configurations.
- Aug 08 2014 cs.CG arXiv:1408.1422v1Many well-known graph drawing techniques, including force directed drawings, spectral graph layouts, multidimensional scaling, and circle packings, have algebraic formulations. However, practical methods for producing such drawings ubiquitously use iterative numerical approximations rather than constructing and then solving algebraic expressions representing their exact solutions. To explain this phenomenon, we use Galois theory to show that many variants of these problems have solutions that cannot be expressed by nested radicals or nested roots of low-degree polynomials. Hence, such solutions cannot be computed exactly even in extended computational models that include such operations.
- Apr 02 2014 cs.DS arXiv:1404.0286v1We study wear-leveling techniques for cuckoo hashing, showing that it is possible to achieve a memory wear bound of $\log\log n+O(1)$ after the insertion of $n$ items into a table of size $Cn$ for a suitable constant $C$ using cuckoo hashing. Moreover, we study our cuckoo hashing method empirically, showing that it significantly improves on the memory wear performance for classic cuckoo hashing and linear probing in practice.
- We exploit the connection between dominance drawings of directed acyclic graphs and permutations, in both directions, to provide improved bounds on the size of universal point sets for certain types of dominance drawing and on superpatterns for certain natural classes of permutations. In particular we show that there exist universal point sets for dominance drawings of the Hasse diagrams of width-two partial orders of size O(n^3/2), universal point sets for dominance drawings of st-outerplanar graphs of size O(n\log n), and universal point sets for dominance drawings of directed trees of size O(n^2). We show that 321-avoiding permutations have superpatterns of size O(n^3/2), riffle permutations (321-, 2143-, and 2413-avoiding permutations) have superpatterns of size O(n), and the concatenations of sequences of riffles and their inverses have superpatterns of size O(n\log n). Our analysis includes a calculation of the leading constants in these bounds.
- Sep 02 2013 cs.CG arXiv:1308.6824v1We define strict confluent drawing, a form of confluent drawing in which the existence of an edge is indicated by the presence of a smooth path through a system of arcs and junctions (without crossings), and in which such a path, if it exists, must be unique. We prove that it is NP-complete to determine whether a given graph has a strict confluent drawing but polynomial to determine whether it has an outerplanar strict confluent drawing with a fixed vertex ordering (a drawing within a disk, with the vertices placed in a given order on the boundary).
- We investigate exact crossing minimization for graphs that differ from trees by a small number of additional edges, for several variants of the crossing minimization problem. In particular, we provide fixed parameter tractable algorithms for the 1-page book crossing number, the 2-page book crossing number, and the minimum number of crossed edges in 1-page and 2-page book drawings.
- An old open problem in graph drawing asks for the size of a universal point set, a set of points that can be used as vertices for straight-line drawings of all n-vertex planar graphs. We connect this problem to the theory of permutation patterns, where another open problem concerns the size of superpatterns, permutations that contain all patterns of a given size. We generalize superpatterns to classes of permutations determined by forbidden patterns, and we construct superpatterns of size n^2/4 + Theta(n) for the 213-avoiding permutations, half the size of known superpatterns for unconstrained permutations. We use our superpatterns to construct universal point sets of size n^2/4 - Theta(n), smaller than the previous bound by a 9/16 factor. We prove that every proper subclass of the 213-avoiding permutations has superpatterns of size O(n log^O(1) n), which we use to prove that the planar graphs of bounded pathwidth have near-linear universal point sets.
- Aug 02 2013 cs.CG arXiv:1308.0066v1We describe a linear-time algorithm that finds a planar drawing of every graph of a simple line or pseudoline arrangement within a grid of area O(n^7/6). No known input causes our algorithm to use area \Omega(n^1+\epsilon) for any \epsilon>0; finding such an input would represent significant progress on the famous k-set problem from discrete geometry. Drawing line arrangement graphs is the main task in the Planarity puzzle.
- Jun 17 2013 cs.DS arXiv:1306.3482v1We introduce the problem of performing set-difference range queries, where answers to queries are set-theoretic symmetric differences between sets of items in two geometric ranges. We describe a general framework for answering such queries based on a novel use of data-streaming sketches we call signed symmetric-difference sketches. We show that such sketches can be realized using invertible Bloom filters (IBFs), which can be composed, differenced, and searched so as to solve set-difference range queries in a wide range of scenarios.
- May 02 2013 cs.DS arXiv:1305.0110v1We formalize a problem we call combinatorial pair testing (CPT), which has applications to the identification of uncooperative or unproductive participants in pair programming, massively distributed computing, and crowdsourcing environments. We give efficient adaptive and nonadaptive CPT algorithms and we show that our methods use an optimal number of testing rounds to within constant factors. We also provide an empirical evaluation of some of our methods.
- Apr 23 2013 cs.DS arXiv:1304.5591v1We consider the problem of finding a 1-planar drawing for a general graph, where a 1-planar drawing is a drawing in which each edge participates in at most one crossing. Since this problem is known to be NP-hard we investigate the parameterized complexity of the problem with respect to the vertex cover number, tree-depth, and cyclomatic number. For these parameters we construct fixed-parameter tractable algorithms. However, the problem remains NP-complete for graphs of bounded bandwidth, pathwidth, or treewidth.
- We prove upper and lower bounds on the size of the largest square grid graph that is a subgraph, minor, or shallow minor of a graph in the form of a larger square grid from which a specified number of vertices have been deleted. Our bounds are tight to within constant factors. We also provide less-tight bounds on analogous problems for higher-dimensional grids.
- Sep 27 2012 cs.DS arXiv:1209.5791v1We consider the problem of analyzing social network data sets in which the edges of the network have timestamps, and we wish to analyze the subgraphs formed from edges in contiguous subintervals of these timestamps. We provide data structures for these problems that use near-linear preprocessing time, linear space, and sublogarithmic query time to handle queries that ask for the number of connected components, number of components that contain cycles, number of vertices whose degree equals or is at most some predetermined value, number of vertices that can be reached from a starting set of vertices by time-increasing paths, and related queries.
- Force-directed layout algorithms produce graph drawings by resolving a system of emulated physical forces. We present techniques for using social gravity as an additional force in force-directed layouts, together with a scaling technique, to produce drawings of trees and forests, as well as more complex social networks. Social gravity assigns mass to vertices in proportion to their network centrality, which allows vertices that are more graph-theoretically central to be visualized in physically central locations. Scaling varies the gravitational force throughout the simulation, and reduces crossings relative to unscaled gravity. In addition to providing this algorithmic framework, we apply our algorithms to social networks produced by Mark Lombardi, and we show how social gravity can be incorporated into force-directed Lombardi-style drawings.
- Jul 24 2012 cs.CG arXiv:1207.5082v2We describe a family of quadrilateral meshes based on diamonds, rhombi with 60 and 120 degree angles, and kites with 60, 90, and 120 degree angles, that can be adapted to a local size function by local subdivision operations. Our meshes use a number of elements that is within a constant factor of the minimum possible for any mesh of bounded aspect ratio elements, graded by the same local size function, and is invariant under Laplacian smoothing. The vertices of our meshes form the centers of the circles in a pair of dual circle packings. The same vertex placement algorithm but a different mesh topology gives a pair of dual well-centered meshes adapted to the given size function.
- We characterize the graphs formed by two-dimensional soap bubbles as being exactly the 3-regular bridgeless planar multigraphs. Our characterization combines a local characterization of soap bubble graphs in terms of the curvatures of arcs meeting at common vertices, a proof that this characterization remains invariant under Moebius transformations, an application of Moebius invariance to prove bridgelessness, and a Moebius-invariant power diagram of circles previously developed by the author for its applications in graph drawing.
- Jun 28 2012 cs.CG arXiv:1206.6142v1We prove that every planar graph with maximum degree three has a planar drawing in which the edges are drawn as circular arcs that meet at equal angles around every vertex. Our construction is based on the Koebe-Thurston-Andreev circle packing theorem, and uses a novel type of Voronoi diagram for circle packings that is invariant under Moebius transformations, defined using three-dimensional hyperbolic geometry. We also use circle packing to construct planar Lombardi drawings of a special class of 4-regular planar graphs, the medial graphs of polyhedral graphs, and we show that not every 4-regular planar graph has a Lombardi drawing. We have implemented our algorithm for 3-connected planar cubic graphs.
- Jun 12 2012 cs.CG arXiv:1206.2254v2We describe an algorithm that takes as input n points in the plane and a parameter \epsilon, and produces as output an embedded planar graph having the given points as a subset of its vertices in which the graph distances are a (1 + \epsilon)-approximation to the geometric distances between the given points. For point sets in which the Delaunay triangulation has bounded sharpest angle, our algorithm's output has O(n) vertices, its weight is O(1) times the minimum spanning tree weight, and the algorithm's running time is bounded by O(n \sqrtlog log n). We use this result in a similarly fast deterministic approximation scheme for the traveling salesperson problem.
- Feb 24 2012 cs.DS arXiv:1202.5074v2We show that single-digit "Nishio" subproblems in nxn Sudoku puzzles may be solved in time o(2^n), faster than previous solutions such as the pattern overlay method. We also show that single-digit deduction in Sudoku is NP-hard.
- Nov 24 2011 cs.DS arXiv:1111.5414v1We describe a variant of the Bellman-Ford algorithm for single-source shortest paths in graphs with negative edges but no negative cycles that randomly permutes the vertices and uses this randomized order to process the vertices within each pass of the algorithm. The modification reduces the worst-case expected number of relaxation steps of the algorithm, compared to the previously-best variant by Yen (1970), by a factor of 2/3 with high probability. We also use our high probability bound to add negative cycle detection to the randomized algorithm.
- A classic experiment by Milgram shows that individuals can route messages along short paths in social networks, given only simple categorical information about recipients (such as "he is a prominent lawyer in Boston" or "she is a Freshman sociology major at Harvard"). That is, these networks have very short paths between pairs of nodes (the so-called small-world phenomenon); moreover, participants are able to route messages along these paths even though each person is only aware of a small part of the network topology. Some sociologists conjecture that participants in such scenarios use a greedy routing strategy in which they forward messages to acquaintances that have more categories in common with the recipient than they do, and similar strategies have recently been proposed for routing messages in dynamic ad-hoc networks of mobile devices. In this paper, we introduce a network property called membership dimension, which characterizes the cognitive load required to maintain relationships between participants and categories in a social network. We show that any connected network has a system of categories that will support greedy routing, but that these categories can be made to have small membership dimension if and only if the underlying network exhibits the small-world phenomenon.
- In Lombardi drawings of graphs, edges are represented as circular arcs, and the edges incident on vertices have perfect angular resolution. However, not every graph has a Lombardi drawing, and not every planar graph has a planar Lombardi drawing. We introduce k-Lombardi drawings, in which each edge may be drawn with k circular arcs, noting that every graph has a smooth 2-Lombardi drawing. We show that every planar graph has a smooth planar 3-Lombardi drawing and further investigate topics connecting planarity and Lombardi drawings.
- We show that a transitively reduced digraph has a confluent upward drawing if and only if its reachability relation has order dimension at most two. In this case, we construct a confluent upward drawing with $O(n^2)$ features, in an $O(n) \times O(n)$ grid in $O(n^2)$ time. For the digraphs representing series-parallel partial orders we show how to construct a drawing with $O(n)$ features in an $O(n) \times O(n)$ grid in $O(n)$ time from a series-parallel decomposition of the partial order. Our drawings are optimal in the number of confluent junctions they use.
- Aug 25 2011 cs.CG arXiv:1108.4705v3We show that several problems of compacting orthogonal graph drawings to use the minimum number of rows, area, length of longest edge or total edge length cannot be approximated better than within a polynomial factor of optimal in polynomial time unless P = NP. We also provide a fixed-parameter-tractable algorithm for testing whether a drawing can be compacted to a small number of rows.
- A classic experiment by Milgram shows that individuals can route messages along short paths in social networks, given only simple categorical information about recipients (such as "he is a prominent lawyer in Boston" or "she is a Freshman sociology major at Harvard"). That is, these networks have very short paths between pairs of nodes (the so-called small-world phenomenon); moreover, participants are able to route messages along these paths even though each person is only aware of a small part of the network topology. Some sociologists conjecture that participants in such scenarios use a greedy routing strategy in which they forward messages to acquaintances that have more categories in common with the recipient than they do, and similar strategies have recently been proposed for routing messages in dynamic ad-hoc networks of mobile devices. In this paper, we introduce a network property called membership dimension, which characterizes the cognitive load required to maintain relationships between participants and categories in a social network. We show that any connected network has a system of categories that will support greedy routing, but that these categories can be made to have small membership dimension if and only if the underlying network exhibits the small-world phenomenon.
- In this paper, we study methods for improving the efficiency and privacy of compressed DNA sequence comparison computations, under various querying scenarios. For instance, one scenario involves a querier, Bob, who wants to test if his DNA string, $Q$, is close to a DNA string, $Y$, owned by a data owner, Alice, but Bob does not want to reveal $Q$ to Alice and Alice is willing to reveal $Y$ to Bob \emphonly if it is close to $Q$. We describe a privacy-enhanced method for comparing two compressed DNA sequences, which can be used to achieve the goals of such a scenario. Our method involves a reduction to set differencing, and we describe a privacy-enhanced protocol for set differencing that achieves absolute privacy for Bob (in the information theoretic sense), and a quantifiable degree of privacy protection for Alice. One of the important features of our protocols, which makes them ideally suited to privacy-enhanced DNA sequence comparison problems, is that the communication complexity of our solutions is proportional to a threshold that bounds the cardinality of the set differences that are of interest, rather than the cardinality of the sets involved (which correlates to the length of the DNA sequences). Moreover, in our protocols, the querier, Bob, can easily compute the set difference only if its cardinality is close to or below a specified threshold.
- May 23 2011 cs.CG arXiv:1105.4130v1We revisit a new type of a Voronoi diagram, in which distance is measured from a point to a pair of points. We consider a few more such distance functions, based on geometric primitives, and analyze the structure and complexity of the nearest- and furthest-neighbor Voronoi diagrams of a point set with respect to these distance functions.
- May 03 2011 cs.CG arXiv:1105.0392v1We study the online problem of assigning a moving point to a base-station region that contains it. For instance, the moving object could represent a cellular phone and the base station could represent the coverage zones of cell towers. Our goal is to minimize the number of handovers that occur when the point moves outside its assigned region and must be assigned to a new region. We study this problem in terms of competitive analysis and we measure the competitive ratio of our algorithms as a function of the ply of the system of regions, that is, the maximum number of regions that cover any single point. In the offline version of this problem, when object motions are known in advance, a simple greedy strategy suffices to determine an optimal assignment of objects to base stations, with as few handovers as possible. For the online version of this problem for moving points in one dimension, we present a deterministic algorithm that achieves a competitive ratio of O(log ply) with respect to the optimal algorithm, and we show that no better ratio is possible. For two or more dimensions, we present a randomized online algorithm that achieves a competitive ratio of O(log ply) with respect to the optimal algorithm, and a deterministic algorithm that achieves a competitive ratio of O(ply); again, we show that no better ratio is possible.
- May 03 2011 cs.CG arXiv:1105.0398v1Rectangular layouts, subdivisions of an outer rectangle into smaller rectangles, have many applications in visualizing spatial information, for instance in rectangular cartograms in which the rectangles represent geographic or political regions. A spatial treemap is a rectangular layout with a hierarchical structure: the outer rectangle is subdivided into rectangles that are in turn subdivided into smaller rectangles. We describe algorithms for transforming a rectangular layout that does not have this hierarchical structure, together with a clustering of the rectangles of the layout, into a spatial treemap that respects the clustering and also respects to the extent possible the adjacencies of the input layout.
- We study the combinatorial complexity of D-dimensional polyhedra defined as the intersection of n halfspaces, with the property that the highest dimension of any bounded face is much smaller than D. We show that, if d is the maximum dimension of a bounded face, then the number of vertices of the polyhedron is O(n^d) and the total number of bounded faces of the polyhedron is O(n^d^2). For inputs in general position the number of bounded faces is O(n^d). For any fixed d, we show how to compute the set of all vertices, how to determine the maximum dimension of a bounded face of the polyhedron, and how to compute the set of bounded faces in polynomial time, by solving a polynomial number of linear programs.
- Mar 03 2011 cs.DS arXiv:1103.0318v1We implement a new algorithm for listing all maximal cliques in sparse graphs due to Eppstein, Löffler, and Strash (ISAAC 2010) and analyze its performance on a large corpus of real-world graphs. Our analysis shows that this algorithm is the first to offer a practical solution to listing all maximal cliques in large sparse graphs. All other theoretically-fast algorithms for sparse graphs have been shown to be significantly slower than the algorithm of Tomita et al. (Theoretical Computer Science, 2006) in practice. However, the algorithm of Tomita et al. uses an adjacency matrix, which requires too much space for large sparse graphs. Our new algorithm opens the door for fast analysis of large sparse graphs whose adjacency matrix will not fit into working memory.
- We give efficient data-oblivious algorithms for several fundamental geometric problems that are relevant to geographic information systems, including planar convex hulls and all-nearest neighbors. Our methods are "data-oblivious" in that they don't perform any data-dependent operations, with the exception of operations performed inside low-level blackbox circuits having a constant number of inputs and outputs. Thus, an adversary who observes the control flow of one of our algorithms, but who cannot see the inputs and outputs to the blackbox circuits, cannot learn anything about the input or output. This behavior makes our methods applicable to secure multiparty computation (SMC) protocols for geographic data used in location-based services. In SMC protocols, multiple parties wish to perform a computation on their combined data without revealing individual data to the other parties. For instance, our methods can be used to solve a problem posed by Du and Atallah, where Alice has a set, A, of m private points in the plane, Bob has another set, B, of n private points in the plane, and Alice and Bob want to jointly compute the convex hull of A u B without disclosing any more information than what can be derived from the answer. In particular, neither Alice nor Bob want to reveal any of their respective points that are in the interior of the convex hull of A u B.