In many real-world scenarios, rewards extrinsic to the agent are extremely sparse, or absent altogether. In such cases, curiosity can serve as an intrinsic reward signal to enable the agent to explore its environment and learn skills that might be useful later in its life. We formulate curiosity as the error in an agent's ability to predict the consequence of its own actions in a visual feature space learned by a self-supervised inverse dynamics model. Our formulation scales to high-dimensional continuous state spaces like images, bypasses the difficulties of directly predicting pixels, and, critically, ignores the aspects of the environment that cannot affect the agent. The proposed approach is evaluated in two environments: VizDoom and Super Mario Bros. Three broad settings are investigated: 1) sparse extrinsic reward, where curiosity allows for far fewer interactions with the environment to reach the goal; 2) exploration with no extrinsic reward, where curiosity pushes the agent to explore more efficiently; and 3) generalization to unseen scenarios (e.g. new levels of the same game) where the knowledge gained from earlier experience helps the agent explore new places much faster than starting from scratch. Demo video and code available at https://pathak22.github.io/noreward-rl/
Light field cameras have many advantages over traditional cameras, as they allow the user to change various camera settings after capture. However, capturing light fields requires a huge bandwidth to record the data: a modern light field camera can only take three images per second. This prevents current consumer light field cameras from capturing light field videos. Temporal interpolation at such extreme scale (10x, from 3 fps to 30 fps) is infeasible as too much information will be entirely missing between adjacent frames. Instead, we develop a hybrid imaging system, adding another standard video camera to capture the temporal information. Given a 3 fps light field sequence and a standard 30 fps 2D video, our system can then generate a full light field video at 30 fps. We adopt a learning-based approach, which can be decomposed into two steps: spatio-temporal flow estimation and appearance estimation. The flow estimation propagates the angular information from the light field sequence to the 2D video, so we can warp input images to the target view. The appearance estimation then combines these warped images to output the final pixels. The whole process is trained end-to-end using convolutional neural networks. Experimental results demonstrate that our algorithm outperforms current video interpolation methods, enabling consumer light field videography, and making applications such as refocusing and parallax view generation achievable on videos for the first time.
May 09 2017 cs.CV
We propose a deep learning approach for user-guided image colorization. The system directly maps a grayscale image, along with sparse, local user "hints" to an output colorization with a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN). Rather than using hand-defined rules, the network propagates user edits by fusing low-level cues along with high-level semantic information, learned from large-scale data. We train on a million images, with simulated user inputs. To guide the user towards efficient input selection, the system recommends likely colors based on the input image and current user inputs. The colorization is performed in a single feed-forward pass, enabling real-time use. Even with randomly simulated user inputs, we show that the proposed system helps novice users quickly create realistic colorizations, and offers large improvements in colorization quality with just a minute of use. In addition, we demonstrate that the framework can incorporate other user "hints" to the desired colorization, showing an application to color histogram transfer. Our code and models are available at https://richzhang.github.io/ideepcolor.
Apr 21 2017 cs.CV
We study the notion of consistency between a 3D shape and a 2D observation and propose a differentiable formulation which allows computing gradients of the 3D shape given an observation from an arbitrary view. We do so by reformulating view consistency using a differentiable ray consistency (DRC) term. We show that this formulation can be incorporated in a learning framework to leverage different types of multi-view observations e.g. foreground masks, depth, color images, semantics etc. as supervision for learning single-view 3D prediction. We present empirical analysis of our technique in a controlled setting. We also show that this approach allows us to improve over existing techniques for single-view reconstruction of objects from the PASCAL VOC dataset.
Mar 31 2017 cs.CV
Image-to-image translation is a class of vision and graphics problems where the goal is to learn the mapping between an input image and an output image using a training set of aligned image pairs. However, for many tasks, paired training data will not be available. We present an approach for learning to translate an image from a source domain $X$ to a target domain $Y$ in the absence of paired examples. Our goal is to learn a mapping $G: X \rightarrow Y$ such that the distribution of images from $G(X)$ is indistinguishable from the distribution $Y$ using an adversarial loss. Because this mapping is highly under-constrained, we couple it with an inverse mapping $F: Y \rightarrow X$ and introduce a cycle consistency loss to push $F(G(X)) \approx X$ (and vice versa). Qualitative results are presented on several tasks where paired training data does not exist, including collection style transfer, object transfiguration, season transfer, photo enhancement, etc. Quantitative comparisons against several prior methods demonstrate the superiority of our approach.
Dec 02 2016 cs.CV
We present a learning framework for abstracting complex shapes by learning to assemble objects using 3D volumetric primitives. In addition to generating simple and geometrically interpretable explanations of 3D objects, our framework also allows us to automatically discover and exploit consistent structure in the data. We demonstrate that using our method allows predicting shape representations which can be leveraged for obtaining a consistent parsing across the instances of a shape collection and constructing an interpretable shape similarity measure. We also examine applications for image-based prediction as well as shape manipulation.
Nov 30 2016 cs.CV
We propose split-brain autoencoders, a straightforward modification of the traditional autoencoder architecture, for unsupervised representation learning. The method adds a split to the network, resulting in two disjoint sub-networks. Each sub-network is trained to perform a difficult task -- predicting one subset of the data channels from another. Together, the sub-networks extract features from the entire input signal. By forcing the network to solve cross-channel prediction tasks, we induce a representation within the network which transfers well to other, unseen tasks. This method achieves state-of-the-art performance on several large-scale transfer learning benchmarks.
Nov 22 2016 cs.CV
We investigate conditional adversarial networks as a general-purpose solution to image-to-image translation problems. These networks not only learn the mapping from input image to output image, but also learn a loss function to train this mapping. This makes it possible to apply the same generic approach to problems that traditionally would require very different loss formulations. We demonstrate that this approach is effective at synthesizing photos from label maps, reconstructing objects from edge maps, and colorizing images, among other tasks. As a community, we no longer hand-engineer our mapping functions, and this work suggests we can achieve reasonable results without hand-engineering our loss functions either.
Sep 13 2016 cs.CV
Realistic image manipulation is challenging because it requires modifying the image appearance in a user-controlled way, while preserving the realism of the result. Unless the user has considerable artistic skill, it is easy to "fall off" the manifold of natural images while editing. In this paper, we propose to learn the natural image manifold directly from data using a generative adversarial neural network. We then define a class of image editing operations, and constrain their output to lie on that learned manifold at all times. The model automatically adjusts the output keeping all edits as realistic as possible. All our manipulations are expressed in terms of constrained optimization and are applied in near-real time. We evaluate our algorithm on the task of realistic photo manipulation of shape and color. The presented method can further be used for changing one image to look like the other, as well as generating novel imagery from scratch based on user's scribbles.
The tremendous success of ImageNet-trained deep features on a wide range of transfer tasks begs the question: what are the properties of the ImageNet dataset that are critical for learning good, general-purpose features? This work provides an empirical investigation of various facets of this question: Is more pre-training data always better? How does feature quality depend on the number of training examples per class? Does adding more object classes improve performance? For the same data budget, how should the data be split into classes? Is fine-grained recognition necessary for learning good features? Given the same number of training classes, is it better to have coarse classes or fine-grained classes? Which is better: more classes or more examples per class? To answer these and related questions, we pre-trained CNN features on various subsets of the ImageNet dataset and evaluated transfer performance on PASCAL detection, PASCAL action classification, and SUN scene classification tasks. Our overall findings suggest that most changes in the choice of pre-training data long thought to be critical do not significantly affect transfer performance.? Given the same number of training classes, is it better to have coarse classes or fine-grained classes? Which is better: more classes or more examples per class?
Aug 26 2016 cs.CV
We introduce a new light-field dataset of materials, and take advantage of the recent success of deep learning to perform material recognition on the 4D light-field. Our dataset contains 12 material categories, each with 100 images taken with a Lytro Illum, from which we extract about 30,000 patches in total. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first mid-size dataset for light-field images. Our main goal is to investigate whether the additional information in a light-field (such as multiple sub-aperture views and view-dependent reflectance effects) can aid material recognition. Since recognition networks have not been trained on 4D images before, we propose and compare several novel CNN architectures to train on light-field images. In our experiments, the best performing CNN architecture achieves a 7% boost compared with 2D image classification (70% to 77%). These results constitute important baselines that can spur further research in the use of CNNs for light-field applications. Upon publication, our dataset also enables other novel applications of light-fields, including object detection, image segmentation and view interpolation.
May 12 2016 cs.CV
We address the problem of novel view synthesis: given an input image, synthesizing new images of the same object or scene observed from arbitrary viewpoints. We approach this as a learning task but, critically, instead of learning to synthesize pixels from scratch, we learn to copy them from the input image. Our approach exploits the observation that the visual appearance of different views of the same instance is highly correlated, and such correlation could be explicitly learned by training a convolutional neural network (CNN) to predict appearance flows -- 2-D coordinate vectors specifying which pixels in the input view could be used to reconstruct the target view. Furthermore, the proposed framework easily generalizes to multiple input views by learning how to optimally combine single-view predictions. We show that for both objects and scenes, our approach is able to synthesize novel views of higher perceptual quality than previous CNN-based techniques.
We present an unsupervised visual feature learning algorithm driven by context-based pixel prediction. By analogy with auto-encoders, we propose Context Encoders -- a convolutional neural network trained to generate the contents of an arbitrary image region conditioned on its surroundings. In order to succeed at this task, context encoders need to both understand the content of the entire image, as well as produce a plausible hypothesis for the missing part(s). When training context encoders, we have experimented with both a standard pixel-wise reconstruction loss, as well as a reconstruction plus an adversarial loss. The latter produces much sharper results because it can better handle multiple modes in the output. We found that a context encoder learns a representation that captures not just appearance but also the semantics of visual structures. We quantitatively demonstrate the effectiveness of our learned features for CNN pre-training on classification, detection, and segmentation tasks. Furthermore, context encoders can be used for semantic inpainting tasks, either stand-alone or as initialization for non-parametric methods.
Apr 20 2016 cs.CV
Discriminative deep learning approaches have shown impressive results for problems where human-labeled ground truth is plentiful, but what about tasks where labels are difficult or impossible to obtain? This paper tackles one such problem: establishing dense visual correspondence across different object instances. For this task, although we do not know what the ground-truth is, we know it should be consistent across instances of that category. We exploit this consistency as a supervisory signal to train a convolutional neural network to predict cross-instance correspondences between pairs of images depicting objects of the same category. For each pair of training images we find an appropriate 3D CAD model and render two synthetic views to link in with the pair, establishing a correspondence flow 4-cycle. We use ground-truth synthetic-to-synthetic correspondences, provided by the rendering engine, to train a ConvNet to predict synthetic-to-real, real-to-real and real-to-synthetic correspondences that are cycle-consistent with the ground-truth. At test time, no CAD models are required. We demonstrate that our end-to-end trained ConvNet supervised by cycle-consistency outperforms state-of-the-art pairwise matching methods in correspondence-related tasks.
Mar 29 2016 cs.CV
Given a grayscale photograph as input, this paper attacks the problem of hallucinating a plausible color version of the photograph. This problem is clearly underconstrained, so previous approaches have either relied on significant user interaction or resulted in desaturated colorizations. We propose a fully automatic approach that produces vibrant and realistic colorizations. We embrace the underlying uncertainty of the problem by posing it as a classification task and use class-rebalancing at training time to increase the diversity of colors in the result. The system is implemented as a feed-forward pass in a CNN at test time and is trained on over a million color images. We evaluate our algorithm using a "colorization Turing test," asking human participants to choose between a generated and ground truth color image. Our method successfully fools humans on 32% of the trials, significantly higher than previous methods. Moreover, we show that colorization can be a powerful pretext task for self-supervised feature learning, acting as a cross-channel encoder. This approach results in state-of-the-art performance on several feature learning benchmarks.
Nov 10 2015 cs.CV
Many details about our world are not captured in written records because they are too mundane or too abstract to describe in words. Fortunately, since the invention of the camera, an ever-increasing number of photographs capture much of this otherwise lost information. This plethora of artifacts documenting our "visual culture" is a treasure trove of knowledge as yet untapped by historians. We present a dataset of 37,921 frontal-facing American high school yearbook photos that allow us to use computation to glimpse into the historical visual record too voluminous to be evaluated manually. The collected portraits provide a constant visual frame of reference with varying content. We can therefore use them to consider issues such as a decade's defining style elements, or trends in fashion and social norms over time. We demonstrate that our historical image dataset may be used together with weakly-supervised data-driven techniques to perform scalable historical analysis of large image corpora with minimal human effort, much in the same way that large text corpora together with natural language processing revolutionized historians' workflow. Furthermore, we demonstrate the use of our dataset in dating grayscale portraits using deep learning methods.
Oct 09 2015 cs.CV
We propose a data-driven approach for intrinsic image decomposition, which is the process of inferring the confounding factors of reflectance and shading in an image. We pose this as a two-stage learning problem. First, we train a model to predict relative reflectance ordering between image patches (`brighter', `darker', `same') from large-scale human annotations, producing a data-driven reflectance prior. Second, we show how to naturally integrate this learned prior into existing energy minimization frameworks for intrinsic image decomposition. We compare our method to the state-of-the-art approach of Bell et al. on both decomposition and image relighting tasks, demonstrating the benefits of the simple relative reflectance prior, especially for scenes under challenging lighting conditions.
Oct 05 2015 cs.CV
What makes an image appear realistic? In this work, we are answering this question from a data-driven perspective by learning the perception of visual realism directly from large amounts of data. In particular, we train a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) model that distinguishes natural photographs from automatically generated composite images. The model learns to predict visual realism of a scene in terms of color, lighting and texture compatibility, without any human annotations pertaining to it. Our model outperforms previous works that rely on hand-crafted heuristics, for the task of classifying realistic vs. unrealistic photos. Furthermore, we apply our learned model to compute optimal parameters of a compositing method, to maximize the visual realism score predicted by our CNN model. We demonstrate its advantage against existing methods via a human perception study.
May 21 2015 cs.CV
This work explores the use of spatial context as a source of free and plentiful supervisory signal for training a rich visual representation. Given only a large, unlabeled image collection, we extract random pairs of patches from each image and train a convolutional neural net to predict the position of the second patch relative to the first. We argue that doing well on this task requires the model to learn to recognize objects and their parts. We demonstrate that the feature representation learned using this within-image context indeed captures visual similarity across images. For example, this representation allows us to perform unsupervised visual discovery of objects like cats, people, and even birds from the Pascal VOC 2011 detection dataset. Furthermore, we show that the learned ConvNet can be used in the R-CNN framework and provides a significant boost over a randomly-initialized ConvNet, resulting in state-of-the-art performance among algorithms which use only Pascal-provided training set annotations.
The main stated contribution of the Deformable Parts Model (DPM) detector of Felzenszwalb et al. (over the Histogram-of-Oriented-Gradients approach of Dalal and Triggs) is the use of deformable parts. A secondary contribution is the latent discriminative learning. Tertiary is the use of multiple components. A common belief in the vision community (including ours, before this study) is that their ordering of contributions reflects the performance of detector in practice. However, what we have experimentally found is that the ordering of importance might actually be the reverse. First, we show that by increasing the number of components, and switching the initialization step from their aspect-ratio, left-right flipping heuristics to appearance-based clustering, considerable improvement in performance is obtained. But more intriguingly, we show that with these new components, the part deformations can now be completely switched off, yet obtaining results that are almost on par with the original DPM detector. Finally, we also show initial results for using multiple components on a different problem -- scene classification, suggesting that this idea might have wider applications in addition to object detection.
The goal of this paper is to discover a set of discriminative patches which can serve as a fully unsupervised mid-level visual representation. The desired patches need to satisfy two requirements: 1) to be representative, they need to occur frequently enough in the visual world; 2) to be discriminative, they need to be different enough from the rest of the visual world. The patches could correspond to parts, objects, "visual phrases", etc. but are not restricted to be any one of them. We pose this as an unsupervised discriminative clustering problem on a huge dataset of image patches. We use an iterative procedure which alternates between clustering and training discriminative classifiers, while applying careful cross-validation at each step to prevent overfitting. The paper experimentally demonstrates the effectiveness of discriminative patches as an unsupervised mid-level visual representation, suggesting that it could be used in place of visual words for many tasks. Furthermore, discriminative patches can also be used in a supervised regime, such as scene classification, where they demonstrate state-of-the-art performance on the MIT Indoor-67 dataset.