Models of quantum systems on curved space-times lack sufficient experimental verification. Some speculative theories suggest that quantum properties, such as entanglement, may exhibit entirely different behavior to purely classical systems. By measuring this effect or lack thereof, we can test the hypotheses behind several such models. For instance, as predicted by Ralph and coworkers [T C Ralph, G J Milburn, and T Downes, Phys. Rev. A, 79(2):22121, 2009, T C Ralph and J Pienaar, New Journal of Physics, 16(8):85008, 2014], a bipartite entangled system could decohere if each particle traversed through a different gravitational field gradient. We propose to study this effect in a ground to space uplink scenario. We extend the above theoretical predictions of Ralph and coworkers and discuss the scientific consequences of detecting/failing to detect the predicted gravitational decoherence. We present a detailed mission design of the European Space Agency's (ESA) Space QUEST (Space - Quantum Entanglement Space Test) mission, and study the feasibility of the mission schema.
One of the strengths of quantum information theory is that it can treat quantum states without referring to their particular physical representation. In principle, quantum states can be therefore fully swapped between various quantum systems by their mutual interaction and this quantum state transfer is crucial for many quantum communication and information processing tasks. In practice, however, the achievable interaction time and strength are often limited by decoherence. Here we propose and experimentally demonstrate a procedure for faithful quantum state transfer between two weakly interacting qubits. Our scheme enables a probabilistic yet perfect unidirectional transfer of an arbitrary unknown state of a source qubit onto a target qubit prepared initially in a known state. The transfer is achieved by a combination of a suitable measurement of the source qubit and quantum filtering on the target qubit depending on the outcome of measurement on the source qubit. We experimentally verify feasibility and robustness of the transfer using a linear optical setup with qubits encoded into polarization states of single photons.
Security of an ideal system for quantum key distribution can be formally proved. However, technological imperfections of real systems can be misused by an eavesdropper to get information about the key without causing a detectable change in the error rate. An example of this is the blinding attack where the eavesdropper manipulates detectors of the receiving party. To avoid such an attack, technical modifications of the device are usually required. In this paper we show that an extended measurement, similar to the Bell test measurement, can reveal the blinding attack without any modification of the device.
We propose and experimentally demonstrate a scheme for implementation of a maximally entangling quantum controlled-Z gate between two weakly interacting systems. We conditionally enhance the interqubit coupling by quantum interference. Both before and after the interqubit interaction, one of the qubits is coherently coupled to an auxiliary quantum system, and finally it is projected back onto qubit subspace. We experimentally verify the practical feasibility of this technique by using a linear optical setup with weak interferometric coupling between single-photon qubits. Our procedure is universally applicable to a wide range of physical platforms including hybrid systems such as atomic clouds or optomechanical oscillators coupled to light.
We propose and experimentally verify a cooling limit for a quantum channel going through an incoherent environment. The environment consists of a large number of independent non-interacting and non-interfering elementary quantum systems - qubits. The qubits travelling through the channel can only be randomly replaced by environmental qubits. We investigate a conditional cooling limit that exploits an additional probing output. The limit specifies when the single-qubit channel is quantum, i.e. it preserves entanglement. It is a fundamental condition for entanglement-based quantum technology.
We show that it is possible to reduce the number of two-qubit gates needed for the construction of an arbitrary controlled-unitary transformation by up to two times using a tunable controlled-phase gate. On the platform of linear optics, where two-qubit gates can only be achieved probabilistically, our method significantly reduces the amount of components and increases success probability of a two-qubit gate. The experimental implementation of our technique presented in this paper for a controlled single-qubit unitary gate demonstrates that only one tunable controlled-phase gate is needed instead of two standard controlled-NOT gates. Thus, not only do we increase success probability by about one order of magnitude (with the same resources), but also avoid the need for conducting quantum non-demolition measurement otherwise required to join two probabilistic gates. Subsequently, we generalize our method to a higher order, showing that n-times controlled gates can be optimized by replacing blocks of controlled-NOT gates with tunable controlled-phase gates.
We investigate optimal discrimination between two projective single-qubit measurements in a scenario where the measurement can be performed only once. We consider general setting involving a tunable fraction of inconclusive outcomes and we prove that the optimal discrimination strategy requires an entangled probe state for any nonzero rate of inconclusive outcomes. We experimentally implement this optimal discrimination strategy for projective measurements on polarization states of single photons. Our setup involves a real-time electrooptical feed-forward loop which allows us to fully harness the benefits of entanglement in discrimination of quantum measurements. The experimental data clearly demonstrate the advantage of entanglement-based discrimination strategy as compared to unentangled single-qubit probes.
We experimentally demonstrate optical Mach-Zehnder interferometer utilizing displaced Sagnac configuration to enhance its phase stability. The interferometer with footprint of 27x40 cm offers individually accessible paths and shows phase deviation less than 0.4 deg during a 250 s long measurement. The phase drift, evaluated by means of Allan deviation, stays below 3 deg or 7 nm for 1.5 hours without any active stabilization. The polarization insensitive design is verified by measuring interference visibility as a function of input polarization. For both interferometer's output ports and all tested polarization states the visibility stays above 93%. The discrepancy in visibility for horizontal and vertical polarization about 3.5% is caused mainly by undesired polarization dependence of splitting ratio of the beam splitter used. The presented interferometer device is suitable for quantum-information and other sensitive applications where active stabilization is complicated and common-mode interferometer is not an option as both the interferometer arms have to be accessible individually.
A quantum analog of the fundamental classical NOT gate is a quantum gate that would transform any input qubit state onto an orthogonal state. Intriguingly, this universal NOT gate is forbidden by the laws of quantum physics. This striking phenomenon has far-reaching implications concerning quantum information processing and encoding information about directions and reference frames into quantum states. It also triggers the question under what conditions the preparation of quantum states orthogonal to input states becomes possible. Here we report on experimental demonstration of orthogonalization of partly unknown single- and two-qubit quantum states. A state orthogonal to an input state is conditionally prepared by quantum filtering, and the only required information about the input state is a mean value of a single arbitrary operator. We show that perfect orthogonalization of partly unknown two-qubit entangled states can be performed by applying the quantum filter to one of the qubits only.
We present a systematic comparison of different methods of fidelity estimation of a linear optical quantum controlled-Z gate implemented by two-photon interference on a partially polarizing beam splitter. We have utilized a linear fidelity estimator based on the Monte Carlo sampling technique as well as a non-linear estimator based on maximum likelihood reconstruction of a full quantum process matrix. In addition, we have also evaluated lower bound on quantum gate fidelity determined by average quantum state fidelities for two mutually unbiased bases. In order to probe various regimes of operation of the gate we have introduced a tunable delay line between the two photons. This allowed us to move from high-fidelity operation to a regime where the photons become distinguishable and the success probability of the scheme significantly depends on input state. We discuss in detail possible systematic effects that could influence the gate fidelity estimation.
We propose a quantum noise eater for a single qubit and experimentally verify its performance for recovery of a superposition carried by a dual-rail photonic qubit. We consider a case when only one of the rails (e.g., one of interferometric arms) is vulnerable to noise. A coherent but randomly arriving photon penetrating into this single rail causes a change of its state, which results in an error in a subsequent quantum information processing. We theoretically prove and experimentally demonstrate a conditional full recovery of the superposition by this quantum noise eater.
We propose an efficiently measurable lower bound on quantum process fidelity of N-qubit controlled-Z gates. This bound is determined by average output state fidelities for N partially conjugate product bases. A distinct advantage of our approach is that only fidelities with product states need to be measured while keeping the total number of measurements much smaller than what is necessary for full quantum process tomography. As an application, we use this method to experimentally estimate quantum process fidelity F of a three-qubit linear optical quantum Toffoli gate and we find that F>=0.83. We also demonstrate the entangling capability of the gate by preparing GHZ-type three-qubit entangled states from input product states.
We have studied how the quality of transfer of a qubit state depends on distinguishability of internal states of the particles carrying qubits. The transfer is implemented without any direct interaction, just by a partial exchange of photons, measurement on one of them, and conditional feed-forward correction. It appears that the quality of the transfer is only influenced by the level of distinguishability of the states of unaccessible internal degrees of freedom not used for information encoding. We have found a directly measurable parameter quantifying this level of distinguishability and proved it usefulness experimentally.
We propose a new measure of non-classicality of quantum gates which is particularly suitable for probabilistic devices. This measure enables to compare, e.g., deterministic devices which prepare entangled states with low amount of entanglement with probabilistic devices which generate highly entangled states but which fail sometimes. We provide examples demonstrating advantages of this new measure over the so far employed entangling power.
We propose a protocol for conditional suppression of losses in direct quantum state transmission over a lossy quantum channel. The method works by noiselessly attenuating the input state prior to transmission through a lossy channel followed by noiseless amplification of the output state. The procedure does not add any noise hence it keeps quantum coherence. We experimentally demonstrate it in the subspace spanned by vacuum and single-photon states, and consider its general applicability.
We provide the optimal strategy for unambiguous quantum reading of optical memories, namely when perfect retrieving of information is achieved probabilistically, for the case where noise and loss are negligible. We describe the experimental quantum optical implementations, and provide experimental results for the single photon case.
We have successfully used a fast electronic feed forward to increase the success probability of a linear optical implementation of a programmable phase gate from 25% to its theoretical limit of 50%. The feed forward applies a conditional unitary operation which changes the incorrect output states of the data qubit to the correct ones. The gate itself rotates an arbitrary quantum state of the data qubit around the z-axis of the Bloch sphere with the angle of rotation being fully determined by the state of the program qubit. The gate implementation is based on fiber optics components. Qubits are encoded into spatial modes of single photons. The signal from the feed-forward detector is led directly to a phase modulator using only a passive voltage divider. We have verified the increase of the success probability and characterized the gate operation by means of quantum process tomography. We have demonstrated that the use of the feed forward does not affect either the process fidelity or the output-state fidelities.
We report on experimental verification of quantum non-Gaussianity of a heralded single photon state with positive Wigner function. We unambiguously demonstrate that the generated state cannot be expressed as a mixture of Gaussian states. A sufficient information to witness the quantum non-Gaussianity is obtained from a standard photon anti-correlation measurement.
We investigate how distinguishability of a "noise" particle degrades interference of the "signal" particle. The signal, represented by an equatorial state of a photonic qubit, is mixed with noise, represented by another photonic qubit, via linear coupling on the beam splitter. We report on the degradation of the "signal" photon interference depending on the degree of indistinguishability between "signal" and "noise" photon. When the photons are principally completely distinguishable but technically indistinguishable the visibility drops to the value 1/sqrt(2). As the photons become more indistinguishable the maximal visibility increases and reaches the unit value for completely indistinguishable photons. We have examined this effect experimentally using setup with fiber optics two-photon Mach-Zehnder interferometer.
We report on the first experimental realization of optimal linear-optical controlled phase gates for arbitrary phases. The realized scheme is entirely flexible in that the phase shift can be tuned to any given value. All such controlled phase gates are optimal in the sense that they operate at the maximum possible success probabilities that are achievable within the framework of any postselected linear-optical implementation. The quantum gate is implemented using bulk optical elements and polarization encoding of qubit states. We have experimentally explored the remarkable observation that the optimum success probability is not monotone in the phase.
We report on experimental implementation of the optimal universal asymmetric 1->2 quantum cloning machine for qubits encoded into polarization states of single photons. Our linear optical machine performs asymmetric cloning by partially symmetrizing the input polarization state of signal photon and a blank copy idler photon prepared in a maximally mixed state. We show that the employed method of measurement of mean clone fidelities exhibits strong resilience to imperfect calibration of the relative efficiencies of single-photon detectors used in the experiment. Reliable characterization of the quantum cloner is thus possible even when precise detector calibration is difficult to achieve.
We experimentally demonstrate a programmable single-qubit quantum gate. This device applies a unitary phase shift operation to a data qubit with the value of the phase shift being fully determined by the state of a program qubit. Our linear optical implementation is based on the encoding of qubits into polarization states of single photons, two-photon interference on a polarizing beam splitter, and measurement on the output program qubit. We fully characterize the programmable gate by quantum process tomography. The achieved average quantum process fidelity exceeding 97% illustrates very good performance of the gate for all values of the encoded phase shift. We also show that by using a different set of program states the device can operate as a programmable partial polarization filter.
We report on two optical realizations of the $1 \to 2$ asymmetric phase-covariant cloning machines for polarization states of single photons. The experimental setups combine two-photon interference and tunable polarization filtering that enables us to control the asymmetry of the cloners. The first scheme involves a special unbalanced bulk beam splitter exhibiting different splitting ratios for vertical and horizontal polarizations, respectively. The second implemented scheme consists of a balanced fiber coupler where photon bunching occurs, followed by a free-space part with polarization filters. With this later approach we were able to demonstrate very high cloning fidelities which are above the universal cloning limit.
Quantum key distribution (QKD) is the first quantum information task to reach the level of mature technology, already fit for commercialization. It aims at the creation of a secret key between authorized partners connected by a quantum channel and a classical authenticated channel. The security of the key can in principle be guaranteed without putting any restriction on the eavesdropper's power. The first two sections provide a concise up-to-date review of QKD, biased toward the practical side. The rest of the paper presents the essential theoretical tools that have been developed to assess the security of the main experimental platforms (discrete variables, continuous variables and distributed-phase-reference protocols).
The optical implementation of the recently proposed unambiguous identification of coherent states is presented. Our system works as a programmable discriminator between two, in general non-orthogonal weak coherent states. The principle of operation lies in the interference of three light beams - two program states and one unknown coherent state which can be equal to whichever of the two program states. The experiment is based on fiber optics. Its results confirm theoretical predictions and the experimental setup can be straightforwardly extended for higher numbers of program states.
We present a linear-optical implementation of a class of two-qubit partial SWAP gates for polarization states of photons. Different gate operations, including the SWAP and entangling square root of SWAP, can be obtained by changing a classical control parameter -- namely the path difference in the interferometer. Reconstruction of output states, full process tomography and evaluation of entanglement of formation prove very good performance of the gates.
We compare several optical implementations of phase-covariant cloning machines. The experiments are based on copying of the polarization state of a single photon in bulk optics by special unbalanced beam splitter or by balanced beam splitter accompanied by a state filtering. Also the all-fiber based setup is discussed, where the information is encoded into spatial modes, i.e., the photon can propagate through two optical fibers. Each of the four implementations possesses some advantages and disadvantages that are discussed.
Dec 15 2006 quant-ph
We present the experimental realization of optimal symmetric and asymmetric phase-covariant 1->2 cloning of qubit states using fiber optics. State of each qubit is encoded into a single photon which can propagate through two optical fibers. The operation of our device is based on one- and two-photon interference. We have demonstrated creation of two copies of any state of a qubit from the equator of the Bloch sphere. The measured fidelities of both copies are close to the theoretical values and they surpass the theoretical maximum obtainable with the universal cloner.
Jul 24 2006 quant-ph
The experimental realization of optimal symmetric phase-covariant 1->2 cloning of qubit states is presented. The qubits are represented by polarization states of photons generated by spontaneous parametric down-conversion. The experiment is based on the interference of two photons on a custom-made beam splitter with different splitting ratios for vertical and horizontal polarization components. From the measured data we have estimated the implemented cloning transformation using the maximum-likelihood method. The result shows that the realized transformation is very close to the ideal one and the map fidelity reaches 94%.
Mar 21 2006 quant-ph
We have devised an optical scheme for the recently proposed protocol for encoding two qubits into one qutrit. In this protocol, Alice encodes an arbitrary pure product state of two qubits into a state of one qutrit. Bob can then restore error-free any of the two encoded qubit states but not both of them simultaneously. We have successfully realized this scheme experimentally using spatial-mode encoding. Each qubit (qutrit) was represented by a single photon that could propagate through two (three) separate fibers. We theoretically propose two generalizations of the original protocol. We have found a probabilistic operation that enables to retrieve both qubits simultaneously with the average fidelity above 90% and we have proposed extension of the original encoding transformation to encode N qubits into one (N+1)-dimensional system.
Feb 01 2006 quant-ph
Elementary review article on quantum cryptography.
Jun 16 2004 quant-ph
If there are correlations between two qubits then the results of the measurement on one of them can help to predict measurement results on the other one. It is an interesting question what can be predicted about the results of two complementary projective measurements on the first qubit. To quantify these predictions the complementary \emphknowledge excesses are used. A non-trivial constraint restricting them is derived. For any mixed state and for arbitrary measurements the knowledge excesses are bounded by a factor depending only on the maximal violation of Bell's inequalities. This result is experimentally verified on two-photon Werner states prepared by means of spontaneous parametric down-conversion.
Jan 28 2004 quant-ph
We present an optical implementation of two programmable quantum measurement devices. The first one serves for unambiguous discrimination of two nonorthogonal states of a qubit. The particular pair of states to be discriminated is specified by the quantum state of a program qubit. The second device can perform von Neumann measurements on a single qubit in any basis located on the equator of the Bloch sphere. Again, the basis is selected by the state of a program qubit. In both cases the data and program qubits are represented by polarization states of photons. The experimental apparatus exploits the fact that two Bell states can be distinguished solely by means of linear optics. The outcome corresponding to the remaining two Bell states represents an inconclusive result.
Aug 22 2003 quant-ph
We propose quantum devices that can realize probabilistically different projective measurements on a qubit. The desired measurement basis is selected by the quantum state of a program register. First we analyze the phase-covariant multimeters for a large class of program states, then the universal multimeters for a special choice of program. In both cases we start with deterministic but erroneous devices and then proceed to devices that never make a mistake but from time to time they give an inconclusive result. These multimeters are optimized (for a given type of a program) with respect to the minimum probability of inconclusive result. This concept is further generalized to the multimeters that minimize the error rate for a given probability of an inconclusive result (or vice versa). Finally, we propose a generalization for qudits.
Jun 04 2003 quant-ph
Properties of entangled photon pairs generated in spontaneous parametric down-conversion are investigated in interference experiments. Strong energy correlations are demonstrated in a direct way. If a signal photon is detected behind a narrow spectral filter, then interference appears in the Mach-Zehnder interferometer placed in the route of the idler photon, even if the path difference in the interferometer exceeds the coherence length of the light. Narrow time correlations of the detection instants are demonstrated for the same photon-pair source using the Hong-Ou-Mandel interferometer. Both these two effects may be exhibited only by an entangled state.
Aug 15 2002 quant-ph
We present the experimental results of measurements of the overlap of both pure and mixed polarization states of photons. The fidelity and purity of mixed states were also measured. The experimental apparatus exploits the fact that a beam splitter can distinguish the singlet Bell state from the other Bell states, i.e., it realizes projections into the symmetric and antisymmetric subspaces of photons' Hilbert space.
Feb 27 2002 quant-ph
We propose a quantum device that can approximate any projective measurement on a qubit. The desired measurement basis is selected by the quantum state of a "program register". The device is optimized with respect to maximal average fidelity (assuming uniform distribution of measurement bases). An interesting result is that if one uses two qubits in the same state as a program the average fidelity is higher than if he/she takes the second program qubit in the orthogonal state (with respect to the first one). The average information obtainable by the proposed measurements is also calculated and it is shown that it can get different values even if the average fidelity stays constant. Possible experimental realization of the simplest proposed device is presented.
Jan 23 2002 quant-ph
We discuss a possibility to build a programmable quantum measurement device (a "quantum multimeter"). That is, a device that would be able to perform various desired generalized, positive operator value measure (POVM) measurements depending on a quantum state of a "program register". As an example, we present a "universal state discriminator". It serves for the unambiguous discrimination of a pair of known non-orthogonal states (from a certain set). If the two states are changed the apparatus can be switched via the choice of the program register to discriminate the new pair of states unambiguously. The proper POVM is determined by the state of an auxiliary quantum system. The probability of successful discrimination is not optimal for all pairs of non-orthogonal states from the given set. However, for some subsets it can be very close to the optimal value.
Jul 24 2001 quant-ph
The question of the discrimination of the Bell states of two qudits (i.e., d-dimensional quantum systems) by means of passive linear optical elements and conditional measurements is discussed. A qudit is supposed to be represented by d optical modes containing exactly one photon altogether. From recent results of Calsamiglia it follows that there is no way how to distinguish the Bell states of two qudits for d>2 - not even with the probability of success lower than one - without any auxiliary photons in ancillary modes. Following the results of Carollo and Palma it is proved that it is impossible to distinguish even only one such a Bell state with certainty (i.e., with the probability of success equal to one), irrespective of how many auxiliary photons are involved. However, it is shown that auxiliary photons can help to discriminate the Bell states of qudits with the high probability of success: A Bell-state analyzer based on the idea of linear optics quantum computation that can achieve the probability of success arbitrarily close to one is described. It requires many auxiliary photons that must be first "combined" into entangled states.
May 18 2001 quant-ph
The model of a quantum-optical device for a conditional preparation of entangled states from input mixed states is presented. It is demonstrated that even thermal or pseudo-thermal radiation can be entangled in such a way, that Bell-inequalities are violated.
Nov 02 2000 quant-ph
Real sources of entangled photon pairs (like parametric down conversion) are not perfect. They produce quantum states that contain more than only one photon pair with some probability. In this paper it is discussed what happens if such states are used for the purpose of quantum key distribution. It is shown that the presence of "multi-pair" signals (together with low detection efficiencies) causes errors in transmission even if there is no eavesdropper. Moreover, it is shown that even the eavesdropping, that draws information only from these "multi-pair" signals, increases the error rate. Information, that can be obtained by an eavesdropper from these signals, is calculated.
Nov 02 2000 quant-ph
A possibility to produce entangled superpositions of strong coherent states is discussed. A recent proposal by Howell and Yazell [Phys. Rev. A 62, 012102 (2000)] of a device which entangles two strong coherent coherent states is critically examined. A serious flaw in their design is found. New modified scheme is proposed and it is shown that it really can generate non-classical states that can violate Bell inequality. Moreover, a profound analysis of the effect of losses and decoherence on the degree of entanglement is accomplished. It reveals the high sensitivity of the device to any disturbances and the fragility of generated states.
Nov 17 1999 quant-ph
Scheme for optimal spin state estimation is considered in analogy with phase detection in interferometry. Recently reported coherent measurements yielding the average fidelity (N+1)/(N+2) for N particle system corresponds to the standard limit of phase resolution 1/\sqrtN. It provides the bound for incoherent measurements when each particle is detected separately and information is used optimally. For specific states, improvement up to the value 1/N is possible in quantum theory. The best results are obtained combining sequentially coherent measurements on fractional groups of particles.
Oct 26 1999 quant-ph
The use of linearly independent signal states in realistic implementations of quantum key distribution (QKD) enables an eavesdropper to perform unambiguous state discrimination. We explore quantitatively the limits for secure QKD imposed by this fact taking into account that the receiver can monitor to some extend the photon number statistics of the signals even with todays standard detection schemes. We compare our attack to the beamsplitting attack and show that security against beamsplitting attack does not necessarily imply security against the attack considered here.
Oct 25 1999 quant-ph
An experimental comparison of several operational phase concepts is presented. In particular, it is shown that statistically motivated evaluation of experimental data may lead to a significant improvement in phase fitting upon the conventional Noh, Fouge'res and Mandel procedure. The analysis is extended to the asymptotic limit of large intensities, where a strong evidence in favor of multi--dimensional estimation procedures has been found.
Sep 11 1998 quant-ph
A secure quantum identification system combining a classical identification procedure and quantum key distribution is proposed. Each identification sequence is always used just once and new sequences are ``refuelled'' from a shared provably secret key transferred through the quantum channel. Two identification protocols are devised. The first protocol can be applied when legitimate users have an unjammable public channel at their disposal. The deception probability is derived for the case of a noisy quantum channel. The second protocol employs unconditionally secure authentication of information sent over the public channel, and thus it can be applied even in the case when an adversary is allowed to modify public communications. An experimental realization of a quantum identification system is described.